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Gurielaa

  1. 1. GUERILLAMARKETING How and by whom are the evolved success factors of the Guerilla Marketing philosophy from the 1980s used today and do they stand a chance in the business future? Literature based thesis for attaining the Bachelor of Business Administration Degree at Saxion University in Enschede1st Examiner: Drs. P. de Heus2nd Examiner: Dhr. R. WierdaStudy Course: International Business and Management StudiesStudents: Anna Drüing Katharina Fahrenholz Isendorf 77 Kalanderplein 1-2 48282 Emsdetten 7511HX Enschede Germany The NetherlandsTimeframe: February – June 2008
  2. 2. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Table of ContentList of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………..IVExecutive Summary……………………………………………………………………………………...VMethodology…………………………………………………………………………………………...VII1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 12. When did Guerilla Marketing appear and how did it develop?....................................... 3 2.1. Roots of Modern Guerilla Marketing ................................................................................ 3 2.1.1. Terminology of Guerilla.................................................................................................................. 3 2.1.2. “Guerilla” enters Marketing ............................................................................................................ 4 2.1.3. Guerilla Marketing Philosophers..................................................................................................... 43. How is Guerilla Marketing defined and used today? ...................................................... 7 3.1. What is Guerilla Marketing? .............................................................................................. 7 3.1.1. Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 7 3.1.2. Technological Development ........................................................................................................... 8 3.1.3. Uniformity vs. Creativity ................................................................................................................ 8 3.2. Guerilla Marketing Instruments ...................................................................................... 10 3.2.1. Out-of-Home Weapons ................................................................................................................. 10 3.2.2. Ambient Marketing ....................................................................................................................... 11 3.2.3. Guerilla Sensation ......................................................................................................................... 11 3.2.4. Ambush Marketing........................................................................................................................ 12 3.2.5. New Media Weapons .................................................................................................................... 13 3.2.6. Viral Marketing............................................................................................................................. 13 3.2.7. Guerilla Mobile ............................................................................................................................. 14 3.2.8. Low Budget Weapons ................................................................................................................... 14 3.3. Guerilla Marketing in the Marketing Mix ...................................................................... 15 3.3.1. Guerilla Promotion (70%)............................................................................................................. 16 3.3.2. Guerilla Pricing (10%) .................................................................................................................. 16 3.3.3. Guerilla Distributing (Place 10%)................................................................................................. 17 3.3.4. Guerilla Producting (10%) ............................................................................................................ 18 3.4. User Profile ......................................................................................................................... 18   II  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  3. 3. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   3.5. Case Study: Bionade .......................................................................................................... 20 3.5.1. Company Profile ........................................................................................................................... 20 3.5.2. Guerilla Marketing Campaign....................................................................................................... 22 3.5.2.1. Implementation.................................................................................................................... 22 3.5.2.2. Result................................................................................................................................... 26 3.6. Obstacles of Guerilla Marketing ...................................................................................... 274. How is Guerilla Marketing perceived today?................................................................. 28 4.1. Customer Perception of Guerilla Marketing................................................................... 28 4.1.1. Survey ........................................................................................................................................... 28 4.1.1.1. Purpose ................................................................................................................................ 28 4.1.1.2. Structure of the Questionnaire ............................................................................................. 28 4.1.1.3. Sample Selection ................................................................................................................. 29 4.1.1.4. Limitations........................................................................................................................... 30 4.1.1.5. Evaluation............................................................................................................................ 30 4.1.1.6. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 34 4.1.2. Expert opinion............................................................................................................................... 