LITERARY GENRESLITERARY GENRES
OVERVIEW OFOVERVIEW OF
FICTIONFICTION
Presented By : St. Choironnisak Ashari
FICTION DEFINEDFICTION DEFINED
• FICTION < A LATIN WORD MEAN-ING TO
FORM OR TO MAKE.
FICTION DEFINED (cont.)
• A FICTION IS A “MADE” STORY, AN
IMAGINED & INVENTED LITERARY
COMPOSITION DESIGNED TO ENTER-TAIN
...
FICTION DEFINED (cont.)
• TODAY THE TERM “FICTION” IS USUALLY
APPLIED ONLY TO SHORT STORIES, NOVELS,
& NOVELLAS, BUT OTHER...
ANTIQUITY OF STORIES
• STORIES ARE A VERY ANCIENT HUMAN PRODUCT,
PRECEDING THE INVENTION OF WRITING, AND
THERE IS NO IDENT...
EARLY FORMS OF FICTION
• THE MODERN NOVEL & SHORT STORY WERE
PRECEDED BY MANY EARLIER FORMS OF FICTION,
SUCH AS MYTHS, LEG...
MYTHSMYTHS
• TELL STORIES OF THE ORIGINS &
EXPLOITS OF GODS & GODDESSES FROM
VARIOUS ANCIENT CULTURES, SUCH AS
GREECE, ROM...
In 1687 in Connecticut,
Kit Tyler, feeling out
of place in the Puritan
household of her aunt,
befriends an old
woman consi...
LEGENDS
• RECOUNT THE AMAZING ACHIEVE-MENTS OF
FICTIONAL CHARACTERS OR EXAGGERATE THE
EXPLOITS OF ACTUAL PEOPLE (E.G., PAU...
While her father is in
hiding after attempts on
his life, twelve-year-old
Cleopatra records in her
diary how she fears for...
FABLES
• USUALLY FEATURE ANIMALS WITH HUMAN TRAITS &
STATE AN EXPLICIT LESSON (E.G., SLOW BUT
STEADY WINS THE RACE, APPEAR...
FABLES (cont.)
• THE BEST-KNOWN
FABLES WERE WRIT-
TEN BY A GREEK SLAVE
NAMED AESOP (600
B.C.E.), AND INCLUDE
STORIES SUCH ...
FAIRY TALES
• THIS FICTIONAL FORM OFTEN FEATURES
SUPERNATURAL BEINGS LIKE GIANTS, TROLLS,
& FAIRY GOD-MOTHERS.
• THEY ALSO...
FAIRY TALES (cont.)
• THE BEST-KNOWN
COLLECTION OF THESE
STORIES IS GRIMMS’
FAIRY TALES, WHICH
INCLUDES CINDERELLA,
LITTLE...
ALLEGORIES
• SYMBOLIC STORIES THAT TEACH A MORAL
LESSON AND IN WHICH EACH CHARACTER,
ACTION, & SETTING STANDS FOR A SPECIF...
ALLEGORIES (cont.)
• EX.: JOHN BUNYAN’S PILGRIM’S
PROGRESS (1678), IN WHICH A
CHARACTER NAMED CHRISTIAN,
WHO EMBODIES THE ...
CHARACTER
The people or animals
that take part in the
story.
MAIN CHARACTER:
who the story is
mainly about
MINOR CHARACTER...
PROTAGONIST
The HERO of the story
who is faced with a
conflict (usually the
main character).
ANTAGONIST
• Usually the villain
in the story (the
person, animal, or
creature who
creates conflict
for the main
character...
SETTINGSETTING
• When and Where the action in the story
takes place.
PLOTPLOT
• The plot is the outline of events that
takes place in a story.
CONFLICTCONFLICT
A fight or difference in
opinion.
1. INTERNAL CONFLICT
• Takes place within a
character’s mind.
2. EXTERN...
ClimaxClimax
• Climax is the high point or most
emotional part of the plot.
Resolution
Resolution is the
conclusion of the
story.
