Observation method_BRM


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Observation method_BRM

  1. 1. OBSERVATION METHODS CHAPTER 11 Anirudh Jindal 22 Karan Juriani 24 Ishant Kathuria 26 Gunjan Khanuja 28 Kushal Suneja 30
  2. 2. “YOU SEE, BUT YOU DO NOT OBSERVE.” ~ Sherlock Holmes
  3. 3. . . . systematic witnessing and/or recording of behavioral patterns of objects, people, and events without directly communicating with them – can collect both qualitative and quantitative data. There are four conditions for scientific observation: • Serves a formulated research purpose • Planned systematically • Recorded systematically • Subjected to checks or controls on validity and reliability OBSERVATIONS
  4. 4.  Physical actions  Expressive behaviors  Verbal patterns  Temporal patterns  Spatial relationships & locations  Physical objects  Nonverbal symbols BEHAVIORS THAT ARE OBSERVED . . .
  5. 5. WHAT CAN BE OBSERVED Human behavior or physical action • Shoppers movement pattern in a store Verbal behavior • Statements made by airline travelers who wait in lineExpressive behavior • Facial expressions, tone of voice, and other form of body language Spatial relations and locations • How close visitors at an art museum stand to paintings Temporal patterns • How long fast-food customers wait for their order to be served Physical objects • What brand name items are stored in consumers‟ pantries Verbal and Pictorial Records • Bar codes on product packages
  6. 6. OBSERVATION OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR Business researchers can observe people, objects, events, or other phenomena using either human observers or machines designed for specific observation tasks Direct observation is a straightforward attempt to observe and record what naturally occurs; the investigator does not create artificial situation. Contrived observation is observation in which the investigator creates an artificial environment in order to test a hypothesis. Direct versus scientifically contrived observation Visible observation is situation in which the observer‟s presence is known to the subject. Hidden observation is situation in which the subject is unaware that observation is taking place. Visible versus hidden observation Mechanical observation is situation in which video cameras, traffic counters, and other machines help observe and record behavior. Human versus mechanical observation
  7. 7. NATURE OF OBSERVATION STUDIES • Communication with respondent is not necessary • Data without distortions due to self-report (e.g.: without social desirability) Bias • No need to rely on respondents memory • Nonverbal behavior data may be obtained • Certain data may be obtained more quickly • Environmental conditions may be recorded • May be combined with survey to provide supplemental evidence
  9. 9. DIRECT OBSERVATION  Straight forward attempt to observe and record what naturally occurs  Data like age, gender, race can be easily observed  Produces detailed Records with more accurate data  Observer - Passive Role  Helps keep researchers‟ observation consistent  Response Latency - Amount of time it takes to make a choice between two alternatives  Quick decision indicates psychological distance between alternatives
  10. 10. ERRORS IN DIRECT OBSERVATION  Observer Bias : A distortion of measurement resulting from the cognitive behavior  To some extent Subjective in nature  Compromise on accuracy due to factors such as speed of recording details, observer‟s memory, writing speed  Not all details recorded  Interpretation of data can be a source of error.
  11. 11. SCIENTIFICALLY CONTRIVED OBSERVATION  Create an artificial situation in order to test a hypothesis or a situation under study  Less time consuming than the observation technique.  Observer has greater control over gathering the data  Observer can Influence the subjects
  12. 12. COMBINING DIRECT OBSERVATION & INTERVIEWING  Interviews conducted after detailed direct observation  Can better explain their actions noticed under the observation technique
  13. 13. ETHICAL ISSUES IN OBSERVATION  Hidden Observations intrudes into the RIGHT TO PRIVACY  More problematic in Private places than in public such as  Trial rooms , Rest rooms, Spas etc  Observation through two way mirrors  Some people might see contrived observation as entrapment If no permission is taken from the subject: • Intrusion into privacy • Unethical and Illegal behavior If permission is taken from the subject: • Un natural responses • Soul purpose of research being negotiated The Dilemma
  14. 14. WHEN SHOULD A RESEARCHER FEEL COMFORTABLE ABOUT COLLECTING OBSERVATIONS  Is the behavior being observed commonly performed in public where it is expected to be observed by others  Is the behavior performed in a setting in which the anonymity of the person is assured  Has the person agreed to the observations Yes ? Yes ? Yes ?