34 4.1.2.1. Guerilla Marketing Today ................................................................................................... 35 4.1.2.2. Future of Guerilla Marketing............................................................................................... 37 4.1.2.3. Conclusion: Future Advice .................................................................................................. 375. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 39List of References ………………………………………………………………………..….IXAppendix……………………………………………………………………………….…...XII   III  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  4. 4. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  List of FiguresFigure 1: Guerilla Marketing Weapon Categories............................................................................................... 10Figure 2: Marketing Mix....................................................................................................................................... 15Figure 3: WMF Promotion ................................................................................................................................... 16Figure 4: Kellogs Drink n Crunch ....................................................................................................................... 18Figure 5: Out-of-home, Bionade Poster ............................................................................................................... 23Figure 6: Bionade Leuchtbotschafter ................................................................................................................... 24Figure 7: Bionade Banner ................................................................................................................................... XIIFigure 8: AIDA Model ..........................................................................................................................................XX   IV  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  5. 5. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Executive SummaryGuerilla Marketing – an alternative marketing form that has been experiencing increasingimportance in the advertising landscape, ever since customers are besieged with classicalmarketing communication via the traditional channels TV, Magazines, Radio and DirectMail. Guerilla Marketing is a brilliant idea, involving the customer in a surprising, unconven-tional marketing activity.  The term “Guerilla” (battle) roots back to the war of independence in Spain and Portugal, therevolution in Cuba, and the Vietnamese War. Here “Guerilla” stood for an attack strategybased on the surprise effect and on acts of sabotage, which was used by smaller groups thatstood against a massive military force. In the 1960’s US firms brought the “Guerilla” tacticsto Marketing, when they needed new ways to outdo competitors. Then they merely attackedweak points of competitors by implementing preliminary injunctions for their campaigns forinstance.  Only in 1983 did Jay Conrad Levinson make the term “Guerilla Marketing” known as a phi-losophy for small and start-up companies to successfully market their business with a smallamount of money. He based the success of a marketing strategy on the use of non-traditionalmarketing channels, customer proximity, insistency, and patience. Through the drastic tech-nological development until today and its complimentary change in the advertising market,Guerilla Marketing has developed into a marketing form mostly used for Promotion thesedays. New forms such as Ambush and Viral Marketing have evolved.The evolved Guerilla Marketing form is now used by companies of all sizes; Global Playerssuch as BMW use it, and start-up companies do so to create brand awareness. How this isactually done in practice, is illustrated by the case study of the soft drink producer BionadeCorporation in Germany, displaying various facets of the Guerilla Marketing principle.  How such Guerilla Marketing activities are perceived by the actual prospect was researchedthrough a customer survey. In fact a majority of the respondents stated that such advertise-ments do catch their attention and interest, whereas they consciously avoid traditional mar-keting as for instance TV advertisement. So Guerilla Marketing can find a way to actually   V  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  6. 6. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  reach the customer, at least in the first two steps of the AIDA Model1. This great potential ofthe Guerilla Marketing was confirmed by Marketing Experts in the course of an interview.They could imagine that the traditional Marketing Channels such as TV and magazine, whowill also be at the forefront in the future, will take over characteristics of Guerilla Marketingin order to actually reach the customer.    Financially strong companies should use Guerilla Marketing as a complimentary tool to pre-sent the brand in a multimodal way. Smaller firms can make use of the cost-effective strategyto get the spotlight on their brand. Good co-operation with for instance the Public Relationsdepartment is essential to increase the Guerilla Marketing effect enormously.  However its potential is used, it has to be done cleverly to stand out from the 3000 advertis-ing messages a day with which today’s consumer is flooded. Guerilla Marketing will adaptwith the customers, find ways to surprise them and interest them by putting the idea in theforefront, not the brand.                                                          1  Appendix: AIDA model    VI  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  7. 7. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  MethodologyOur research is based on diverse research methods in order to gain as many different perspec-tives on the topic as possible. Therefore we used primary as well as secondary data collectionin combination with desk and field research.  Our first part concerning the history and development of Guerilla Marketing has a theoreticalbackground. Since Guerilla Marketing has became popular recently, only very few authorshave written books about the topic so far. Therefore we believe that one of the best sourcesfor those research questions are the books and publications of the marketer Jay Conrad Lev-inson, titled the “The Father of Guerrilla Marketing”2 , who spread the knowledge of theGuerilla concept in the 1980’s and has updated his editions until today. Al Ries’ and JackTrout’s perception of Guerilla Marketing, as well as Philip Kotler were taken into account.  