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  • 1. GUERILLAMARKETING How and by whom are the evolved success factors of the Guerilla Marketing philosophy from the 1980s used today and do they stand a chance in the business future? Literature based thesis for attaining the Bachelor of Business Administration Degree at Saxion University in Enschede1st Examiner: Drs. P. de Heus2nd Examiner: Dhr. R. WierdaStudy Course: International Business and Management StudiesStudents: Anna Drüing Katharina Fahrenholz Isendorf 77 Kalanderplein 1-2 48282 Emsdetten 7511HX Enschede Germany The NetherlandsTimeframe: February – June 2008
  • 2. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Table of ContentList of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………..IVExecutive Summary……………………………………………………………………………………...VMethodology…………………………………………………………………………………………...VII1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 12. When did Guerilla Marketing appear and how did it develop?....................................... 3 2.1. Roots of Modern Guerilla Marketing ................................................................................ 3 2.1.1. Terminology of Guerilla.................................................................................................................. 3 2.1.2. “Guerilla” enters Marketing ............................................................................................................ 4 2.1.3. Guerilla Marketing Philosophers..................................................................................................... 43. How is Guerilla Marketing defined and used today? ...................................................... 7 3.1. What is Guerilla Marketing? .............................................................................................. 7 3.1.1. Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 7 3.1.2. Technological Development ........................................................................................................... 8 3.1.3. Uniformity vs. Creativity ................................................................................................................ 8 3.2. Guerilla Marketing Instruments ...................................................................................... 10 3.2.1. Out-of-Home Weapons ................................................................................................................. 10 3.2.2. Ambient Marketing ....................................................................................................................... 11 3.2.3. Guerilla Sensation ......................................................................................................................... 11 3.2.4. Ambush Marketing........................................................................................................................ 12 3.2.5. New Media Weapons .................................................................................................................... 13 3.2.6. Viral Marketing............................................................................................................................. 13 3.2.7. Guerilla Mobile ............................................................................................................................. 14 3.2.8. Low Budget Weapons ................................................................................................................... 14 3.3. Guerilla Marketing in the Marketing Mix ...................................................................... 15 3.3.1. Guerilla Promotion (70%)............................................................................................................. 16 3.3.2. Guerilla Pricing (10%) .................................................................................................................. 16 3.3.3. Guerilla Distributing (Place 10%)................................................................................................. 17 3.3.4. Guerilla Producting (10%) ............................................................................................................ 18 3.4. User Profile ......................................................................................................................... 18   II  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 3. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   3.5. Case Study: Bionade .......................................................................................................... 20 3.5.1. Company Profile ........................................................................................................................... 20 3.5.2. Guerilla Marketing Campaign....................................................................................................... 22 3.5.2.1. Implementation.................................................................................................................... 22 3.5.2.2. Result................................................................................................................................... 26 3.6. Obstacles of Guerilla Marketing ...................................................................................... 274. How is Guerilla Marketing perceived today?................................................................. 28 4.1. Customer Perception of Guerilla Marketing................................................................... 28 4.1.1. Survey ........................................................................................................................................... 28 4.1.1.1. Purpose ................................................................................................................................ 28 4.1.1.2. Structure of the Questionnaire ............................................................................................. 28 4.1.1.3. Sample Selection ................................................................................................................. 29 4.1.1.4. Limitations........................................................................................................................... 30 4.1.1.5. Evaluation............................................................................................................................ 30 4.1.1.6. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 34 4.1.2. Expert opinion............................................................................................................................... 34 4.1.2.1. Guerilla Marketing Today ................................................................................................... 35 4.1.2.2. Future of Guerilla Marketing............................................................................................... 37 4.1.2.3. Conclusion: Future Advice .................................................................................................. 375. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 39List of References ………………………………………………………………………..….IXAppendix……………………………………………………………………………….…...XII   III  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 4. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  List of FiguresFigure 1: Guerilla Marketing Weapon Categories............................................................................................... 10Figure 2: Marketing Mix....................................................................................................................................... 15Figure 3: WMF Promotion ................................................................................................................................... 16Figure 4: Kellogs Drink n Crunch ....................................................................................................................... 18Figure 5: Out-of-home, Bionade Poster ............................................................................................................... 23Figure 6: Bionade Leuchtbotschafter ................................................................................................................... 24Figure 7: Bionade Banner ................................................................................................................................... XIIFigure 8: AIDA Model ..........................................................................................................................................XX   IV  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 5. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Executive SummaryGuerilla Marketing – an alternative marketing form that has been experiencing increasingimportance in the advertising landscape, ever since customers are besieged with classicalmarketing communication via the traditional channels TV, Magazines, Radio and DirectMail. Guerilla Marketing is a brilliant idea, involving the customer in a surprising, unconven-tional marketing activity.  The term “Guerilla” (battle) roots back to the war of independence in Spain and Portugal, therevolution in Cuba, and the Vietnamese War. Here “Guerilla” stood for an attack strategybased on the surprise effect and on acts of sabotage, which was used by smaller groups thatstood against a massive military force. In the 1960’s US firms brought the “Guerilla” tacticsto Marketing, when they needed new ways to outdo competitors. Then they merely attackedweak points of competitors by implementing preliminary injunctions for their campaigns forinstance.  Only in 1983 did Jay Conrad Levinson make the term “Guerilla Marketing” known as a phi-losophy for small and start-up companies to successfully market their business with a smallamount of money. He based the success of a marketing strategy on the use of non-traditionalmarketing channels, customer proximity, insistency, and patience. Through the drastic tech-nological development until today and its complimentary change in the advertising market,Guerilla Marketing has developed into a marketing form mostly used for Promotion thesedays. New forms such as Ambush and Viral Marketing have evolved.The evolved Guerilla Marketing form is now used by companies of all sizes; Global Playerssuch as BMW use it, and start-up companies do so to create brand awareness. How this isactually done in practice, is illustrated by the case study of the soft drink producer BionadeCorporation in Germany, displaying various facets of the Guerilla Marketing principle.  How such Guerilla Marketing activities are perceived by the actual prospect was researchedthrough a customer survey. In fact a majority of the respondents stated that such advertise-ments do catch their attention and interest, whereas they consciously avoid traditional mar-keting as for instance TV advertisement. So Guerilla Marketing can find a way to actually   V  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 6. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  reach the customer, at least in the first two steps of the AIDA Model1. This great potential ofthe Guerilla Marketing was confirmed by Marketing Experts in the course of an interview.They could imagine that the traditional Marketing Channels such as TV and magazine, whowill also be at the forefront in the future, will take over characteristics of Guerilla Marketingin order to actually reach the customer.    Financially strong companies should use Guerilla Marketing as a complimentary tool to pre-sent the brand in a multimodal way. Smaller firms can make use of the cost-effective strategyto get the spotlight on their brand. Good co-operation with for instance the Public Relationsdepartment is essential to increase the Guerilla Marketing effect enormously.  However its potential is used, it has to be done cleverly to stand out from the 3000 advertis-ing messages a day with which today’s consumer is flooded. Guerilla Marketing will adaptwith the customers, find ways to surprise them and interest them by putting the idea in theforefront, not the brand.                                                          1  Appendix: AIDA model    VI  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 7. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  MethodologyOur research is based on diverse research methods in order to gain as many different perspec-tives on the topic as possible. Therefore we used primary as well as secondary data collectionin combination with desk and field research.  Our first part concerning the history and development of Guerilla Marketing has a theoreticalbackground. Since Guerilla Marketing has became popular recently, only very few authorshave written books about the topic so far. Therefore we believe that one of the best sourcesfor those research questions are the books and publications of the marketer Jay Conrad Lev-inson, titled the “The Father of Guerrilla Marketing”2 , who spread the knowledge of theGuerilla concept in the 1980’s and has updated his editions until today. Al Ries’ and JackTrout’s perception of Guerilla Marketing, as well as Philip Kotler were taken into account.  For further analysis of the development of Guerilla Marketing secondary data such as arti-cles, publications, and examples of activities were used. We also utilized selected case stud-ies to underline our theoretical findings, especially on the example of Bionade.  As a foundation for our section about the current use of Guerilla we used input from Market-ing newspapers, trade journals and other publications. However, since journalists just startedto pay attention to this trend, we analyzed numerous Guerilla Marketing activities to formu-late conclusions.  For the conclusion of our report we wanted to find an answer concerning the future perspec-tive of Guerilla Marketing. In order to bring additional objectiveness to our report we alsoincluded the results from expert interviews as well as from a customer survey.  