The reader finds out
how the conflict has
been resolved and
what hap...
WHAT IS THEME?????
The THEME is the idea
about life that is revealed
in the story
POINT OF VIEW
The vantage point from which a story is told.
1st
person
• the writer uses first-person pronouns (I or me) t...
Foreshadowing
• A writers way of hinting at what will come in the
story.
• A reader can make predictions based on the
info...
Author’s Purpose
Authors have a purpose in mind when
writing: entertain, debate, analyze,
persuade, inform, etc.
They cons...
Dialogue
• The words that
characters speak aloud
Tone
Shows the writer’s attitude toward his or her
subject (humorous, ser...
Symbolism
• Something concrete—such as a person,
place, or object—that signifies something
more than just itself, somethin...
REALISTIC FICTION
• A story that tells
about characters
and events that are
similar to people
and animals in real
life.
SCIENCE FICTION
• A story that is set
in the future and
is based on
scientific ideas.
HISTORICAL FICTION
• A story that is set in the past
and portrays people, places, and
events that did or could have
happen...
History of fiction and Elements of FICTION
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History of fiction and Elements of FICTION

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History of fiction and Elements of FICTION

  1. 1. LITERARY GENRESLITERARY GENRES OVERVIEW OFOVERVIEW OF FICTIONFICTION Presented By : St. Choironnisak Ashari
  2. 2. FICTION DEFINEDFICTION DEFINED • FICTION < A LATIN WORD MEAN-ING TO FORM OR TO MAKE.
  3. 3. FICTION DEFINED (cont.) • A FICTION IS A “MADE” STORY, AN IMAGINED & INVENTED LITERARY COMPOSITION DESIGNED TO ENTER-TAIN (AND SOMETIMES INSTRUCT), TO MAKE READERS FEEL AND THINK.
  4. 4. FICTION DEFINED (cont.) • TODAY THE TERM “FICTION” IS USUALLY APPLIED ONLY TO SHORT STORIES, NOVELS, & NOVELLAS, BUT OTHER LITERARY FORMS ALSO HAVE FICTIONAL ELEMENTS.
  5. 5. ANTIQUITY OF STORIES • STORIES ARE A VERY ANCIENT HUMAN PRODUCT, PRECEDING THE INVENTION OF WRITING, AND THERE IS NO IDENTI-FIABLE “FIRST” STORYTELLER OR WORK OF FICTION.
  6. 6. EARLY FORMS OF FICTION • THE MODERN NOVEL & SHORT STORY WERE PRECEDED BY MANY EARLIER FORMS OF FICTION, SUCH AS MYTHS, LEGENDS, FABLES, FAIRY TALES, PAR-ABLES, AND ALLEGORIES.
  7. 7. MYTHSMYTHS • TELL STORIES OF THE ORIGINS & EXPLOITS OF GODS & GODDESSES FROM VARIOUS ANCIENT CULTURES, SUCH AS GREECE, ROME, & SCANDI-NAVIA.
  8. 8. In 1687 in Connecticut, Kit Tyler, feeling out of place in the Puritan household of her aunt, befriends an old woman considered a witch by the community and suddenly finds herself standing trial for witchcraft.
  9. 9. LEGENDS • RECOUNT THE AMAZING ACHIEVE-MENTS OF FICTIONAL CHARACTERS OR EXAGGERATE THE EXPLOITS OF ACTUAL PEOPLE (E.G., PAUL BUNYAN).
  10. 10. While her father is in hiding after attempts on his life, twelve-year-old Cleopatra records in her diary how she fears for her own safety and hopes to survive to become Queen of Egypt some day
  11. 11. FABLES • USUALLY FEATURE ANIMALS WITH HUMAN TRAITS & STATE AN EXPLICIT LESSON (E.G., SLOW BUT STEADY WINS THE RACE, APPEARANCES ARE DECEP-TIVE, ONE GOOD TURN DESERVES ANOTHER).