For further analysis of the development of Guerilla Marketing secondary data such as arti-cles, publications, and examples of activities were used. We also utilized selected case stud-ies to underline our theoretical findings, especially on the example of Bionade.  As a foundation for our section about the current use of Guerilla we used input from Market-ing newspapers, trade journals and other publications. However, since journalists just startedto pay attention to this trend, we analyzed numerous Guerilla Marketing activities to formu-late conclusions.  For the conclusion of our report we wanted to find an answer concerning the future perspec-tive of Guerilla Marketing. In order to bring additional objectiveness to our report we alsoincluded the results from expert interviews as well as from a customer survey.  One of the qualitative interviews will be held with Bionade Product Manager Christian Rath.Bionade successfully used the Guerilla Marketing approach in the past. Furthermore we werein contact with some Marketing professionals that already worked with Guerilla Marketingand showed interest in our work. They shared their experiences, opinions, and their publica-                                                   2  Guerilla Marketing International      VII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  8. 8. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  tions on rather subjective questions for which the answers could not be found in public arti-cles.  Since we believe that the future of Guerilla Marketing will also be strongly determined bythe current perspective and perception of the customers, we conducted a questionnaire thatgave us some interesting insights into the perception of traditional and alternative marketingforms.   VIII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  9. 9. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  1. IntroductionGuerilla Marketers can get you anywhere – on your way home from work, in the car, bus andtrain, on the streets, strolling or relaxing at a café terrace, in front of your house, or at majorevents. It is like love: You will find it at the moment you do not expect it at all! And at themoment you notice the advertisement and start thinking about its message they have whatthey want – your attention and interest.Guerilla Marketing distinguishes itself from other promotion tools by its surprise effect and ithas become a very popular marketing strategy in current times. The name “Guerilla” origi-nally describes a group that uses a violent approach to achieve the implementation of theirbeliefs and ideology. Their opponents are often a tremendous force consisting of more peopleand even of more resources such as weapons or money. The Guerilla fighter’s only advan-tage is the fact that only they know where and when they will strike.The original approach of Guerilla Marketing is an alternative marketing strategy that suitssmall and medium-sized companies to act like the Guerilla fighters have in the past: hit vul-nerable targets of larger enemies by taking them by surprise. The unexpected and unusualGuerilla Marketing campaigns helped smaller companies to  successfully reach their targetgroup, even though their bigger market competitors had a larger marketing budget, more ex-perience, and a better spread to advance the market by using traditional marketing strategies.Many small and medium-sized companies started with Guerilla Marketing and establishedtheir business lucratively. Through constant growth rates they have the means to also affordtraditional marketing tools to gain more and more market share, continuing to attack themarket leaders.Those accomplishments drew the attention of larger companies to Guerilla Marketing. Nowthis alternative approach is used by companies of all sizes. Various agencies have specializedin developing Guerilla strategies. Within the advertising branch it is almost something like aremedy that every business can use successfully.   1  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  10. 10. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  This development leads to some interesting questions: Is this trend going to continue? Will all companies be able to use it in the future? Will customers still be surprised and show the desirable reactions even though many companies already use Guerilla Marketing today? Do small companies have a chance with their Guerilla Marketing approach when lar- ger companies are willing to spend a fortune on their Guerilla Marketing activities?This report gives an insight into the origin of Guerilla Marketing as being a tool for small tomedium-sized companies to achieve large impacts with little resources. Further it will showits development, focusing on the current market situation, where many Big Players use thisalternative method as well. The conclusion will answer the question if the developed conceptof Guerilla Marketing can also be successfully applied in the future.   2  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  11. 11. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  2. When did Guerilla Marketing appear and how did it develop?2.1. Roots of Modern Guerilla Marketing2.1.1. Terminology of GuerillaThe term “Guerilla” first appeared during the war of independence in Spain and Portugal atthe beginning of the 19th century. It is a Spanish expression which can be translated as “bat-tle”. Guerilla stands for a combat operation that was used by smaller groups that stoodagainst a massive military force.The term and the connected operations became famous through Ernesto Che Guevara Lynchde la Serna (1928 – 1967), best known as Che Guevara, who used and defined this militarytactic. He belonged to a small militia group which wanted to put their political conceptthrough. They were clearly in the weaker position and their only chance to achieve a success-ful revolution in Cuba was to fight the national military. Since Che Guevara and his follow-ers did not possess as many resources such as weapons, money, or fighters as their oppo-nents, they based their operations on the surprise effect and on acts of sabotage. Due to theirsize they had the advantage of being more flexible, having a quicker coordination and know-ing the territory better. The usage of unconventional weapons and activities helped them todestabilize their rivals and led them to their final success.Che Guevara defined and shaped basic principles for his fighters and summarized them in thebook “Guerilla Warfare” that he wrote in 1961. These are the most important elements thatcan be pointed out: • Ultimate goal: victory over the enemy • Usage of surprise effects • Tactical superiority3During the 1960’s the United States of America faced major difficulties in the Vietnam War.Even though Vietnam was theoretically much weaker, the US were not able to bring the en-emy down. Especially the Vietcong force was unbeatable, because they used the Guerillatactics that destabilized the American forces constantly. The Vietcong’s operations were                                                   3  Guerilla Marketing Portal    3  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  12. 12. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  similar to Che Guevara’s activities. They also used the surprise effect, were much moreflexible than their enemies, fought on Vietnamese territory, and used unusual means. Thiswas the first time that Americans got to know the principles of Guerilla.2.1.2. “Guerilla” enters MarketingAt the same time America’s marketing experts were looking for new approaches to gain theattention of customers. The consumer’s behaviour had changed and businesses had to comeup with offers that fit their consumers’ needs and not only their own. Consequently market-ing experts had to find realizable concepts for businesses with limited resources; somethingthat lets one company stand out in the crowd.The only promising way was to use an anti-marketing concept that included attrition and at-tack strategies in order to gain as much attention as possible and to weaken competitors con-siderably. This was not only realized by aggressive marketing efforts, but also through legalmeans such as preliminary injunctions for campaigns of competitors. 42.1.3. Guerilla Marketing PhilosophersLevinsonOf course Guerilla Marketing did not conquer the marketing world over night. The new strat-egy needed some years to develop and to become an integral part of business strategies. Dur-ing the 1980s the US market was flooded with 11 million new founded companies. 10.8 mil-lion of them were small-sized companies that needed a strategy to fight their bigger competi-tors with a small budget. In order to make the Guerilla idea accessible to everybody Jay Con-rad Levinson defined the root idea in his book “Guerrilla Marketing” in 1983. His publica-tions provided not only an explanation of the essential marketing ideas, but also a philosophyfor small business owners who wanted to follow the Guerilla Marketing idea. He introducednew ways of advertising and presenting a business well with a small budget and based thesuccess of a marketing strategy on the use of non-traditional marketing channels, customerproximity, insistency, and patience. A company should create as many points of contact withcustomers and prospects as possible in order to stay in their memory. He further believed thata long-lasting campaign will bring the desired competitive advantage.                                                   4  Schulte    4  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  13. 13. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Levinson’s book explains the basic pillars of Guerilla Marketing in a simple way and madehim the “Father of Guerilla Marketing”. It was sold over 1 million times and translated into37 languages. Updated versions of the book are released every few years. The revised pas-sages mainly deal with new technologies and marketing channels that change over the yearsand offer new possibilities.5Ries/TroutOnly three years after Levinson released his first edition in 1983, the American Marketingexperts Al Ries and Jack Trout specified the root idea of Levinson, but they also developedsome opposed elements. Like Levinson, Trout and Ries believed that Guerilla marketing bestsuits small and medium-sized companies. Trout pointed out that the market size also has tobe manageable with the limited and available resources. Therefore he suggests specializingand investing in a niche product and/or market niche.In general small business owners should use their advantageous flexibility even more. BothRies and Trout suggest that a small business should try to use every product and/or marketniche that becomes available and furthermore not hesitate to change their approach in casethey believe that another strategy would be more profitable. Therefore insistency and pa-tience is not one of the essential elements anymore like it was in Levinson’s opinion. Fur-thermore Ries emphasized that a lean organizational structure with a centralized top man-agement makes it easier for a growing company to continue to save costs and to keep theirflexibility.6KotlerThe marketing expert Kotler also analysed the Guerilla tactics in the 1990s. Kotler suggeststhat such a competitive strategy should be adopted by market challengers that try to increasetheir own profitability by gaining more market share from other companies in the same in-dustry. A competitive advantage over the challenged company is the foundation for a goodstrategy, but also involves high risks, especially when the potential gain is high, warns Kot-ler. Mainly smaller and financially weaker companies are then using an aggressive Guerillaattack. Such a campaign can even be a tool to fight the current market leader. Unlike Levin-                                                   5  Levinson  6  Ries; Trout    5  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  14. 14. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  son, Ries, and Trout, Kotler believes that the main purpose of Guerilla Marketing is to desta-bilize the opponent – or best to destroy the competitors with the help of attrition tactics. 7                                                   7  Kotler, Wong, Saunders, Armstrong    6  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  15. 15. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3. How is Guerilla Marketing defined and used today?3.1. What is Guerilla Marketing?3.1.1. DefinitionAround the globe, marketing experts, researchers, and discoverers eagerly try to find the all-embracing description of Guerilla Marketing, since no official definition of the term exists sofar. Many explanations have thus been created and even though they vary in their wording,they mostly have the following characteristics of Guerilla Marketing in common: Creative,unconventional, surprising and efficient.8Guerilla Marketing is a marketing strategy, nowadays predominantly used for the MarketingMix “P” Promotion.9 It is a marketing form, which involves the consumer in the advertisingexperience. Guerilla Marketing campaigns display creative ideas dynamically with uncon-ventional methods at places where advertising would be least expected. The aim is to irritate,fascinate, and animate the consumer. The surprise effect belongs to the root philosophy. It isadvisable not to repeat a Guerilla action as it might not be surprising anymore, but ratherannoying. Guerilla Marketing should stand out from the saturated advertising landscape bybeing fun and not bothersome. Classical marketing communication via TV commercials,Newspaper Ads, Radio Spots,  and Direct Mail does not really excite the customer anymore.Unconventional forms on the other hand can accomplish excitement. Guerilla Marketing,Viral Marketing, and Word-of-Mouth Marketing are concepts that gain rising importance,especially through one increasingly important marketing channel: the Internet.Significant for Guerilla Marketing is to reach maximum customer attention with minimalcosts. It is central to emphasize the brand’s strengths and minimize its weaknesses in order toattack competitors. Thereby the Guerilla Marketing strategy is based on imagination, uncon-ventionality, and flexibility instead of market power, enterprise size, and marketing budgets.A false conclusion would be to think that the lower budget means the Guerilla marketingactivities require less effort. The involvement for successful Guerilla Marketing is high. En-ergy and time are the main ingredients.                                                   8  Guerilla Marketing Portal  9  Bieri; Handschin; Siegenthaler; Spycher    7  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  16. 16. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  So far the beginning and the current definition of Guerilla Marketing was described. In the1980s it was seen as an integral part of the business strategy, while now in the 21st century itis mainly a communication strategy. The following part will link the two sides and explainwhat influenced the Guerilla Marketing to develop to its current usage.3.1.2. Technological Development“Markets today are changing fast. Price-sensitive customers, new competitors, new distribu-tion channels, new communication channels, the Internet, wireless commerce, globalization,deregulation, privatization… the list goes on. And it is not only markets that are changing,but the technologies that support them: e-commerce, e-mail, mobile phones, fax machines,sales, and marketing automation, cable TV, videoconferencing. It is imperative that compa-nies think through the revolutionary impact of these new technologies.“10These developments have changed for instance the way customers behave. Increasing trans-parency through the internet enables buyers to acquire product information, compare themdirectly with competitors, and easily make worldwide purchases. Businesses adapt their pro-cedures according to the market and technology development. Especially in Marketing inno-vative ways of promoting products and brands have come up. An example are blogs, pod-and nanocasting in the online marketing scene. Within these developments Guerilla Market-ing experienced increasing importance since more and more businesses demand practice ori-ented solutions for short term results.11 In times of globalisation the competitive pressure ishigh and the free market economy is tough. Marketing has to carry out more and more taskswith tight budgets. Thereby it is a thin line between annoying and attracting customers.3.1.3. Uniformity vs. CreativityIt was always the aim of marketers to attract new customers and to keep the existing custom-ers loyal, but since the market and the environment have changed so immensely, the way toget through to the customer has also changed. During the 1980s marketers – among them JayC. Levinson with his Guerilla Marketing strategy – supported the belief that prospects haveto be exposed to the same marketing message as often as possible. Research showed thatpeople need to see an advertisement up to 13 times before they understand what the product                                                   10  Kotler, Jain, Maesincee  11  Levinson, 2007    8  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  17. 17. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  is and that it can be beneficial for them. Consequently business owners were urged to publi-cise their name, logo, and message at every possible opportunity. To take the early forms ofGuerilla Marketing as an example, small companies had over 200 different marketing weap-ons that allowed them to catch their customers’ attention over and over again. Furthermore achosen strategy had to be kept for a long period even if it did not bring the desired successimmediately. Levinson motivated this guideline with the fact that only a certain number ofexposures can bring the customer to a final purchase. Simply put, Marketing takes time andconsequently business owners have to wait. A hasty change in strategy would reset the cus-tomers mind and the invested time and money would have been wasted. 12Even though the explanation sounds logical it is not realizable anymore today. The marketand the environment change rapidly and all companies try to get the attention of the customeras often as possible. As a result every customer is confronted with 3000 sales messages everyday. What makes it even worse is the fact that advertising messages from the same compa-nies are repeated several times a day – up to 50 times. Companies achieved what theywanted. Customers cannot go anywhere without being swamped with advertising. Unfortu-nately customers are not interested in such classical marketing communication like they usedto be. Consequently they do not perceive and remember the message afterwards. Of coursefor businesses this is a very costly activity that does not bring the desired success.13Still companies all over the world invest billions in traditional activities, which are often notaffordable for smaller companies. The solution is a cost-effective marketing form that standsout in the crowd of advertisings and catches the attention of the customer even in the rapidlychanging marketing world of today. Marketers always have to come up with new ideas tospotlight their brand and protect the surprise effect of every Guerilla Marketing activity. Inthe end the surprise effect can create the most positive reaction from the customer. The aim isto create more brand awareness. The aspects of Guerilla Marketing also fit these needs oftoday - away from uniformity and insistency towards creativity and flexibility.                                                   