One of the qualitative interviews will be held with Bionade Product Manager Christian Rath.Bionade successfully used the Guerilla Marketing approach in the past. Furthermore we werein contact with some Marketing professionals that already worked with Guerilla Marketingand showed interest in our work. They shared their experiences, opinions, and their publica-                                                   2  Guerilla Marketing International      VII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 8. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  tions on rather subjective questions for which the answers could not be found in public arti-cles.  Since we believe that the future of Guerilla Marketing will also be strongly determined bythe current perspective and perception of the customers, we conducted a questionnaire thatgave us some interesting insights into the perception of traditional and alternative marketingforms.   VIII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 9. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  1. IntroductionGuerilla Marketers can get you anywhere – on your way home from work, in the car, bus andtrain, on the streets, strolling or relaxing at a café terrace, in front of your house, or at majorevents. It is like love: You will find it at the moment you do not expect it at all! And at themoment you notice the advertisement and start thinking about its message they have whatthey want – your attention and interest.Guerilla Marketing distinguishes itself from other promotion tools by its surprise effect and ithas become a very popular marketing strategy in current times. The name “Guerilla” origi-nally describes a group that uses a violent approach to achieve the implementation of theirbeliefs and ideology. Their opponents are often a tremendous force consisting of more peopleand even of more resources such as weapons or money. The Guerilla fighter’s only advan-tage is the fact that only they know where and when they will strike.The original approach of Guerilla Marketing is an alternative marketing strategy that suitssmall and medium-sized companies to act like the Guerilla fighters have in the past: hit vul-nerable targets of larger enemies by taking them by surprise. The unexpected and unusualGuerilla Marketing campaigns helped smaller companies to  successfully reach their targetgroup, even though their bigger market competitors had a larger marketing budget, more ex-perience, and a better spread to advance the market by using traditional marketing strategies.Many small and medium-sized companies started with Guerilla Marketing and establishedtheir business lucratively. Through constant growth rates they have the means to also affordtraditional marketing tools to gain more and more market share, continuing to attack themarket leaders.Those accomplishments drew the attention of larger companies to Guerilla Marketing. Nowthis alternative approach is used by companies of all sizes. Various agencies have specializedin developing Guerilla strategies. Within the advertising branch it is almost something like aremedy that every business can use successfully.   1  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 10. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  This development leads to some interesting questions: Is this trend going to continue? Will all companies be able to use it in the future? Will customers still be surprised and show the desirable reactions even though many companies already use Guerilla Marketing today? Do small companies have a chance with their Guerilla Marketing approach when lar- ger companies are willing to spend a fortune on their Guerilla Marketing activities?This report gives an insight into the origin of Guerilla Marketing as being a tool for small tomedium-sized companies to achieve large impacts with little resources. Further it will showits development, focusing on the current market situation, where many Big Players use thisalternative method as well. The conclusion will answer the question if the developed conceptof Guerilla Marketing can also be successfully applied in the future.   2  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 11. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  2. When did Guerilla Marketing appear and how did it develop?2.1. Roots of Modern Guerilla Marketing2.1.1. Terminology of GuerillaThe term “Guerilla” first appeared during the war of independence in Spain and Portugal atthe beginning of the 19th century. It is a Spanish expression which can be translated as “bat-tle”. Guerilla stands for a combat operation that was used by smaller groups that stoodagainst a massive military force.The term and the connected operations became famous through Ernesto Che Guevara Lynchde la Serna (1928 – 1967), best known as Che Guevara, who used and defined this militarytactic. He belonged to a small militia group which wanted to put their political conceptthrough. They were clearly in the weaker position and their only chance to achieve a success-ful revolution in Cuba was to fight the national military. Since Che Guevara and his follow-ers did not possess as many resources such as weapons, money, or fighters as their oppo-nents, they based their operations on the surprise effect and on acts of sabotage. Due to theirsize they had the advantage of being more flexible, having a quicker coordination and know-ing the territory better. The usage of unconventional weapons and activities helped them todestabilize their rivals and led them to their final success.Che Guevara defined and shaped basic principles for his fighters and summarized them in thebook “Guerilla Warfare” that he wrote in 1961. These are the most important elements thatcan be pointed out: • Ultimate goal: victory over the enemy • Usage of surprise effects • Tactical superiority3During the 1960’s the United States of America faced major difficulties in the Vietnam War.Even though Vietnam was theoretically much weaker, the US were not able to bring the en-emy down. Especially the Vietcong force was unbeatable, because they used the Guerillatactics that destabilized the American forces constantly. The Vietcong’s operations were                                                   3  Guerilla Marketing Portal    3  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 12. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  similar to Che Guevara’s activities. They also used the surprise effect, were much moreflexible than their enemies, fought on Vietnamese territory, and used unusual means. Thiswas the first time that Americans got to know the principles of Guerilla.2.1.2. “Guerilla” enters MarketingAt the same time America’s marketing experts were looking for new approaches to gain theattention of customers. The consumer’s behaviour had changed and businesses had to comeup with offers that fit their consumers’ needs and not only their own. Consequently market-ing experts had to find realizable concepts for businesses with limited resources; somethingthat lets one company stand out in the crowd.The only promising way was to use an anti-marketing concept that included attrition and at-tack strategies in order to gain as much attention as possible and to weaken competitors con-siderably. This was not only realized by aggressive marketing efforts, but also through legalmeans such as preliminary injunctions for campaigns of competitors. 42.1.3. Guerilla Marketing PhilosophersLevinsonOf course Guerilla Marketing did not conquer the marketing world over night. The new strat-egy needed some years to develop and to become an integral part of business strategies. Dur-ing the 1980s the US market was flooded with 11 million new founded companies. 10.8 mil-lion of them were small-sized companies that needed a strategy to fight their bigger competi-tors with a small budget. In order to make the Guerilla idea accessible to everybody Jay Con-rad Levinson defined the root idea in his book “Guerrilla Marketing” in 1983. His publica-tions provided not only an explanation of the essential marketing ideas, but also a philosophyfor small business owners who wanted to follow the Guerilla Marketing idea. He introducednew ways of advertising and presenting a business well with a small budget and based thesuccess of a marketing strategy on the use of non-traditional marketing channels, customerproximity, insistency, and patience. A company should create as many points of contact withcustomers and prospects as possible in order to stay in their memory. He further believed thata long-lasting campaign will bring the desired competitive advantage.                                                   4  Schulte    4  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 13. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Levinson’s book explains the basic pillars of Guerilla Marketing in a simple way and madehim the “Father of Guerilla Marketing”. It was sold over 1 million times and translated into37 languages. Updated versions of the book are released every few years. The revised pas-sages mainly deal with new technologies and marketing channels that change over the yearsand offer new possibilities.5Ries/TroutOnly three years after Levinson released his first edition in 1983, the American Marketingexperts Al Ries and Jack Trout specified the root idea of Levinson, but they also developedsome opposed elements. Like Levinson, Trout and Ries believed that Guerilla marketing bestsuits small and medium-sized companies. Trout pointed out that the market size also has tobe manageable with the limited and available resources. Therefore he suggests specializingand investing in a niche product and/or market niche.In general small business owners should use their advantageous flexibility even more. BothRies and Trout suggest that a small business should try to use every product and/or marketniche that becomes available and furthermore not hesitate to change their approach in casethey believe that another strategy would be more profitable. Therefore insistency and pa-tience is not one of the essential elements anymore like it was in Levinson’s opinion. Fur-thermore Ries emphasized that a lean organizational structure with a centralized top man-agement makes it easier for a growing company to continue to save costs and to keep theirflexibility.6KotlerThe marketing expert Kotler also analysed the Guerilla tactics in the 1990s. Kotler suggeststhat such a competitive strategy should be adopted by market challengers that try to increasetheir own profitability by gaining more market share from other companies in the same in-dustry. A competitive advantage over the challenged company is the foundation for a goodstrategy, but also involves high risks, especially when the potential gain is high, warns Kot-ler. Mainly smaller and financially weaker companies are then using an aggressive Guerillaattack. Such a campaign can even be a tool to fight the current market leader. Unlike Levin-                                                   5  Levinson  6  Ries; Trout    5  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 14. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  son, Ries, and Trout, Kotler believes that the main purpose of Guerilla Marketing is to desta-bilize the opponent – or best to destroy the competitors with the help of attrition tactics. 7                                                   7  Kotler, Wong, Saunders, Armstrong    6  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 15. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3. How is Guerilla Marketing defined and used today?3.1. What is Guerilla Marketing?3.1.1. DefinitionAround the globe, marketing experts, researchers, and discoverers eagerly try to find the all-embracing description of Guerilla Marketing, since no official definition of the term exists sofar. Many explanations have thus been created and even though they vary in their wording,they mostly have the following characteristics of Guerilla Marketing in common: Creative,unconventional, surprising and efficient.8Guerilla Marketing is a marketing strategy, nowadays predominantly used for the MarketingMix “P” Promotion.9 It is a marketing form, which involves the consumer in the advertisingexperience. Guerilla Marketing campaigns display creative ideas dynamically with uncon-ventional methods at places where advertising would be least expected. The aim is to irritate,fascinate, and animate the consumer. The surprise effect belongs to the root philosophy. It isadvisable not to repeat a Guerilla action as it might not be surprising anymore, but ratherannoying. Guerilla Marketing should stand out from the saturated advertising landscape bybeing fun and not bothersome. Classical marketing communication via TV commercials,Newspaper Ads, Radio Spots,  and Direct Mail does not really excite the customer anymore.Unconventional forms on the other hand can accomplish excitement. Guerilla Marketing,Viral Marketing, and Word-of-Mouth Marketing are concepts that gain rising importance,especially through one increasingly important marketing channel: the Internet.Significant for Guerilla Marketing is to reach maximum customer attention with minimalcosts. It is central to emphasize the brand’s strengths and minimize its weaknesses in order toattack competitors. Thereby the Guerilla Marketing strategy is based on imagination, uncon-ventionality, and flexibility instead of market power, enterprise size, and marketing budgets.A false conclusion would be to think that the lower budget means the Guerilla marketingactivities require less effort. The involvement for successful Guerilla Marketing is high. En-ergy and time are the main ingredients.                                                   8  Guerilla Marketing Portal  9  Bieri; Handschin; Siegenthaler; Spycher    7  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 16. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  So far the beginning and the current definition of Guerilla Marketing was described. In the1980s it was seen as an integral part of the business strategy, while now in the 21st century itis mainly a communication strategy. The following part will link the two sides and explainwhat influenced the Guerilla Marketing to develop to its current usage.3.1.2. Technological Development“Markets today are changing fast. Price-sensitive customers, new competitors, new distribu-tion channels, new communication channels, the Internet, wireless commerce, globalization,deregulation, privatization… the list goes on. And it is not only markets that are changing,but the technologies that support them: e-commerce, e-mail, mobile phones, fax machines,sales, and marketing automation, cable TV, videoconferencing. It is imperative that compa-nies think through the revolutionary impact of these new technologies.