History of fiction and Elements of FICTION
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History of fiction and Elements of FICTION

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the explanation about fiction

the explanation about fiction

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History of fiction and Elements of FICTION History of fiction and Elements of FICTION Presentation Transcript

  • LITERARY GENRESLITERARY GENRES OVERVIEW OFOVERVIEW OF FICTIONFICTION Presented By : St. Choironnisak Ashari
  • FICTION DEFINEDFICTION DEFINED • FICTION < A LATIN WORD MEAN-ING TO FORM OR TO MAKE.
  • FICTION DEFINED (cont.) • A FICTION IS A “MADE” STORY, AN IMAGINED & INVENTED LITERARY COMPOSITION DESIGNED TO ENTER-TAIN (AND SOMETIMES INSTRUCT), TO MAKE READERS FEEL AND THINK.
  • FICTION DEFINED (cont.) • TODAY THE TERM “FICTION” IS USUALLY APPLIED ONLY TO SHORT STORIES, NOVELS, & NOVELLAS, BUT OTHER LITERARY FORMS ALSO HAVE FICTIONAL ELEMENTS.
  • ANTIQUITY OF STORIES • STORIES ARE A VERY ANCIENT HUMAN PRODUCT, PRECEDING THE INVENTION OF WRITING, AND THERE IS NO IDENTI-FIABLE “FIRST” STORYTELLER OR WORK OF FICTION.
  • EARLY FORMS OF FICTION • THE MODERN NOVEL & SHORT STORY WERE PRECEDED BY MANY EARLIER FORMS OF FICTION, SUCH AS MYTHS, LEGENDS, FABLES, FAIRY TALES, PAR-ABLES, AND ALLEGORIES.
  • MYTHSMYTHS • TELL STORIES OF THE ORIGINS & EXPLOITS OF GODS & GODDESSES FROM VARIOUS ANCIENT CULTURES, SUCH AS GREECE, ROME, & SCANDI-NAVIA.
  • In 1687 in Connecticut, Kit Tyler, feeling out of place in the Puritan household of her aunt, befriends an old woman considered a witch by the community and suddenly finds herself standing trial for witchcraft.
  • LEGENDS • RECOUNT THE AMAZING ACHIEVE-MENTS OF FICTIONAL CHARACTERS OR EXAGGERATE THE EXPLOITS OF ACTUAL PEOPLE (E.G., PAUL BUNYAN).
  • While her father is in hiding after attempts on his life, twelve-year-old Cleopatra records in her diary how she fears for her own safety and hopes to survive to become Queen of Egypt some day
  • FABLES • USUALLY FEATURE ANIMALS WITH HUMAN TRAITS & STATE AN EXPLICIT LESSON (E.G., SLOW BUT STEADY WINS THE RACE, APPEARANCES ARE DECEP-TIVE, ONE GOOD TURN DESERVES ANOTHER).
  • FABLES (cont.) • THE BEST-KNOWN FABLES WERE WRIT- TEN BY A GREEK SLAVE NAMED AESOP (600 B.C.E.), AND INCLUDE STORIES SUCH AS ANDROCLES & THE LION, THE TORTOISE & THE HARE, AND THE WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING.
  • FAIRY TALES • THIS FICTIONAL FORM OFTEN FEATURES SUPERNATURAL BEINGS LIKE GIANTS, TROLLS, & FAIRY GOD-MOTHERS. • THEY ALSO FOCUS ON THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN GOOD & EVIL, WITH GOOD ALWAYS TRIUMPHING, THOUGH SOMETIMES IN GROTESQUE, VIOLENT WAYS.
  • FAIRY TALES (cont.) • THE BEST-KNOWN COLLECTION OF THESE STORIES IS GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES, WHICH INCLUDES CINDERELLA, LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD, HANSEL & GRETEL, RAPUNZEL, AND OTHER WELL- KNOWN FAVORITES.
  • ALLEGORIES • SYMBOLIC STORIES THAT TEACH A MORAL LESSON AND IN WHICH EACH CHARACTER, ACTION, & SETTING STANDS FOR A SPECIFIC MEANING.
  • ALLEGORIES (cont.) • EX.: JOHN BUNYAN’S PILGRIM’S PROGRESS (1678), IN WHICH A CHARACTER NAMED CHRISTIAN, WHO EMBODIES THE VIRTUES OF CHRISTIANITY, JOURNEYS THROUGH A WORLD OF TEMPTATIONS & DANGERS (CITY OF DESTRUCTION, VALLEY OF HUMILIA-TION, ETC.) EN ROUTE TO THE CELESTIAL CITY (HEAVEN).
  • CHARACTER The people or animals that take part in the story. MAIN CHARACTER: who the story is mainly about MINOR CHARACTER: the less important characters in the story
  • PROTAGONIST The HERO of the story who is faced with a conflict (usually the main character).
  • ANTAGONIST • Usually the villain in the story (the person, animal, or creature who creates conflict for the main character).
  • SETTINGSETTING • When and Where the action in the story takes place.
  • PLOTPLOT • The plot is the outline of events that takes place in a story.
  • CONFLICTCONFLICT A fight or difference in opinion. 1. INTERNAL CONFLICT • Takes place within a character’s mind. 2. EXTERNAL CONFLICT • The character struggles with an outside force.
  • ClimaxClimax • Climax is the high point or most emotional part of the plot.
  • Resolution Resolution is the conclusion of the story. The reader finds out how the conflict has been resolved and what happens with the characters.
  • WHAT IS THEME????? The THEME is the idea about life that is revealed in the story
  • POINT OF VIEW The vantage point from which a story is told. 1st person • the writer uses first-person pronouns (I or me) to tell the story. 3rd person • narrator describes the events, but does not take part in them. 3rd person omniscient • the narrator knows everything; encompassing.
  • Foreshadowing • A writers way of hinting at what will come in the story. • A reader can make predictions based on the information given.
  • Author’s Purpose Authors have a purpose in mind when writing: entertain, debate, analyze, persuade, inform, etc. They consider their audience when deciding on a subject, purpose for writing, and the tone and style in which to write.
  • Dialogue • The words that characters speak aloud Tone Shows the writer’s attitude toward his or her subject (humorous, serious, impatient, sad, etc.)
  • Symbolism • Something concrete—such as a person, place, or object—that signifies something more than just itself, something abstract, such as a concept or an idea.
  • REALISTIC FICTION • A story that tells about characters and events that are similar to people and animals in real life.
  • SCIENCE FICTION • A story that is set in the future and is based on scientific ideas.
  • HISTORICAL FICTION • A story that is set in the past and portrays people, places, and events that did or could have happened. FANTASY A story that is not realistic, sometimes the characters have magical or supernatural powers.