12  Levinson  13  Marketing Partner    9  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  18. 18. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.2. Guerilla Marketing InstrumentsOver the years Guerilla Marketing has developed and created many forms, so called weap-ons. These weapons should support the root philosophy of Guerilla Marketing which entailscreative, witty inspiration. As we know Guerilla Marketing is a dynamic way to create brandawareness. Done with simple tools those actions should be spectacular and clever to catch theattention of a certain target group.To get an overall picture of the potential of Guerilla Marketing weapons we have classifiedthem by categories: Out-of-Home, New Media, and Low Budget Weapons. Again no officialdefinition exists, but the following distinction by experts of Guerilla Marketing Portal (GMP)has been build up logically and is therefore referred to in this paper14: Guerilla Marketing Weapons Out-of-Home Weapons New Media Weapons Low Budget Weapons Ambient Marketing Viral Marketing Clever ideas for small and Guerilla Sensation Guerilla Mobile medium-sized companies Ambush Marketing Figure 1: Guerilla Marketing Weapon Categories 3.2.1. Out-of-Home WeaponsAs the name “out-of-home” suggests, these weapons refer to marketing activities that areactually realised at public locations. At best it does not only catch the interest of people whopass by, but media interest as well. Newspaper reports about the action can create extra pub-licity for the advertised company and stimulates that people talk about the product. The ex-pansion of brand awareness is the aim. The most successful weapons in the category out-of-home are Guerilla Sensation, Ambient Media, and Ambush Marketing.                                                   14  Guerilla Marketing Portal    10  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  19. 19. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.2.2. Ambient MarketingThe term became well-known  in the 1990s. Ambient Media refers to non-traditional out-of-home advertising. While other out-of-home Marketers advertise on large-scale billboards,ambient advertisements are posted on manhole covers, cranes, pizza cartons, free postcardsin bars and so on. They are all a little more unusual displays. Until today newer ambient me-dia have come up, such as messages on large-format screens in subways or handles of su-permarket trolleys. There are no limits to formats there.15The American Mark Hughes had what is probably one of the most profitable ideas concern-ing the placement of an advertisement. He used the blank backside of the fortune cookie slipsgiven out in Chinese restaurants for an advertising message. These – in production cheap -marketing messages reached 7 million restaurant guests in one week and were therefore veryprofitable. Mark Hughes has been able to make a lot of money by selling this noticed adver-tising space to companies. 16The important aspect is to seek out the target group at their preferred location in an entertain-ing way. Ambient Marketing tries to approach the customer individually through the place ofcontact. Some experts claim that Ambient Marketing does not belong to Guerilla Marketing,since it does not fulfil the typical characteristics of being surprising and dynamic. IndeedAmbient is more static, one-sided marketing. Still it can also be a medium with good poten-tial to bring attention to a brand or product in a creative way.3.2.3. Guerilla SensationGuerilla Sensation is very similar to Ambient Marketing. Therefore it is easier to show thedifference. As described above, Ambient Marketing positions advertising at unusual places.Hereby the main focus is not necessarily on the idea, but on the advertising space itself. Peo-ple are confronted with advertisements where and when they do not expect it.In general Guerilla Sensation works with the same principle, but it is only used on a verylimited number of events and activities. The number of prospects that are exposed to the ad-vertisement is therefore relatively small compared to a few million people that might get in                                                   15  Webguerillas  16  Streitz    11  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  20. 20. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  contact with an Ambient Marketing campaign as the example of the Fortune Cookies de-scribed above. But such Guerilla Sensation actions can gain further, non-regional attention bymaking it to the media. Often newspapers are looking for extraordinary, unusual pictures,which are often delivered by Guerilla Sensation activities. Through good Public Relationscontroversial or very original Guerilla ideas of a brand can be a widely discussed issue in themedia as well.Of course the line between Ambient Marketing and Guerilla Sensation is thin. Some GuerillaSensation activities become an Ambient Marketing activity, because modern technologiesspread the message. Guerilla Sensation characteristics are those described in the GuerillaMarketing definition. 173.2.4. Ambush MarketingAmbush means attack out of the blue, reminding at the Guerilla Attacks from Che Guevara.It stands for a sneaky out-of-home marketing method, which promotes a brand at huge eventswithout paying a sponsorship fee. At many major events one brand of a particular categorypays a high price to be the exclusive sponsor, which leaves their competitors be left in thedark. Ambush Marketers then still find a way to make notice of their brand in connectionwith the event, since it attracts the attention of thousands of visitors and even viewers on TV.Pepsi for instance placed a huge oversize Pepsi bottle close to a soccer game which wassponsored by Coca Cola. Giving out company material on a fair without having a stand isalso Ambush Marketing. The legal boundaries can be thin as Vodafone experienced in Aus-tralia in 2002. The rugby match between the All Blacks from New Zealand and the Wallabiesfrom Australia was interrupted by two naked streakers whose bodies were painted with Vo-dafone logos. The bizarre details unsheathed the wrongful behaviour of Vodafone. The CEOof the Australian Vodafone division knew that something provocative would happen andagreed to the proposal of an anonymous caller. He even agreed to take care of all arisingcosts and legal issues. Furthermore Vodafone was the sponsor of the participating Australianteam, but his main competitor Telstra gave the arena its name. Apart from the legal difficul-ties that Vodafone had to face, the success of the campaign was arguable, since the matchmight have been influenced by the interruption and upset many fans.18                                                   17  Guerilla Marketing Portal  18  Spiegel online    12  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  21. 21. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.2.5. New Media WeaponsNew technologies change our lives and they often make it easier due to mobile phones, inter-net, unlimited information, and shopping possibilities that enable customers to access theresources of the world with a click on the computer mouse. Of course this also gives busi-nesses the possibility to use the advantages that technology provides. Two very strong in-struments that use the modern possibilities are described below: Viral Marketing and GuerillaMobile.3.2.6. Viral MarketingViral Marketing is a very important weapon of Guerilla Marketing. The beginning of ViralMarketing in Germany is often linked to the computer game “Johnnie Walker Moorhuhn”,where the player gets to shoot grouses (German: “Moorhuhn”) in the Scottish highlands. Thegame was developed to promote the Scotch Whiskey brand Johnnie Walker in the Germangastronomy sector. In 1999 it was shown in some German bars and then offered as a freedownload on the internet. Unexpectedly the game became so popular that people of all agesactively played it. The clue which makes this example Viral Marketing is that the game play-ers recommended “Moorhuhn” to friends by forwarding the link or by word-of-mouth. Thegame downloads had exponentially increased within a very short time and the brand nameJohnnie Walker was spread free of charge to millions of individuals.19This example vividly shows how successful Viral Marketing can be. The idea is to get anadvertising message to as many contacts as possible and as fast as possible. This is realisedby human multipliers who are animated to pass the message along for free. The challenge fora Viral Marketer is to build a motivation in a message for people to spread it. If that is suc-cessful, the snowball effect starts and the potential for the viral message’s exposure and in-fluence is produced. The message rapidly spreads, similar to the way email jokes and soft-ware viruses are sent around to the online community. It has to be mentioned that Viral Mar-keting is not a computer virus, it is harmless.Encouraging people to pass the message along to others for free is an art. A personalised message or a motivational prize are often successful tools. In any way, the campaigns shouldbe smart and extraordinary, since a conventional advertisement might not be accepted and                                                   19  Wikipedia    13  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  22. 22. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  spread. Winning is often the usage of sex, humour, scandal, and provocation. In the B2B sec-tor downloadable White Papers are doing well.The Viral Marketing concept is not dependent on a certain media. Communication betweentwo persons has always existed in various ways. Then the message often spread by word-of-mouth, but through the internet Viral Marketing has experienced a boom. The impact, cover-age, and pace that this media offers today is astonishing.Especially Hotmail is often mentioned as the showcase for Viral Marketing. This free emailservice by Microsoft was one of the first to gain remarkably from Viral Marketing. Hotmail’sbrand awareness and market share increased rapidly, when they started to add a frank mes-sage to the footer of all E-Mails sent out by Hotmail users. For example : “Join the worlds 20largest free e-mail service with MSN Hotmail. http://www.hotmail.com“. Hotmail users thusautomatically became sales promoters for their e-mail service provider. From its start in 1996to its 12 millionth user, hotmail only spend 500.000 US-Dollar on advertising, while com-petitors spent 20 Million US-Dollar and did not nearly manage to attract that many custom-ers. Other successful viral formats are for instance Facebook applications and viral videos onYouTube.3.2.7. Guerilla MobileNot only the PC offers unlimited possibilities to marketers. Since the number of mobile phones exceeds the number of inhabitants in many countries, the cell phone is a permanentcompanion of prospects. Therefore it was only a matter of time until marketers took the op-portunity to reach customers and prospects at any place at any time. The wireless connectionprovides the possibility to present marketing messages in different ways via SMS, MMS,Bluetooth, or Infrared.3.2.8. Low Budget WeaponsThis Weapon refers to Guerilla Marketing for new, small, and medium-sized companies, whoonly possess a small marketing budget. Like Levinson already pointed out in the 1980’s thatdoes not necessarily mean that those companies have a disadvantage compared to financiallystrong competitors. But since their capital is low, the top priority is to use it as efficiently as                                                   20  http://www.viz.co.nz/viral‐marketing.htm    14  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  23. 23. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  possible. Guerilla Marketing should put this into practice by focusing on the local culturewith its geographical, sportive, social network, its rituals, needs, habits, norms, traditions, andvalues. Clever ideas appear through unconventional methods which are supposed to catch theattention of the target group.3.3. Guerilla Marketing in the Marketing MixGuerilla Marketing changed over the years. In the past it was a business philosophy that in-fluenced all aspects of the business equally. Today Guerilla Marketing is often only used inthe form of a campaign. Companies often operate according to their traditional marketingphilosophy, but Guerilla Marketing for single campaigns is different. There the balance in themarketing mix shifts towards one of the 4 P’s. The figure 2 shows that 70% of the campaignsput their focus on promotion. The remaining 30% place their focus equally on price, place, and product.21 Marketing Mix Promotion Price Place Product 70 % 10% 10% 10%     Figure 2: Marketing MixThe following examples show campaigns where the focus is on one of the 4 P’s. Here it isessential to outline that sometimes only one of these 10% of the Marketing Mix are designedaccording to the Guerilla Marketing principles. The remaining 90% can belong to a tradi-tional Marketing approach.                                                   