“10These developments have changed for instance the way customers behave. Increasing trans-parency through the internet enables buyers to acquire product information, compare themdirectly with competitors, and easily make worldwide purchases. Businesses adapt their pro-cedures according to the market and technology development. Especially in Marketing inno-vative ways of promoting products and brands have come up. An example are blogs, pod-and nanocasting in the online marketing scene. Within these developments Guerilla Market-ing experienced increasing importance since more and more businesses demand practice ori-ented solutions for short term results.11 In times of globalisation the competitive pressure ishigh and the free market economy is tough. Marketing has to carry out more and more taskswith tight budgets. Thereby it is a thin line between annoying and attracting customers.3.1.3. Uniformity vs. CreativityIt was always the aim of marketers to attract new customers and to keep the existing custom-ers loyal, but since the market and the environment have changed so immensely, the way toget through to the customer has also changed. During the 1980s marketers – among them JayC. Levinson with his Guerilla Marketing strategy – supported the belief that prospects haveto be exposed to the same marketing message as often as possible. Research showed thatpeople need to see an advertisement up to 13 times before they understand what the product                                                   10  Kotler, Jain, Maesincee  11  Levinson, 2007    8  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 17. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  is and that it can be beneficial for them. Consequently business owners were urged to publi-cise their name, logo, and message at every possible opportunity. To take the early forms ofGuerilla Marketing as an example, small companies had over 200 different marketing weap-ons that allowed them to catch their customers’ attention over and over again. Furthermore achosen strategy had to be kept for a long period even if it did not bring the desired successimmediately. Levinson motivated this guideline with the fact that only a certain number ofexposures can bring the customer to a final purchase. Simply put, Marketing takes time andconsequently business owners have to wait. A hasty change in strategy would reset the cus-tomers mind and the invested time and money would have been wasted. 12Even though the explanation sounds logical it is not realizable anymore today. The marketand the environment change rapidly and all companies try to get the attention of the customeras often as possible. As a result every customer is confronted with 3000 sales messages everyday. What makes it even worse is the fact that advertising messages from the same compa-nies are repeated several times a day – up to 50 times. Companies achieved what theywanted. Customers cannot go anywhere without being swamped with advertising. Unfortu-nately customers are not interested in such classical marketing communication like they usedto be. Consequently they do not perceive and remember the message afterwards. Of coursefor businesses this is a very costly activity that does not bring the desired success.13Still companies all over the world invest billions in traditional activities, which are often notaffordable for smaller companies. The solution is a cost-effective marketing form that standsout in the crowd of advertisings and catches the attention of the customer even in the rapidlychanging marketing world of today. Marketers always have to come up with new ideas tospotlight their brand and protect the surprise effect of every Guerilla Marketing activity. Inthe end the surprise effect can create the most positive reaction from the customer. The aim isto create more brand awareness. The aspects of Guerilla Marketing also fit these needs oftoday - away from uniformity and insistency towards creativity and flexibility.                                                   12  Levinson  13  Marketing Partner    9  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 18. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.2. Guerilla Marketing InstrumentsOver the years Guerilla Marketing has developed and created many forms, so called weap-ons. These weapons should support the root philosophy of Guerilla Marketing which entailscreative, witty inspiration. As we know Guerilla Marketing is a dynamic way to create brandawareness. Done with simple tools those actions should be spectacular and clever to catch theattention of a certain target group.To get an overall picture of the potential of Guerilla Marketing weapons we have classifiedthem by categories: Out-of-Home, New Media, and Low Budget Weapons. Again no officialdefinition exists, but the following distinction by experts of Guerilla Marketing Portal (GMP)has been build up logically and is therefore referred to in this paper14: Guerilla Marketing Weapons Out-of-Home Weapons New Media Weapons Low Budget Weapons Ambient Marketing Viral Marketing Clever ideas for small and Guerilla Sensation Guerilla Mobile medium-sized companies Ambush Marketing Figure 1: Guerilla Marketing Weapon Categories 3.2.1. Out-of-Home WeaponsAs the name “out-of-home” suggests, these weapons refer to marketing activities that areactually realised at public locations. At best it does not only catch the interest of people whopass by, but media interest as well. Newspaper reports about the action can create extra pub-licity for the advertised company and stimulates that people talk about the product. The ex-pansion of brand awareness is the aim. The most successful weapons in the category out-of-home are Guerilla Sensation, Ambient Media, and Ambush Marketing.                                                   14  Guerilla Marketing Portal    10  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 19. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.2.2. Ambient MarketingThe term became well-known  in the 1990s. Ambient Media refers to non-traditional out-of-home advertising. While other out-of-home Marketers advertise on large-scale billboards,ambient advertisements are posted on manhole covers, cranes, pizza cartons, free postcardsin bars and so on. They are all a little more unusual displays. Until today newer ambient me-dia have come up, such as messages on large-format screens in subways or handles of su-permarket trolleys. There are no limits to formats there.15The American Mark Hughes had what is probably one of the most profitable ideas concern-ing the placement of an advertisement. He used the blank backside of the fortune cookie slipsgiven out in Chinese restaurants for an advertising message. These – in production cheap -marketing messages reached 7 million restaurant guests in one week and were therefore veryprofitable. Mark Hughes has been able to make a lot of money by selling this noticed adver-tising space to companies. 16The important aspect is to seek out the target group at their preferred location in an entertain-ing way. Ambient Marketing tries to approach the customer individually through the place ofcontact. Some experts claim that Ambient Marketing does not belong to Guerilla Marketing,since it does not fulfil the typical characteristics of being surprising and dynamic. IndeedAmbient is more static, one-sided marketing. Still it can also be a medium with good poten-tial to bring attention to a brand or product in a creative way.3.2.3. Guerilla SensationGuerilla Sensation is very similar to Ambient Marketing. Therefore it is easier to show thedifference. As described above, Ambient Marketing positions advertising at unusual places.Hereby the main focus is not necessarily on the idea, but on the advertising space itself. Peo-ple are confronted with advertisements where and when they do not expect it.In general Guerilla Sensation works with the same principle, but it is only used on a verylimited number of events and activities. The number of prospects that are exposed to the ad-vertisement is therefore relatively small compared to a few million people that might get in                                                   15  Webguerillas  16  Streitz    11  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 20. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  contact with an Ambient Marketing campaign as the example of the Fortune Cookies de-scribed above. But such Guerilla Sensation actions can gain further, non-regional attention bymaking it to the media. Often newspapers are looking for extraordinary, unusual pictures,which are often delivered by Guerilla Sensation activities. Through good Public Relationscontroversial or very original Guerilla ideas of a brand can be a widely discussed issue in themedia as well.Of course the line between Ambient Marketing and Guerilla Sensation is thin. Some GuerillaSensation activities become an Ambient Marketing activity, because modern technologiesspread the message. Guerilla Sensation characteristics are those described in the GuerillaMarketing definition. 173.2.4. Ambush MarketingAmbush means attack out of the blue, reminding at the Guerilla Attacks from Che Guevara.It stands for a sneaky out-of-home marketing method, which promotes a brand at huge eventswithout paying a sponsorship fee. At many major events one brand of a particular categorypays a high price to be the exclusive sponsor, which leaves their competitors be left in thedark. Ambush Marketers then still find a way to make notice of their brand in connectionwith the event, since it attracts the attention of thousands of visitors and even viewers on TV.Pepsi for instance placed a huge oversize Pepsi bottle close to a soccer game which wassponsored by Coca Cola. Giving out company material on a fair without having a stand isalso Ambush Marketing. The legal boundaries can be thin as Vodafone experienced in Aus-tralia in 2002. The rugby match between the All Blacks from New Zealand and the Wallabiesfrom Australia was interrupted by two naked streakers whose bodies were painted with Vo-dafone logos. The bizarre details unsheathed the wrongful behaviour of Vodafone. The CEOof the Australian Vodafone division knew that something provocative would happen andagreed to the proposal of an anonymous caller. He even agreed to take care of all arisingcosts and legal issues. Furthermore Vodafone was the sponsor of the participating Australianteam, but his main competitor Telstra gave the arena its name. Apart from the legal difficul-ties that Vodafone had to face, the success of the campaign was arguable, since the matchmight have been influenced by the interruption and upset many fans.18                                                   17  Guerilla Marketing Portal  18  Spiegel online    12  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 21. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.2.5. New Media WeaponsNew technologies change our lives and they often make it easier due to mobile phones, inter-net, unlimited information, and shopping possibilities that enable customers to access theresources of the world with a click on the computer mouse. Of course this also gives busi-nesses the possibility to use the advantages that technology provides. Two very strong in-struments that use the modern possibilities are described below: Viral Marketing and GuerillaMobile.3.2.6. Viral MarketingViral Marketing is a very important weapon of Guerilla Marketing. The beginning of ViralMarketing in Germany is often linked to the computer game “Johnnie Walker Moorhuhn”,where the player gets to shoot grouses (German: “Moorhuhn”) in the Scottish highlands. Thegame was developed to promote the Scotch Whiskey brand Johnnie Walker in the Germangastronomy sector. In 1999 it was shown in some German bars and then offered as a freedownload on the internet. Unexpectedly the game became so popular that people of all agesactively played it. The clue which makes this example Viral Marketing is that the game play-ers recommended “Moorhuhn” to friends by forwarding the link or by word-of-mouth. Thegame downloads had exponentially increased within a very short time and the brand nameJohnnie Walker was spread free of charge to millions of individuals.19This example vividly shows how successful Viral Marketing can be. The idea is to get anadvertising message to as many contacts as possible and as fast as possible. This is realisedby human multipliers who are animated to pass the message along for free. The challenge fora Viral Marketer is to build a motivation in a message for people to spread it. If that is suc-cessful, the snowball effect starts and the potential for the viral message’s exposure and in-fluence is produced. The message rapidly spreads, similar to the way email jokes and soft-ware viruses are sent around to the online community. It has to be mentioned that Viral Mar-keting is not a computer virus, it is harmless.Encouraging people to pass the message along to others for free is an art. A personalised message or a motivational prize are often successful tools. In any way, the campaigns shouldbe smart and extraordinary, since a conventional advertisement might not be accepted and                                                   19  Wikipedia    13  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 22. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  spread. Winning is often the usage of sex, humour, scandal, and provocation. In the B2B sec-tor downloadable White Papers are doing well.The Viral Marketing concept is not dependent on a certain media. Communication betweentwo persons has always existed in various ways. Then the message often spread by word-of-mouth, but through the internet Viral Marketing has experienced a boom. The impact, cover-age, and pace that this media offers today is astonishing.Especially Hotmail is often mentioned as the showcase for Viral Marketing. This free emailservice by Microsoft was one of the first to gain remarkably from Viral Marketing. Hotmail’sbrand awareness and market share increased rapidly, when they started to add a frank mes-sage to the footer of all E-Mails sent out by Hotmail users. For example : “Join the worlds 20largest free e-mail service with MSN Hotmail. http://www.hotmail.com“. Hotmail users thusautomatically became sales promoters for their e-mail service provider. From its start in 1996to its 12 millionth user, hotmail only spend 500.000 US-Dollar on advertising, while com-petitors spent 20 Million US-Dollar and did not nearly manage to attract that many custom-ers. Other successful viral formats are for instance Facebook applications and viral videos onYouTube.3.2.7. Guerilla MobileNot only the PC offers unlimited possibilities to marketers. Since the number of mobile phones exceeds the number of inhabitants in many countries, the cell phone is a permanentcompanion of prospects. Therefore it was only a matter of time until marketers took the op-portunity to reach customers and prospects at any place at any time. The wireless connectionprovides the possibility to present marketing messages in different ways via SMS, MMS,Bluetooth, or Infrared.3.2.8. Low Budget WeaponsThis Weapon refers to Guerilla Marketing for new, small, and medium-sized companies, whoonly possess a small marketing budget. Like Levinson already pointed out in the 1980’s thatdoes not necessarily mean that those companies have a disadvantage compared to financiallystrong competitors. But since their capital is low, the top priority is to use it as efficiently as                                                   20  http://www.viz.co.nz/viral‐marketing.htm    14  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 23. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  possible. Guerilla Marketing should put this into practice by focusing on the local culturewith its geographical, sportive, social network, its rituals, needs, habits, norms, traditions, andvalues. Clever ideas appear through unconventional methods which are supposed to catch theattention of the target group.3.3. Guerilla Marketing in the Marketing MixGuerilla Marketing changed over the years. In the past it was a business philosophy that in-fluenced all aspects of the business equally. Today Guerilla Marketing is often only used inthe form of a campaign. Companies often operate according to their traditional marketingphilosophy, but Guerilla Marketing for single campaigns is different. There the balance in themarketing mix shifts towards one of the 4 P’s. The figure 2 shows that 70% of the campaignsput their focus on promotion. The remaining 30% place their focus equally on price, place, and product.21 Marketing Mix Promotion Price Place Product 70 % 10% 10% 10%     Figure 2: Marketing MixThe following examples show campaigns where the focus is on one of the 4 P’s. Here it isessential to outline that sometimes only one of these 10% of the Marketing Mix are designedaccording to the Guerilla Marketing principles. The remaining 90% can belong to a tradi-tional Marketing approach.                                                   21  Bieri; Handschin; Siegenthaler; Spycher      15  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 24. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.3.1. Guerilla Promotion (70%)In most cases Guerilla Marketing appears in the form of promotion. Even though GuerillaMarketing tries to be different than the traditional marketing strategies, it uses the samechannels to bring the message across such as public relations, advertising, sales promotion, ordirect mail as well as the specific instruments described before. Actually the possibilities donot have limits. The non-profit organization WMF supplies one of the numerous examples ofGuerilla Marketing promotion with its slogan: “save paper – save the planet”. Figure 3: WMF Promotion22 By pulling the paper towel out of the box, the level of the overall paper towel pile decreases.The user cannot only see the decreasing pile, but also the effects that the use of the papertowels has on the rain forests in South America. With this simple example WMF tries to redi-rect the attention of the user towards WMF’s interest to maintain the rain forests.3.3.2. Guerilla Pricing (10%)The focus of Guerilla Marketing strategies can also be pricing. Even though we live in aworld where prices play a big role within the purchase decision, only 10% of all Guerillaactivities focus on price. It describes a new way to differentiate itself from the rest of the                                                  22http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://minus3.ch/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2007/10/mini_guerilla_marketing_2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.minus3.ch/blog/&h=225&w=360&sz=116&hl=de&start=12&um=1&tbnid=g3DOMkCxNmw6nM:&tbnh=76&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dguerilla%2Bmarketing%2Bmini%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde%26lr%3D     16  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 25. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  competition. A competitive offer is still a success factor for some campaigns as the followingwitty idea shows.Customers of the electronic retailer Media Markt were promised to get back their money ifthey bought TV’s before the Soccer European Championship in case that the German soccerteam won the tournament. Many people took the opportunity and bought one or more TV’s.In the end Germany did not even get into the final round and the customers did not receivetheir money back. Media Markt was the winner.3.3.3. Guerilla Distributing (Place 10%)The distribution of a product can also be a special experience for the customer. A good dis-tribution can boost sales tremendously. Even though books have a hard time to survive incompetition with to other media, the famous Harry Potter series  by J. K. Rowling showedthat even books can make the day of retailers and delivery services. Especially young readerswere waiting for the new book release and wanted to buy the book at the day of publication.Book shops, retailers, and delivery services in many countries offered customers to buy or toreceive the book at midnight in order to be one of the first to own the book. A lot of fanseven came in costumes to book stores to buy the first copies. Others were willing to pay extrato get the book delivered to their homes at midnight.   17  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 26. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.3.4. Guerilla Producting (10%)Also the packaging, the form, and the brand can be a vehicle for Guerilla Marketing. Oneexample introduced Kellogg’s with its Drink ‘n Crunch cup shown in the picture below. Figure 4: Kellogs Drink nʹ Crunch23 The cup allows the customer to have cornflakes-to-go. The one-person-portion in the cuponly needs milk in addition to make it a snack that can be enjoyed not only at home. Thismakes the cornflakes an alternative to chocolate bars and other sweets.3.4. User ProfileIn the battle for customer attention small companies as well as Global Players want GuerillaMarketing to stand out from competitors in a cost-effective way. Thereby small companiesfocus on using a small budget, while big enterprises utilize Guerilla Marketing in combina-tion with classical advertising strategies to make branded goods a real experience.Guerilla Marketing is a solution for companies of all sizes and all budgets. The classical ver-sion of Guerilla Marketing that was mainly developed by Levinson is still usable for smalland medium-sized companies that are looking for a philosophy that fits their financial limita-                                                  23  http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.frederiksamuel.com/blog/images/bananaj.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.frederiksamuel.com/blog/category/packa-ging/page/2&h=462&w=450&sz=76&hl=de&start=43&um=1&tbnid=h64qrsAJSSAlKM:&tbnh=128&tbnw=125&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dguerilla%2Bpackaging%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN     18  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 27. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  tions and high desires. Little tricks and years of experience make a successful start for acompany possible. On the other hand it is not only an alternative for smaller companies.Puma, Lycos, Vodafone, BMW: they all do it. Actually there is no size of company and nofield of industry that does not try to use the advantages of Guerilla Marketing. Even thoughthe budgets of the companies that use Guerilla Marketing vary widely, they all find a way toget through to their customers. Furthermore low-budget activities can be extended by puttingin more money than necessary, for example by placing advertisements in additional cities.Internationally the top 5 countries with the highest advertising expenditure are firstly theUSA, then China, Japan, UK, and on the fifth position Germany. Over the last 10 years ex-penditures in those countries have all risen tremendously, in China for instance by 1218%, inthe US by 53% and in Germany by 6%. Guerilla and Viral Marketing concepts are mostlyused in the US. In Germany 35% of the companies use unconventional advertising forms.The outcome of a Robert&Horst24 research was that 46% of the top 3000 Marketing DecisionMakers in Germany have or will use alternative marketing forms in the future. It becomesclear, that they see alternative marketing forms as cost-effective means, since they do notwant to invest much of their budget on such forms. One third is willing to spend 5% and onlyone fourth will spend 10% of their marketing funds.The main difference between small and bigger firms, next to the size of their budget, is theway Guerilla Marketing is used. Global players and other established companies cannot in-herit the philosophy of Guerillas one-to-one since the strategy is made for small companiesand consequently addresses only a limited customer base. Some additional and personalizedservices cannot be offered by businesses that serve millions of clients. Consequently theseenterprises only use Guerilla Marketing with all its facades for a specific time in the courseof a campaign. They use the main characteristics of Guerilla Marketing that are still impor-tant today. Creativity and flexibility, the surprise effect, and the unexpected are the main key-words here.A Guerilla Marketing campaign does not change the whole marketing strategy of a company.Larger companies do not have to opt for Guerilla Marketing like smaller companies some-                                                   24  Robert&Horst Marketing GmbH    19  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 28. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  times have to. They choose it as an additional way of promoting their products and it is usedcomplimentary to the traditional marketing mix which works for the company.3.5. Case Study: BionadeSo far the background, development, and usage of Guerilla Marketing have been outlined. Tocomplement this progress, the case study will exemplify how Guerilla Marketing is imple-mented today. The company chosen is Bionade. They have used many facades of the strategyin the course of a campaign. Their example nicely illustrates how wit, creativity, and diver-sity can help a rising company to succeed in a saturated market.In the following paragraphs it will be described why and how the Bionade Corporation im-plemented Guerilla Marketing to create brand awareness for their product: Bionade. To fa-miliarise with the product, a company background will be given first.3.5.1. Company ProfileBionade Corporation is a German company which sells soft drinks under the brand name“Bionade”. The product is currently available in 5 flavours. Bionade differentiates itself fromcommon refreshments by being “the first and only non-alcoholic refreshment drink producedby a purely organic process.”25 It is fermented like a beer, according to the German puritylaw “Reinheitsgebot” which is a regulation for beer quality standards and originates from the16th century. Bionade is produced with natural ingredients of organic quality. Thus it standsfor a non-alcoholic refreshment, which does not taste as sweet as other soft drinks. It alsodifferentiates itself from competitors by its uncommon flavours. Regional growers providethe natural ingredients such as herbs and fruits. Current flavours are: Elderberry, Lychee,Herbs, Ginger-Orange and Aktiv.From a slow seller to a moneymakerThe story of the company’s success can be read like a fairytale. It all started at the end of the1980s, when the family-owned beer brewery Peter in Bavaria was experiencing stagnatingturnover in the beer sector. The owner’s husband Dieter Leipold wanted to find a solution tosurvive in the market. In the evenings after work he experimented on inventing a non-                                                   25 Bionade    20  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 29. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  alcoholic drink by fermentation. It took him 8 years and 3 million Euro of investment to cre-ate the drink Bionade. “Bio” stands for biological/organic, and “nade” reminds of lemonade.The brand name was also chosen since it can be used internationally. In 1995 the soft drinkBionade was ready to be sold. Unfortunately even the best development does not sell auto-matically. Sales started slowly. Then the company got lucky. By mistake Bionade bottleslabelled in Hungarian were delivered to a client in Hamburg, Germany. There advertisers gota hold of Bionade and saw its potential. It might have been the brand label; it might havebeen the fact that Bionade is filled in beer bottles. In any case, trendsetter in Hamburg sawBionade as cult, and it became a scene drink in bars and clubs. That was the beginning oftheir track record.By now Bionade Corporation has become successful in all of Germany. 