  12. 12. FABLES (cont.) • THE BEST-KNOWN FABLES WERE WRIT- TEN BY A GREEK SLAVE NAMED AESOP (600 B.C.E.), AND INCLUDE STORIES SUCH AS ANDROCLES & THE LION, THE TORTOISE & THE HARE, AND THE WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING.
  13. 13. FAIRY TALES • THIS FICTIONAL FORM OFTEN FEATURES SUPERNATURAL BEINGS LIKE GIANTS, TROLLS, & FAIRY GOD-MOTHERS. • THEY ALSO FOCUS ON THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN GOOD & EVIL, WITH GOOD ALWAYS TRIUMPHING, THOUGH SOMETIMES IN GROTESQUE, VIOLENT WAYS.
  14. 14. FAIRY TALES (cont.) • THE BEST-KNOWN COLLECTION OF THESE STORIES IS GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES, WHICH INCLUDES CINDERELLA, LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD, HANSEL & GRETEL, RAPUNZEL, AND OTHER WELL- KNOWN FAVORITES.
  15. 15. ALLEGORIES • SYMBOLIC STORIES THAT TEACH A MORAL LESSON AND IN WHICH EACH CHARACTER, ACTION, & SETTING STANDS FOR A SPECIFIC MEANING.
  16. 16. ALLEGORIES (cont.) • EX.: JOHN BUNYAN’S PILGRIM’S PROGRESS (1678), IN WHICH A CHARACTER NAMED CHRISTIAN, WHO EMBODIES THE VIRTUES OF CHRISTIANITY, JOURNEYS THROUGH A WORLD OF TEMPTATIONS & DANGERS (CITY OF DESTRUCTION, VALLEY OF HUMILIA-TION, ETC.) EN ROUTE TO THE CELESTIAL CITY (HEAVEN).
  17. 17. CHARACTER The people or animals that take part in the story. MAIN CHARACTER: who the story is mainly about MINOR CHARACTER: the less important characters in the story
  18. 18. PROTAGONIST The HERO of the story who is faced with a conflict (usually the main character).
  19. 19. ANTAGONIST • Usually the villain in the story (the person, animal, or creature who creates conflict for the main character).
  20. 20. SETTINGSETTING • When and Where the action in the story takes place.
  21. 21. PLOTPLOT • The plot is the outline of events that takes place in a story.
  22. 22. CONFLICTCONFLICT A fight or difference in opinion. 1. INTERNAL CONFLICT • Takes place within a character’s mind. 2. EXTERNAL CONFLICT • The character struggles with an outside force.
  23. 23. ClimaxClimax • Climax is the high point or most emotional part of the plot.
  24. 24. Resolution Resolution is the conclusion of the story. The reader finds out how the conflict has been resolved and what happens with the characters.
  25. 25. WHAT IS THEME????? The THEME is the idea about life that is revealed in the story
  26. 26. POINT OF VIEW The vantage point from which a story is told. 1st person • the writer uses first-person pronouns (I or me) to tell the story. 3rd person • narrator describes the events, but does not take part in them. 3rd person omniscient • the narrator knows everything; encompassing.
  27. 27. Foreshadowing • A writers way of hinting at what will come in the story. • A reader can make predictions based on the information given.
  28. 28. Author’s Purpose Authors have a purpose in mind when writing: entertain, debate, analyze, persuade, inform, etc. They consider their audience when deciding on a subject, purpose for writing, and the tone and style in which to write.
  29. 29. Dialogue • The words that characters speak aloud Tone Shows the writer’s attitude toward his or her subject (humorous, serious, impatient, sad, etc.)
  30. 30. Symbolism • Something concrete—such as a person, place, or object—that signifies something more than just itself, something abstract, such as a concept or an idea.
  31. 31. REALISTIC FICTION • A story that tells about characters and events that are similar to people and animals in real life.
  32. 32. SCIENCE FICTION • A story that is set in the future and is based on scientific ideas.
  33. 33. HISTORICAL FICTION • A story that is set in the past and portrays people, places, and events that did or could have happened. FANTASY A story that is not realistic, sometimes the characters have magical or supernatural powers.

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