  15. 15. OBSERVATION OF PHYSICAL OBJECTS  Physical trace data serves as visible record of past events  Important information can be extracted  Response bias is avoided  More correct and accurate information as it is the direct physical object Examples:  More the wear and tear of books indicates more is the usage and preference for those books.  Garbage Project
  16. 16. CONTENT ANALYSIS  Systematically analyzing the written communication  Observing and analyzing the contents ,messages ,advertisements, newspaper article ,television programmes.  Aimed at collecting information on characteristics of messages  Advertisement content analysis:  analyzing the usage of word ,themes and characters
  18. 18. TRACE ANALYSIS  Researchers collect data on the basis of physical trace and evidence of previous activities of the users  For e.g.: Looking at product wrappers in waste bin  Has disadvantages in terms of generalizability of the result  FMCGs use this quite frequently to have initial idea about the consumption behaviour of their newly launched products
  19. 19. MECHANICAL OBSERVATION  Includes video cameras, traffic counters and machines, which helps us to observe and record behaviour  Sometimes motion picture cameras and time lapse photography are also used  Application in real time:  Train passengers and find out their level of comfort  Traffic flows in urban square  Organization of warehouse
  20. 20. TELEVISION MONITORING  Computerized mechanical observation used to obtain television ratings  Used consumer panel & PeopleMeter – a monitoring device  PeopleMeter gathers data about who is watching which program at what time  More than 5000 TV sets were fitted with this device
  21. 21. CLICK – THROUGH RATES (MONITORING WEBSITE TRAFFIC)  Percentage of people who are exposed to an advertisement who actually click on the corresponding hyperlink which takes them to the Company‟s website  Way of measuring the success of an online advertising campaign for a particular website  Advertisers incur cost on each click as cost per click  Counting hits suggests the amount of interest website is receiving but these measures are flawed
  22. 22. CTR FLAWS  Hits do not differentiate between lot of activity by a few visitors or little activity by many visitors  Cant differentiate if a user is clicking multiple times due to some useful thing or just because he is trying unsuccessfully to find something by looking in several places.  Hits by mistake  Consumer may be unaware of what they are doing while clicking the ad, they might be looking for something & ended up there
  23. 23. SCANNER BASED RESEARCH What it is ??  A mechanical method of observation  Use of scanner based consumer panels instead of consumer purchase diaries How it is implemented ??  Each household is assigned with a bar code card  Scanner machines record purchase information at the billing counter  Background information collected through surveys is also coupled with household code number  Aggregate data is provided to industries for analytics
  24. 24. ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM  Actual purchase behavior rather than reported behavior  Improved efficiency  Unbiased data  More extensive data can be recorded  Data can be combined with other factors and be analyzed with powerful analytical software
  25. 25. MEASURING PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTIONS  Mechanical devices have been used to record physiological reactions of consumer to advertising, packaging or other stimuli  The two basic principals for these observations are:  Eye Movements towards stimuli which attracts more  Change in Adrenaline level when body is aroused
  26. 26. DEVICES USED Eye-tracking monitor Tracks eye movements with invisible infrared light beams Infrared beam of light locks on pupil to record eye movement across stimuli Another camera records the pages or screen being viewed Data is analyzed in a computer to find out the subject‟s interest in an ad Pupilometer • Observes and records changes in the diameter of subject‟s pupils • Brightness and distance of the stimulus from the subject „s eyes are held constant • Assumption – Increased pupil size reflects positive attitude
  27. 27. DEVICES USED Psychogalvanometer • Measures galvanic skin response i.e change in electrical resistance • Change in adrenaline level increases blood flow, perspiration and electrical resistance of the body • Based on assumption that physiological changes accompany emotional reaction to stimuli Voice-pitch analysis • Gauges emotional reactions as reflected by frequency of person‟s voice • Abnormal frequencies in the voice are recorded that are supposed to reflect emotional reaction towards stimuli
  28. 28. LIMITATIONS  No strong evidence supports the argument that physiological change is a valid measure of future sales, change of attitude etc  Calibration of measuring devices  Expensive  Participants know that they are being observed