200 million bottleswere sold in 2007, among others at McCafé, Starbucks, Ikea, and in the majority of super-markets and bars. Coca Cola offered a nine-figure range amount to take over the company,but Bionade Corporation rejected. “Selling the company will not be an option for our proudfamily business”26, said CEO Peter Kowalsky, Leipold’s stepson, who leads the BionadeCorporation, since it was founded in 1995. The next step for Bionade Corporation is to extenttheir sales to the global market. A second production plant will be built in Iowa, USA in2009. Bionade is the first soft drink after Red Bull to be exported to the USA.27Ongoing success through clever marketingBionade Corporation developed from a scene drink in Hamburg to where they are positionednow, and not merely by luck. Part of the success can be attributed to their low-budget com-munication strategy. Wolfgang Blum, Chief of Marketing, transformed the brand Bionadefrom a purely organic product into a lifestyle drink.Since the company only had a low Marketing budget, Blum successfully used a viral market-ing- and communication strategy on the basis of product sponsoring, media publicity, andword-of-mouth marketing. Through public relations the company started to get national at-tention. Major German economy magazines and newspapers, such as Financial TimesDeutschland, printed the Bionade company profile and interviews with the CEO PeterKowalsky. Thereby the emphasis was purposefully put on the enormous success story: An                                                   26  Emsdettener Volkszeitung  27  Emsdettener Volkszeitung    21  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 30. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  almost bankrupt family-owned brewery in the middle of nowhere is saved through 8 years ofresearch and development. Readers sympathised with the company, promotional materialwas provided to bars, and Bionade further engaged in attracting opinion leaders by sponsor-ing student parties and regional sport teams. The word about the unusual product spread;Blum’s viral marketing plan started to work out. The strategy now is to sustain Bionade’sposition as being an original: Firstly to be a competition to Coca Cola28, secondly to giveplagiarism no chance.3.5.2. Guerilla Marketing CampaignIn 2007 Bionade Corporation used cross medial advertising for the first time. Cross mediameans the interaction of different media. Done cleverly, it can produce added value and savecosts. 29 The company’s aim was to attain wide brand awareness and image profiling in Ger-many. With a budget in the lower seven-figure range, they targeted children and adults be-tween 14 and 49 years of age, and used crossmedial advertising, including out-of-home,online marketing, radio and public relations. The skilful interaction between the differentcommunication channels is vital. 303.5.2.1. ImplementationIn March 2007 Bionade Corporation started to implement the Guerilla Marketing campaignin cooperation with advertising agencies. The theme was, “Bionade. The official drink of abetter world“31 , and aimed to spread a positive attitude for instance through welfare actionsthat made people connect the brand to good deeds.RadioThe radio campaign “Telephone Calls for a Better World” is a main pillar of the cross-medialBionade advertising. A variation of eight different radio spots were produced and broad-casted in three intervals from March till September 2007 at 138 private radio stations inGermany. 32 Every spot displays one phone call, in which a caller (always the same man)surprises a normal person with kind words, a joke, or amusing honesty. The called persons                                                   28  Reich  29  Holzapfel   30 Active Mobile Media AG  31  Seissler  32  Radio Marketing Service    22  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 31. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  often have a stressful job and thus reacted happily. An example will clarify how this wasdone: Radio Spot “Batteries”The content of the “Batteries” spot is the following: The man calls the service point of anelectronic retailer and tells the woman who answers that he was in the store last week andstole a package of batteries, because he felt a need for a thrill. He claims to have had a badconscience and says that he came back this morning and secretly placed the batteries back inthe shelf. She should not wonder if the stock counts one more battery package in the evening.The woman laughs and says: “I don’t know what to say. Well Done.”33The content of the spots varied, though the message was similar: doing something good,based on the theme, with which every spot ended: “Bionade. The official drink of a betterworld”.PosterBeginning at the time of the second interval of the radio spots, the product behind the spotswas shown by a poster advertising campaign. Huge bills in four different styles were postedon various locations in 15 large German cities. People in Berlin, Hamburg, Cologne, Munich,Stuttgart or Frankfurt were able to see four different posters, each presenting one bottle of aBionade flavour, decorated with the slogan: “Das offizielle Getränk einer besseren Welt”.The reference to the website www.stille-taten.de was also printed at the bottom. Figure 5: Out‐of‐home, Bionade Poster34                                                    33  Radio Marketing Service  34  Bionade    23  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 32. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Guerilla SensationBut Bionade also tried to make their advertising an unusual event. With the help of a so-called “Leuchtbotschafter” (literally translates to “illuminated messenger”), a person whowalks through the streets and projects Bionade messages to house walls, pavements, and ve-hicles with a mobile beamer, they brought their messages as close as possible to their cus-tomers. Figure 6: Bionade Leuchtbotschafter35  Projected messages such as, “Smile”, “Write it Down”, “Be here”, “Wake up and Dream”,“Give and don’t ask for something in return”, and “Wishing helps” aimed to inspire goodfeeling. “Elderberry is underestimated”, “Let your stomach decide”, “Give fruits more funnynames, like lychee”, rather focused on the product. The Bionade crown cap at the bottom ofthe display and the blue coloured background are connections to the brand, whereas the namedoes not play as big of a role. “Bionade” is displayed infrequently between the other mes-sages.In the course of the Bionade campaign, the Leuchtbotschafter has been deployed in severalmajor German cities to create brand awareness and profile the Bionade image.36 Mostly atdusk during the summer, he approached crowded places such as café terraces. Next to that, avideo about the Leuchtbotschafter in action has been created by the advertising agency Kolle& Rebbe. This video is spread on the internet and can be viewed on the websites of Bionade,                                                   35  Bionade  36  Schulz    24  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 33. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Kolle&Rebbe, diverse Online Newspapers, and also on You Tube. Alone on the latter web-site the video has been viewed nearly 5000 times.37BannerBionade advertisment banners38 were placed at diverse German Lifestyle, Sport, and Well-ness Portals on the internet. They are in the same style as the outdoor posters and also pointto the website www.stille-taten.de which is another clever part of the campaign:Stille Taten“Stille Taten” can be translated to “silent doings”. The idea behind the initiative is to bringjoy and hope to people. This is based on a voluntary favour that people do one another. Theysurprise others in their daily lives with little, wonderful doings though they stay anonymous,to create speculation and discussion. He or she only leaves the “Stille Taten” postcard at thescene. The website documents what “good” people have done to others and also how the re-ceivers experienced the silent doings. Examples are dropping a nice CD in a mailbox, or pol-ishing shoes that are standing in front of an apartment.The website is not a campaign by Bionade, but Bionade Corporation supports the initiative.Thus people do not feel to be an instrument of a Bionade marketing campaign, but neverthe-less link to the brand to the good doings of people. Some silent doings even reach more thanone person. A “Hug Zone” was drawn with chalk in a city’s shopping street. It attracted theattention of pedestrians and after some time people actually stepped into the “zone” andhugged each other with a happy smile on their faces. The silent addresser of this action de-signed the Bionade crown cap on the sign that points to the “Hug Zone”. Thus he or she ad-vertised for the brand Bionade for free. A video of the action can be seen on the internet,which creates potential for viral marketing. On You Tube it has been watched almost 9000times.39ResponseThe Bionade campaign was implemented only a few days before the G8-Summit in Germanystarted. The slogan “Bionade. The official drink for a better world” felt right for hundreds of                                                   37 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hb13uMKKlN0  38 Appendix: Online Bionade Banner  39 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbPFt7xil7Y    25  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 34. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  thousands of protesters of the G8-Summit, who called Bionade their favourite drink. News-papers, radios, and TV channels reported about the protests, about Bionade, about their slo-gan. Bionade Corporation distances themselves from political statements, but in fact theystand for social and environmental responsibility. People should interact with themselves andtheir surroundings more consciously.40 Topics of conversation about Bionade rose and thatattention was used for the campaign. The media mix of out-of-home, online marketing, radio,and public relations media was well chosen and it came into play at a critical time to createrising tension.3.5.2.2. ResultIn 2007, the year of the Guerilla Marketing campaign, Bionade Corporation tripled their salesfrom 2006 to 200 million sold bottles41. The aided brand awareness42 was 10% in 200643 andincreased to almost 50% in 200744. German customers refer to Bionade as a lifestyle drinkwhich is healthier than common soft drinks.45 The characteristics which come to mind whentalking about Bionade now, are far from the original image of being a drink solely sold inhealth-food shops. Thus it can be concluded that the goal of the campaign to achieve widebrand awareness and image profiling for Bionade was reached.The cross-medial advertising created added value and cost only a few million Euros. Forthose results the budget is not high. “Minimal costs for maximal output”, just like the defini-tion of Guerilla Marketing. Bionade Corporation, the small company from Bavaria, nowholds a good position in the saturated beverage market, thanks to the Guerilla MarketingStrategy of being creative and having wits among other things. Bionade acknowledged thatthe skilful interaction between the different communication channels is vital and used it totheir advantage. 46 Online and offline activities should be linked, since individuals todaycommunicate through all available media. 47                                                   40 Convenience Shop  41 200 million sold bottles achieved a turnover of 48.6 million € in 2007  42 Aided awareness occurs when you show or read a list of brands and the person expresses familiarity  with your brand only after they hear or see it (http://www.davedolak.com/articles/dolak4.htm)  43 MSN News  44 Reich  45 Results from Consumer Questionnaire Chapter 4    46 http://www.activemobile.ch/_admin/4_upload/_files/Factsheets.05/Crossmedia.pdf   47 Holzapfel    26  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 35. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.6. Obstacles of Guerilla MarketingGuerilla Marketing goes another way than traditional marketing. Therefore it is often diffi-cult to recognize the fine line between provocation and offence, between drawing the atten-tion to a company and to create a negative reputation, to get new customers and to lose pros-pects.The following example shows a Guerilla Marketing campaign that failed. There are some-times invisible limits that a company should not cross:A company promoted its new comedy series by placing a large electronic billboard featuringan adult character in the city centre of Boston, MA. Lose cables were hanging out of the bill-board. People passing by believed that they were explosives and panicked. They called thepolice and an anti-terror unit was sent to disarm the billboard which was wrongly interpretedas a bomb. The city centre and all access roads were closed. Later that day the mistake wasuncovered and it resulted in two arrests and costs of 500,000 US$.48 Even though the adver-tising was already in the city for some days and was also placed in other major US cities anddid not cause any excitement there, it is obvious that those in charge should have dealt withthis topic in a more sensitive way.New technologies – like many things – are a blessing and a curse at the same time. Viral andMobile Marketing are the most successful marketing trends that spread the word so fast thatit often cannot be retraced or controlled anymore. As described in the example above a crea-tive idea can quickly turn into bad publicity. Especially in these cases it would be beneficialif the advertising could be just erased and would thereby limit the number of people that seeit. Thus an even greater damage could be avoided. But in times of Viral Marketing and mediacoverage from all over the world, it is almost impossible to let something “disappear“ thatwas presented to the public once before. Consequently this means that every publication thathas not been thought through carefully can damage the reputation of the company and canresult in the loss of customers.49                                                   48  Spiegel Online  49  Dr Prof Zerr      27  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 36. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  4. How is Guerilla Marketing perceived today?4.1. Customer Perception of Guerilla Marketing4.1.1. Survey4.1.1.1. PurposeIn order to get an idea about the future of marketing, especially about the future of GuerillaMarketing, we can only draw conclusions from the people that are going to decide over thesuccess of Marketing in the future – the customers. Therefore a field research gives us thebest picture of the reality.It is of course difficult for people to have an idea about how they will perceive advertisingsin 5 or 10 years. On the other hand a general acceptance or rejection now, that can be uncov-ered through a survey, can give some hints about the future trends. Marketing experts alsohave to deal with the question of how customers are going to perceive advertising in the fu-ture. They would be a good alternative to a quantitative survey, but their conclusions are alsoonly a result of feedback from customers. Therefore it is best to get the information from theinitial source directly, the customers. 504.1.1.2. Structure of the QuestionnaireAt the beginning of the questionnaire the respondents are welcomed and are given a shortintroduction to the purpose and the general topic. Basic instructions to answer the questionscorrectly are also given.The questionnaire can be divided into four parts. The first three parts refer to Guerilla Mar-keting campaigns by three different brands. The respondent can see pictures of the first twoactivities and in the last example he or she can also listen to a radio spot that was part of acampaign. Within the three parts mainly closed questions have to be answered. The answerscan be chosen from various possibilities which were ranked according to a Likert scale. Thequestions should clarify if the respondents like the idea and if they have actually seen orheard about the campaign. It is also essential to find out if they understand the message and ifthey are able to connect the information from the current campaign with the attributes and                                                   50  Appendix: Consumer Questionnaire     28  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 37. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  advertisings from former campaigns. Open questions that ask for associations show if thegoal of the companies have been met.The fourth and last part gives the respondent the possibility to evaluate their own perceptionof advertising in general and which aspects are important for their purchase decisions. Somequestions were closed questions and offered various answers. Others let the respondents ratethe given answers according to their importance. The relevant instructions were given withevery question. A specification about gender and age concluded the questionnaire.4.1.1.3. Sample SelectionA determination of a target group that should preferably answer the questionnaire is difficult.Every product targets different groups, but the survey is not about a specific product or itsadvertising, but about marketing and its perception in general. The population that has to betaken into consideration is comprised of everybody that is exposed to advertising and thatincludes almost all of mankind.Even the resulting sample would be much too big. The selected examples were chosen tomake it easier for respondents to evaluate GM ideas. Since they mainly target teenagers andadults up to 50 years, we chose our respondents according to their age group. Our respon-dents were between the age of 12 and 35. We intentionally chose examples of Guerilla Mar-keting that are targeted at young adults, because those who belong to this age group are goingto be the ones with the highest purchase power within the next decades. Consequently theywill be the ones that are going to face the future marketing efforts.The chosen examples show Guerilla activities of products that were released on the Germanmarket. To fill in the questionnaire with reliable data, the respondents needed to have thechance to be exposed to the products and brands before. This can only be guaranteed if therespondents live in Germany. In general the population and sample size cannot be determinedand therefore a non-probability sampling technique was chosen. The survey was sent byemail to people of this age group with the request to redirect it to other people with the sameimportant characteristics – in this case they have to be in the same age group.   29  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 38. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Due to time and budget limitations it was not possible to conduct a representative research.With the snowball effect the questionnaire was passed on to other respondents. Feedbackswere collected for three weeks and 100 replies revealed a general trend.4.1.1.4. LimitationsTo weight the results of the survey the research quality has to be analysed. As mentionedabove the resources available for the conduction of the research were limited. Therefore thenumber of replies does not allow the results to be generalized. An evaluation can only show atrend.The answers of the respondents were handled anonymously. Nevertheless it has to be takeninto consideration that a contamination of the answers cannot be out of question. The smallgroup of the respondents we know personally might have hesitated in giving definite answersand therefore might have caused a participant bias. Furthermore not all answers that weregiven could be taken into the evaluation since the respondents did not answer the questionsaccording to the instructions given. Even though the instructions were precisely stated, therewere some issues in the design of the questionnaire that could have avoided these mistakes.4.1.1.5. EvaluationThe 100 filled in questionnaires that we received back within three weeks are the basis forthe results that we use to highlight trends. The results are going to influence the overall con-clusion of the report and will help to answer the question: Can Guerilla Marketing be suc-cessful in the future? In order to make it easier for the reader to understand the essential re-sults of the customer survey, the most crucial points are summarized under various headingsbelow.Guerilla Marketing ExamplesThe respondents were asked to rate how much they like the examples that were shown. Allthree examples showed different products that are sold on the German market. The first wasthe well-known detergent Mr. Clean, the second showed a Guerilla campaign from the airlineSwiss Air. In the last example the respondents could listen to a radio spot from the BionadeGuerilla Marketing campaign that was described as a case study in this report before. Since   30  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 39. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  most of the questions were identical in every example the results are presented in summa-rized percentages.The interviewees evaluated the advertisement rather positive than negative. 27.9% liked theadvertisings and even 17.2% liked them very much. But most respondents (36.6%) ratedthem as being fair.Almost all respondents knew the products and brands that were shown and approximately80% of all answers named obvious attributes and elements, that are partly also presented inother advertisings of the brand.Even though most respondents tended to like the advertisings that were shown and knewwhich brands were presented, many would not tell their family or friends about the excep-tional advertisings. Thereby it did not matter if they saw or heard it in reality or just on thepictures and the spot presented in the questionnaire. Only 8.3% were sure to tell at leastsomebody about the Guerilla marketing activities. In fact 24.1% were sure that they wouldnot spread the word about the unusual advertising. Most of them - in total 28.6% - did notdecide weather or not to tell other people.Result: Guerilla Marketing seems to be something that amuses people and inspires them totake a closer look. 59.5% believe that they would have taken a closer look if they had seen orheard such advertising in reality. A closer look would mean that they would remember theinformation they saw better and that might influence their purchase decision later on.This is the ultimate goal of advertisements. It is a myth that an advertisement can push a per-son into the next shop to buy a product. Customers have to be exposed to advertisements upto 15 times before they feel the wish to buy a product. Normally this process can be best il-lustrated with the help of the AIDA model51. In the best case scenario an advertisement getsthe attention of a prospect, arises his or her interest and later the desire to own it, which willlead to an action: the purchase. Guerilla Marketing seems to be the right way to get the firsttwo steps of the AIDA model, the attention and the interest of customers, even at the firstcontact. Often advertisements need several contacts before they get the attention or even theinterest of a prospect.                                                   51  Appendix: AIDA Model    31  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 40. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  The viral effect on the other hand does not work as good as expected. Not everybody is shar-ing his or her experience with Guerilla advertising. Even though the survey does not go intodetail, it is most likely that the viral effect is most effective on the internet, because it is eas-ier and quicker to spread information online. Often companies even offer the possibility to“tell a friend” with just one click.Influence on purchase decisionWith every example the respondents were asked to think about the possibility to buy theproduct for the first time. Next to those that had already bought the product before, only 2persons indicated that they would buy the product because of the advertising they just saw orheard. In total 70.8% of all respondents never bought the products before and did not choosethe option to buy it in the future.Another question in the survey requested the respondents to choose two purchase decisionfactors from a list: one that influences them the most and one that persuades them the least.For none of the respondents “advertising” was the most relevant element within the purchasedecision process. Quite the contrary is true: 20.7% chose that advertising is the factor thatinfluences them the least.Result: Even though the survey revealed that people spend some thought on unexpected andunusual advertisings, the survey also shows that people do not necessarily consider buyingthe product – at least not right away. Even though the desire and the action are not inspiredyet, the huge effects of Guerilla Marketing on the attention and the interest of a customerleads one to suspect that a prospect does not need as many contacts with the advertisement aswith other marketing strategies to bring them to a final purchase.Essentials of AdvertisingAccording to the AIDA model52, the first goal of advertising is to get the attention of the cus-tomer. If this goal is not met, the further goals - interest, desire and action - cannot bereached. Respondents rated the „design” of the advertising with 59.3% by far as the mostrelevant element that directs their attention towards an advertisement. The second fundamen-tal aspect is the “content” with 21.3%.                                                   52  Appendix: AIDA Model    32  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 41. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Result: Design and content are the keywords. To get the interest of the customer it has to besomething innovative that stands out from all the other advertisings. Since people are used tocertain standard formats like TV or radio spots, something new and unusual has to be createdin order to be the one advertisement that is noticed out of a thousand others.Price/Quality Ratio in Combination with Traditional ToolsPrice and quality are the most essential elements that influence the purchase decision. For42.1% of all of these interviewees quality is the most crucial factor, for 29.5% it is price.Other decision factors like packaging or reputation are not as important as price and quality.The usual advertisement, that is seen everyday for thousands of times, was predominantlyconnected to negative aspects. Mainly the words “bothering” and “obtrusive” were associatedwith advertising. Almost half of all the respondents chose one of these words. But still, therespondents most likely notice advertisement on traditional channels that mainly show tradi-tional advertisement. The following channels were rated as the most (or second most) impor-tant ones: TV (41.4%), magazines (20.4%), radio (15.1%) and posters (13.5%). Other chan-nels, that are already used infrequently, such as events, e-mails, internet and give-away arti-cles are not the locations where the respondents notice advertisement that much.Result: Traditional advertising has the goal to inform customers and prospects about theirbenefits. Obvious and exaggerative fashion advertisings are focusing on the best taste, theperfect fit, the lowest price or on long-lasting performance. But people are not interested inthese ways of advertisings anymore. They are tired of seeing offerings that are almost toogood to be true.Conscious persuasibility through advertisingThe survey revealed that consumers believe that they are influenced by advertising. 39% an-swered that they are probably influenced by it. 22% are sure that advertising is an integralpart of their purchase decision process. Only 2% believe that they are not affected at all.Result: These results show that the respondents know what most advertisements try to do – topush them towards a purchase. If somebody knows that a factor is trying to push into one   33  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 42. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  direction, it can result in a sceptical attitude towards what is said. The customer is then notwithout prejudice and not open to persuasions.4.1.1.6. ConclusionThe customer survey revealed that the respondents are looking for something different thanwhat is presented to them in daily advertisements. Advertising needs a comeback as an ele-ment that influences people towards a purchase. Even though quality and price are the essen-tial factors that influence the decision for or against a product, the predominately used adver-tising forms, that praise the advantageous price or quality of a product, are not very well per-ceived by customers.Guerilla Marketing is different than traditional advertising. Often it focuses neither on qualitynor on price. The goal is to improve brand awareness; thus the focus is on alternatives tostress the price and quality of a product, such as location, reputation and image. FurthermoreGuerilla Marketing uses creative, new, and innovative elements that are positioned as to getthe customer’s attention by a surprise effect. The idea of the campaign is in the foreground,whereas the brand rather takes a position in the background. The results of the survey displaythat the respondents are interested in the shown Guerilla campaigns. The majority did alsostate that they consciously avoid traditional marketing communication like TV commercialsfor instance. Thus we can conclude that Guerilla Marketing activities are more attracting tothem than traditional advertisements nowadays.New channels that can be used for effective marketing are already discovered by marketersbut not yet recognized by customers. Therefore these channels such as emails and events giveadvertisers the possibility to get customers and prospects at the moment where they do notexpect to get in touch with marketing and where they can be persuaded more easily. Espe-cially online advertisings seem to have a greater potential because of the convenience of ad-ditional word-of-mouth advertising. The combination of innovative advertisings and non-traditional channels seems to be an effective combination for the future.4.1.2. Expert opinionSeveral opinions of Guerilla Marketing Experts have been brought together in this thesis.Their views and the results of the customer survey we conducted will contribute highly to the   34  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 43. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  overall conclusion of this thesis, answering the question of whether Guerilla Marketingstands a chance in the business future.With the help of a prepared questionnaire 53 we spoke to the “Guerilla Thinkers” RuediMaeder, Thorsten Schulte, and David Eicher, who all closely monitor the advertising worldthrough their work as marketers in agencies and because of their personal interest. Theirstatements on the current usage of Guerilla Marketing and its chances in the marketing worldof tomorrow are presented in the following paragraphs.4.1.2.1. Guerilla Marketing TodayThe main reason why companies opt for Guerilla Marketing these days can be differentiatedbetween small and larger organisations. Smaller companies obviously chose the cost-effective principle since they only have a small advertising budget on-hand. Larger, moresolvent companies are often able to afford TV and Print Ads. They use Guerilla Marketingsince it achieves value that cannot be created by classical advertising alone.54Goal of Guerilla MarketingThe Guerilla Marketing effect is in general independent from the size of the company. How-ever larger companies can have advantages, since they have more means, more brains, andmore ideas. Therefore they may achieve more penetration and impact.55Whoever implements Guerilla Marketing wants to get attention for their brand.56 However,the expectations on Guerilla Marketing differ. For small and medium-sized organizations andfor no-name brands, the profitability plays the fundamental role. When implementing Guer-illa Marketing, their focus is on increasing brand awareness and winning coverage. Interna-tionally operating companies with established brands, on the other hand, use Guerilla Mar-keting to steer their brand into a certain direction. Brand differentiation can be a goal, orspreading the brand message of classical advertising by unconventional techniques.57Implementation of Guerilla Marketing                                                   53 Appendix: Interview Questions Experts  54 Maeder   55 Maeder  56 Schulte  57 Eicher    35  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 44. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Guerilla Marketing is done offline rather than online. The actions have a dynamic character,following the principle of “hit and run”; they appear and disappear quickly. Here the surpriseeffect is more important than the dialogue with potential customers. Eicher states he uses theGuerilla Marketing instrument Guerrilla Sensation most, since it meets the demand of thepress for spectacular graphical material best and is therefore often cited. To draw attentionthe action should be highly emotional, tell a good story and contain an interactive element.This is called a multimodal approach.The Guerilla Marketing appearances of smaller companies are often more radical and on theverge of crossing the line. Thereby it is of utter importance that the advertising is not at theexpense of the audience. If the aim for awareness and publicity is placed higher than the in-terest of the people, the brand image is damaged.International firms are more hesitant than small companies when using Guerilla Marketing.Since they want to build up a concentrated brand image worldwide, their marketing activitiesneed a certain amount of steering. They often follow a “brand book”. It lists tested marketingactivities and points out what activity is targeted to underline what brand element.58 GuerillaMarketing activities on an international basis can be realised through viral mechanisms,which function internationally and comprehensively. Here priority needs to be given to goodcoordination of the campaign.59Universal Remedy?Guerilla Marketing always has to be considered critically. It is no universal remedy.60 Guer-illa Marketing is an instrument that can be employed subtly and appears different from clas-sical advertising; all that for a lot less money. What matters are ideas, not plump actions andoriginality carried to extremes. People actually make the advertising; Guerilla Marketing isjust the instrument. Thus if marketers make bad Guerilla Marketing, they cannot accomplishanything. It cannot stand for a universal remedy, but if it is used cleverly, Guerilla Marketingcan have great effect. Professional handling is indispensable for every Guerilla activity. Cru-cial for success are accompanying measures such as Public Relations. 61 According to a study                                                   58 Eicher  59 Maeder  60 Schulte  61 Maeder    36  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 45. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  by Robert & Horst62 Guerilla Marketing unfortunately still lacks support from the PR de-partments in German industry. That minimizes its potential enormously.4.1.2.2. Future of Guerilla MarketingIn the future consumers will take a negative view of advertising messages, if those are inarti-ficial, boring, exchangeable, and without strong ideas. Clever, funny, or original messagesare needed, since ideas will always have an economic cycle. 63Schulte hopes that Guerilla Marketing will always stay surprising. If more and more compa-nies implement unusual activities, it might loose its appeal for the audience since repetitionof an action kills the surprise effect. Guerilla Marketing should stay in a niche, even thoughthe interest to use it steadily increases. In times of a good economy Guerilla Marketing is nota topic anyway, since the marketing budgets rise and classical advertising channels are fa-voured. Schulte calls billions investments in those channels advertising insanity. He calls fora more eventful marketing placed in the surroundings of the consumer.64 But Expert Schultewarns: The term Guerilla Marketing has gained popularity in the last years. As agencies wantto be connected to good ideas, many claim to offer Guerilla Marketing, but they actually donot have the knowledge and experience to really implement it. 65 On the other hand there aregood agencies specialised on Guerilla Marketing. Unfortunately the Press has also led to aconfusion of ideas in the public. Normal promotional activities, such as a flyer distribution,have been falsely titled Guerilla Marketing in major newspapers.4.1.2.3. Conclusion: Future AdviceAgainst the general perception, Guerilla Marketing is not a trend but an instrument. It hasexisted for over 50 years now and gained importance since its invention. Especially in theB2B sector Guerilla Marketing is applied more and more.66 Thus the philosophy will not bereplaced by another root thought in the future. But the composition of Guerilla Marketingwill be different. Classical advertising with viral aspects is an example.                                                   62 Robert&Horst Marketing GmbH  63 Maeder  64 Schulte  65 Schulte  66 Schulte    37  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 46. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Single Guerilla Marketing activities are not advised by the experts. They do reach attention,but not necessarily influence images, opinions, and consumer behaviour. The classical adver-tising Media Mix should thus be complemented with unconventional forms to address theaudience. The interaction is utterly important in the future in order to make potential custom-ers become real buyers. In the future strategists should think and act modern. They shouldnot disregard Guerilla Marketing, but realise that classical advertising does not reach manytarget groups. Forms of approach need to be found that are accepted by the audience and notignored. 67 Companies have to be sensitive and pay close attention to their target group.                                                   67  Eicher    38  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 47. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  5. ConclusionGuerilla Marketing is much more than just a trend today. It is rather an instrument that isutilized by companies of all sizes. Today’s Guerilla Marketing, though, differs from theGuerilla Marketing philosophy that Levinson developed in the 1980s.Neither the majority of small nor the majority of large companies take over the original Lev-inson idea. But still many companies partly use the aspects of the root philosophy. Basicideas such as the setup of a corporate identity were taken over by almost every company.Many others use new forms of Guerilla Marketing such as Viral Marketing or Guerilla Sen-sation. Even though they often rely on a classical marketing mix, advertising campaignsmake use of the Guerilla surprise effect and its witty ideas. With the help of only a smallbudget, the maximum attention is drawn to their advertising. Of course not all aspects ofLevinson’s root idea can be used today. The approach to insist on a chosen Marketing cam-paign, even if it does not lead to the expected return for quite a long time, for instance, isdifficult to put into practice at a time where economical conditions and markets are changingrapidly.Although companies of all sizes utilize the same new defined approaches of Guerilla Market-ing, the reasons why they opt for that instrument differ. For small and medium sized compa-nies the advantage is still the cost-effectiveness that makes it so interesting to implement.Larger, often more solvent companies on the other hand do not have to opt for such an inex-pensive way of advertising. Guerilla Marketing is an additional marketing instrument tothem, which provides additional value in form of attention. Classical advertising alone oftenfails to provide that extra value.Guerilla Marketing is not a guarantor of success. A design framework is needed to makecampaigns as effective as possible, since people in the modern world have a rather negativeattitude towards advertising. Such barriers have to be overcome first. Thereby it is fundamen-tally important to create an advertisement that does not praise the obvious advantages of lowprices and high qualities, but to draw the attention towards the brand. Not the product is thecentral issue in Guerilla Marketing. The creative idea is fundamental and is supposed to re-flect positively on the brand.   39  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 48. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  The creation of advertising that hits the nerve of the target group is elemental; however it hasto be actually seen by the people. But costumers know exactly that marketers prefer to placeadvertisements through classical channels such as TV and magazines. This fact lets them seeadvertising conditionally. Consequently the advertisements have to be placed in channels thatare not as noticed so far, for instance the internet and emails.The success of Guerilla Marketing does not depend on a particular period. It has also beensuccessful in the 50s and 60s. Since then it has developed and is used more frequently andalso by bigger companies, which eventually got Guerilla Marketing into the spotlight of at-tention. Since many companies face decreasing marketing budgets lately, Guerilla marketingis a cost-effective alternative to traditional marketing strategies.The concept of Guerilla Marketing will also work in the future if not too many companieswork with this alternative. In case the traditional advertising is repressed more and more andGuerilla Marketing activities are a rather normal appearance among advertisings, the essen-tial surprise effect will not be guaranteed anymore. It could come to this development whenweak economic conditions diminish marketing budgets even further.But in all probability classical advertising will also exist in the future and will not be dis-placed by alternative forms like Guerilla Marketing. Nevertheless classical advertising has tochange to get through to customers. Therefore it is likely that traditional marketing will trans-form for example by taking over characteristics of Guerilla and Viral Marketing. This mightresult in advertisings with pointed formulation and direct address towards the target group.Advertising would need to activate as many senses as possible. Also it should act multimo-dal, being present in all kinds of channels their target group moves in.The fact that classical advertising is often perceived negatively among customers should be awarning for future Guerillas. Although customers often perceive Guerilla Marketing as some-thing new and interesting today, in the future it can also turn to be something that bothersprospects. This is a real threat due to the fact that a single Guerilla Marketing activity cannotinfluence customers’ behaviour or their purchase decision.The recipe for future Guerillas is simple: the classical Media Mix has to be combined withunconventional instruments such as the Guerilla Marketing in order to attract attention and   40  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 49. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  lead to a purchase. Guerillas have to be venturous to use their whole creative potential withthe selection of the adequate advertising design and the choice of the most effective channels.As we have read in this thesis, people and the markets are changing constantly. Companieshave to be flexible and find the opportunities new situations offer. Practitioners and enthusi-asts, who have their finger on the pulse of time, can use Guerilla Marketing victoriously aslong as their idea is superior.       41  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 50. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  List of LiteratureActive Mobile Media AG, http://www.activemobile.ch/_admin/4_upload/_files/Factsheets.05/Crossmedia.pdfBieri, C., Handschin, P., Siegenthaler, D., Spycher, M., PPT „Gorilla Marketing“; 30.06.06http://www.wirtschaft.bfh.ch/personal/1083/File/infos/themen/Guerilla_Marketing.pdfBionade, www.bionade.comhttp://www.bionade.com/service/BIONADE_Leuchtbotschafter.mpgConvenience Shop, „Bionade:Kampagne zum G-8-Gipfel, 30.05.07http://convenienceshop.info/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=667&Itemid=26CrossmediaCases, „Bionade“; 11.02.2008http://www.crossmedia-zentrum.de/cms/2008/02/11/oktober-2007-bionade/Dr Prof Zerr, K., „Marketing für Querdenker: Guerilla Marketing belebt die Werbung“, Innovativ In;02.04.2008 http://www.innovativ-in.de/p.2651.htmEicher, D., CEO, Robert & Horst Marketing / webguerillas, http://www.robertundhorst.de/v2/Emsdettener Volkszeitung, „Chefetage“ Interview with Peter Kowalsky“ , 03.04.2008Guerilla Marketing International, http://www.gmarketing.com/Guerilla Marketing Portal,„Guerilla Marketing Historie“, 2005 http://www.marketing.ch/wissen/sonderwerbeformen/guerilla_historie.pdf“Sensation Marketing / Ambient Stunt“, 2007http://www.guerilla-marketing-portal.de/index.cfm?linkArticleID=56„Guerilla Marketing Instrumente“ http://www.guerilla-marketing-portal.de/index.cfm?menuID=90Holzapfel, Felix, „Crossmedia – Guerilla Attack“, 10.05.2006http://guerillamarketingbuch.com/category/22-crossmedia/Kotler, P., Jain, D., Maesincee, S., “Marketing Moves: A New Approach to Profits, Growth, and Renewal”,Harvard Business School Press; 1st edition, 2002Kotler, P., Wong, V., Saunders, J., Armstrong, G., “Principles of Marketing”, Pearson Education PrenticeHall, 4th European Edition; 2005,Levinson, J. C., “Guerrilla Marketing: Easy and Inexpensive Strategies for Making Big Profits from YourSmall Business”, Houghton Mifflin Company; 4th edition, 2007   IX  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 51. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Maeder, R., CEO, Maeder & Partner Agentur am Wasser, http://www.agenturamwasser.chMarketing Partner, „Werbung im Tarnanzug - Warum Unternehmen auf neue Werbeformen setzen“;19.09.2006http://www.marketingpartner.de/presse/presseinformationen/info-ar-chiv/2006/?tx_mininews_pi1%5BshowUid%5D=192&tx_mininews_pi1%5Bpointer%5D=0&cHash=f2cdd5459fMSN News, http://news.de.msn.com/wirtschaft/Article.aspx?cp-documentid=5104158Radio Marketing Service, http://www.rms.de/bionade/Reich, I., „New York und Los Angeles warten auf Bionade“, Handelsblatt; ,8.11.2007http://www.handelsblatt.com/News/Karriere/Koepfe/_pv/_p/200811/_t/ft/_b/1349003/default.aspx/new-york-und-los-angeles-warten-auf-bionade.html  Ries, A.; Trout, J., „Marketing Generalstabsmäßig“, Hamburg 1986Robert&Horst Marketing GmbH,http://www.robertundhorst.de/v2/img/downloads/gfkstudie_2007.pdfSchulte, T., „Guerilla Marketing für Unternehmertypen. Das Kompendium" (Broschiert)Wissenschaft & Praxis; Auflage: 3., völlig überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage (Juni 2007)Guerilla-Marketing-Portal, www.guerilla-marketing-portal.dehttp://www.marketing.ch/wissen/sonderwerbeformen/guerilla_historie.pdfSchulz, I., Employee, Kolle & Rebbe WerbeagenturSeissler, H., „It’s all a matter of taste“, Atlantic Times; 08.2007http://www.atlantic-times.com/archive_detail.php?recordID=980Spiegel Online, tim/AP/AFP, „Guerilla-Werbung stürzt Boston ins Chaos“; 01.02.2007http://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,463661,00.htmlStreitz, M.,“Der König der Glückskekse”, Manager Magazin; 16.10.2003http://www.manager-magazin.de/koepfe/artikel/0,2828,269999,00.html„Vodafone und die Hintern der Rugby-Flitzer“, Spiegel Online; 05.08.2002   X  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 52. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  http://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,208279,00.htmlWebguerillas, http://www.webguerillas.de/knowhow_faq.phpWikipedia“Moorhuhn Computerspiel”http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moorhuhn_%28Computerspiel%29    XI  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 53. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Appendix1. Online Bionade Banner, Source: Cross Media Figure 7: Bionade Banner    XII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 54. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  2. Interview Questions Bionade1. Wie würden Sie Ihren Markt beschreiben?2. Wer ist Ihre Zielgruppe?3. Welche Marketingstrategie verfolgt Bionade?4. Fokussieren Sie sich dabei auf die Marke oder auf das Produkt? Und warum?5. Auf welches Image zielt ihr Marketing ab?6. Warum kaufen Konsumenten Ihrer Meinung nach Bionade?7. Wie wollen Sie Ihre Markenbekanntheit weiter ausbauen?8. Wie können Sie sich in Zukunft von verschärfter Nachahmerkonkurrenz als Original abheben?9. Was erwarten Sie von der anstehenden Produkterweiterung um eine Geschmacksrich- tung?10. Fragen zu Ihrer innovativen Markenkommunikation: I. Leuchtbotschafter Wo wurde er eingesetzt? Was war das Ziel? Wie war die Reaktion? II. Funk Werbung/ Plakate/ (stille-taten.de) Wurden diese Aktionen zeitgleich eingesetzt? Wo hangen die Plakate? Wo und wie oft wurden die Radiospots ausgestrahlt? Haben Sie gezielt absatzstarke Städte ausgesucht? Was war das Ziel? Wie war die Resonanz?11. Was war der Hauptgrund aus dem sich Bionade für Guerilla Marketing entschieden hat?12. Hat Bionade nur eine Guerilla Kampagne verfolgt?13. Was halten Sie von Guerilla Marketing in Kombination mit klassischen Werbemitteln wie z.B. TV und Print Werbung?14. Wird Guerilla Marketing auch ein Bestandteil des Marketing im Ausland sein, wenn Bio- nade weiter expandiert?15. Wo sehen Sie sich in 5 Jahren? Wie soll sich die Marke weiterentwickeln?   XIII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 55. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3. Interview Questions Experts1. Was ist Ihrer Meinung nach der Hauptgrund, warum sich Firmen heutzutage für Guerilla Marketing entscheiden?2. Ist die in den 80er Jahren von Levinson publizierte Guerilla Marketing Philosophie für kleinere Unternehmen in der heutigen Zeit noch so umsetzbar wie damals?3. Wie kann auch eine größere Firma die Guerilla Marketing Strategie heutzutage erfolgreich anwenden?4. Wie ist ein Guerilla Marketing Konzept auf internationaler Ebene realisierbar?5. Guerilla Marketing sollte der „Retter“ aus der Werbeflaute 2002 werden. Glauben Sie, dass Guerilla Marketing dieses Ziel erreicht hat? Wird dieser Trend noch lange anhalten oder wird hier eine Kundenübersättigung eintreten?6. Werden Konsumenten immer ablehnender gegenüber Werbebotschaften?7. Welche neuen Strategien werden Guerilla Marketing weiterentwickeln oder gar ablösen?8. Wie sollten Unternehmen Guerilla Marketing in Zukunft nutzen?   XIV  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 56. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  4. Consumer Questionnaire FRAGEBOGEN ZUM THEMA WERBUNG I. Bitte schauen Sie sich folgende Werbeaktion an: 1. Wie gefällt Ihnen diese Werbung? Sehr gut Gut Mittelmäßig Schlecht Sehr schlecht 2. Kennen Sie diese Werbeaktion? Ja Wenn ja: Wie haben Sie davon erfahren? Auf der Straße gesehen Medien (Internet, Zeitung) Mir wurde davon erzählt Sonstiges: ______ Nein Wenn nein: Würde diese Werbeaktion Ihnen auf der Straße ins Auge fallen? Ja ganz sicher Vielleicht Nein Wahrscheinlich ja Wahrscheinlich nicht 3. Würden Sie Familienmitgliedern oder Freunden gezielt davon erzählen? Ja ganz sicher Vielleicht Nein Wahrscheinlich ja Wahrscheinlich nicht 4. Erkennen Sie diese Marke? Ja, mir fällt aber der Name nicht ein Ja, die Marke heißt:________________ Nein 5. Was assoziieren Sie mit dieser Marke? _______________________________ 6. Haben Sie dieses Produkt schon mal gekauft? Ja, regelmäßig Nein   XV  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 57. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Ja, gelegentlich Nein, aber nach dieser Werbung kaufe ich vielleicht Ja, selten II. Bitte schauen Sie sich folgende Werbeaktion der Schweizer Fluggesellschaft Swiss Air an, die eine Woche lang in Hamburg, Berlin und Stuttgart durchgeführt wurde.1. Wie gefällt Ihnen diese Werbung? Sehr gut Gut Mittelmäßig Schlecht Sehrschlecht2. Kennen Sie diese Werbeaktion?Ja Wenn ja: Wie haben Sie davon erfahren? Auf der Straße gesehen Medien (Internet, Zeitung) Mir wurde davon erzählt Sonstiges: ______Nein Wenn nein: Würde diese Werbeaktion Ihnen auf der Straße ins Auge fallen? Ja ganz sicher Vielleicht Nein Wahrscheinlich ja Wahrscheinlich nicht3. Würden Sie Familienmitgliedern oder Freunden gezielt davon erzählen? Ja ganz sicher Vielleicht Nein Wahrscheinlich ja Wahrscheinlich nicht4. Würde diese Werbung Sie veranlassen weitere Informationen über das Angebot einzuho-len?  XVI BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 58. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Ja Nein5. Kennen Sie Swiss Air? Ja Nein6. Was assoziieren Sie mit dieser Marke? ____________________________7. Haben Sie schon mal einen Flug bei Swiss Air gebucht? Ja, regelmäßig Nein Ja, gelegentlich Nein, aber nach dieser Werbung buche ich Ja, selten vielleicht III. Bitte schauen Sie sich folgendes Werbeplakat an: Nun hören sie sich den Radiospot an! Öffnen Sie dazu folgenden Link: Bionade Radiospot (STRG Taste drücken und gleichzeitig auf den Link klicken)1. Wie gefällt Ihnen dieser Radiospot? Sehr gut Gut Mittelmäßig Schlecht Sehr schlecht2. Kennen Sie diesen Radiospot?Ja Wenn ja: Wie haben Sie davon erfahren? Im Radio gehört Medien (Internet, Zeitung) Mir wurde davon erzählt Sonstiges: ______  XVII BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 59. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                 Nein Wenn nein: Würden Sie bei diesem Radiospot aktiv zuhören? Ja ganz sicher Vielleicht Nein Wahrscheinlich ja Wahrscheinlich nicht3. Würden Sie Familienmitgliedern oder Freunden gezielt davon erzählen? Ja ganz sicher Vielleicht Nein Wahrscheinlich ja Wahrscheinlich nicht4. Kennen Sie Bionade? Ja Nein5. Was assoziieren Sie mit dieser Marke? ___________________________6. Haben Sie Bionade schon mal gekauft? Ja, regelmäßig Nein Ja, gelegentlich Nein, aber nach dieser Werbung kaufe ich viel-leicht Ja, seltenBitte schätzen Sie sich ein.1. Würden Sie von sich behaupten, dass Sie durch Werbung beeinflusst werden? Ja ganz sicher Wahrscheinlich ja Vielleicht Eher weniger Nein2. Wo nehmen Sie Werbung besonders stark wahr?Bewerten Sie bitte den wichtigsten“ Wahrnehmungsort“ mit 1 und den zweitwichtigsten mit 2. TV Plakate Events (z.B.Sportveranstaltungen) Zeitung/Magazine Internet auf Werbegeschenken Radio Durch E-Mails Sonstige: _________3. Gehen Sie Werbung gezielt aus dem Weg, z.B. einem Werbeblock im TV? Ja immer Meistens Gelegentlich Eher selten Nie4. Welche Faktoren der Werbung erzielen Ihre Aufmerksamkeit? Aufmachung Inhalt Ort der Werbung Ansprache (Direkt) Sonstige:___________5. Angenommen Sie haben die Auswahl zwischen zwei identischen Produkten (auch preis-lich), wie entscheidend wäre die Geschichte, Größe und Auftreten der Firma?  XVIII BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 60. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Sehr wichtig Wichtig Eher unwichtig Spielt keine Rolle6. Was beeinflusst Ihre Kaufentscheidung?Bewerten Sie bitte die wichtigste Eigenschaft mit 1, die unwichtigste Eigenschaft mit 2. Image/Ruf Ansprechende Verpackung Preis Werbung Rat von Freunden/Familie Qualität Sonstige:______7. Welche Worte assoziieren Sie am ehesten mit Werbung? Einfallsreich Informativ Penetrant Nervend Humorvoll Sonsti-ge:_________8. Welche Attribute treffen am ehesten auf sie zu?Bitte wählen Sie eins der zwei gegenübergestellten Wörter aus.a. Spontankäufer oder Gewohnheitskäuferb. Preisorientiert oder Qualitätsorientiertc. Markenprodukt oder Produkt ohne Marke IV. Persönliche Angaben1. Geschlecht: Männlich Weiblich2. Alter: 12 - 17 18 - 22 23 - 28 29 - 35 Vielen Dank für Ihre Mithilfe!  XIX BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  • 61. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  5. AIDA Model   Figure 8: AIDA Model   Source:http://www.provenmodels.com/files/123ef9407d8e6d92371d23abbff78ac3/aida‐sales‐ funnel.gif    XX  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 

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