21  Bieri; Handschin; Siegenthaler; Spycher      15  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  24. 24. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.3.1. Guerilla Promotion (70%)In most cases Guerilla Marketing appears in the form of promotion. Even though GuerillaMarketing tries to be different than the traditional marketing strategies, it uses the samechannels to bring the message across such as public relations, advertising, sales promotion, ordirect mail as well as the specific instruments described before. Actually the possibilities donot have limits. The non-profit organization WMF supplies one of the numerous examples ofGuerilla Marketing promotion with its slogan: “save paper – save the planet”. Figure 3: WMF Promotion22 By pulling the paper towel out of the box, the level of the overall paper towel pile decreases.The user cannot only see the decreasing pile, but also the effects that the use of the papertowels has on the rain forests in South America. With this simple example WMF tries to redi-rect the attention of the user towards WMF’s interest to maintain the rain forests.3.3.2. Guerilla Pricing (10%)The focus of Guerilla Marketing strategies can also be pricing. Even though we live in aworld where prices play a big role within the purchase decision, only 10% of all Guerillaactivities focus on price. It describes a new way to differentiate itself from the rest of the                                                  22http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://minus3.ch/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2007/10/mini_guerilla_marketing_2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.minus3.ch/blog/&h=225&w=360&sz=116&hl=de&start=12&um=1&tbnid=g3DOMkCxNmw6nM:&tbnh=76&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dguerilla%2Bmarketing%2Bmini%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde%26lr%3D     16  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  25. 25. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  competition. A competitive offer is still a success factor for some campaigns as the followingwitty idea shows.Customers of the electronic retailer Media Markt were promised to get back their money ifthey bought TV’s before the Soccer European Championship in case that the German soccerteam won the tournament. Many people took the opportunity and bought one or more TV’s.In the end Germany did not even get into the final round and the customers did not receivetheir money back. Media Markt was the winner.3.3.3. Guerilla Distributing (Place 10%)The distribution of a product can also be a special experience for the customer. A good dis-tribution can boost sales tremendously. Even though books have a hard time to survive incompetition with to other media, the famous Harry Potter series  by J. K. Rowling showedthat even books can make the day of retailers and delivery services. Especially young readerswere waiting for the new book release and wanted to buy the book at the day of publication.Book shops, retailers, and delivery services in many countries offered customers to buy or toreceive the book at midnight in order to be one of the first to own the book. A lot of fanseven came in costumes to book stores to buy the first copies. Others were willing to pay extrato get the book delivered to their homes at midnight.   17  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  26. 26. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.3.4. Guerilla Producting (10%)Also the packaging, the form, and the brand can be a vehicle for Guerilla Marketing. Oneexample introduced Kellogg’s with its Drink ‘n Crunch cup shown in the picture below. Figure 4: Kellogs Drink nʹ Crunch23 The cup allows the customer to have cornflakes-to-go. The one-person-portion in the cuponly needs milk in addition to make it a snack that can be enjoyed not only at home. Thismakes the cornflakes an alternative to chocolate bars and other sweets.3.4. User ProfileIn the battle for customer attention small companies as well as Global Players want GuerillaMarketing to stand out from competitors in a cost-effective way. Thereby small companiesfocus on using a small budget, while big enterprises utilize Guerilla Marketing in combina-tion with classical advertising strategies to make branded goods a real experience.Guerilla Marketing is a solution for companies of all sizes and all budgets. The classical ver-sion of Guerilla Marketing that was mainly developed by Levinson is still usable for smalland medium-sized companies that are looking for a philosophy that fits their financial limita-                                                  23  http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.frederiksamuel.com/blog/images/bananaj.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.frederiksamuel.com/blog/category/packa-ging/page/2&h=462&w=450&sz=76&hl=de&start=43&um=1&tbnid=h64qrsAJSSAlKM:&tbnh=128&tbnw=125&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dguerilla%2Bpackaging%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN     18  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  27. 27. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  tions and high desires. Little tricks and years of experience make a successful start for acompany possible. On the other hand it is not only an alternative for smaller companies.Puma, Lycos, Vodafone, BMW: they all do it. Actually there is no size of company and nofield of industry that does not try to use the advantages of Guerilla Marketing. Even thoughthe budgets of the companies that use Guerilla Marketing vary widely, they all find a way toget through to their customers. Furthermore low-budget activities can be extended by puttingin more money than necessary, for example by placing advertisements in additional cities.Internationally the top 5 countries with the highest advertising expenditure are firstly theUSA, then China, Japan, UK, and on the fifth position Germany. Over the last 10 years ex-penditures in those countries have all risen tremendously, in China for instance by 1218%, inthe US by 53% and in Germany by 6%. Guerilla and Viral Marketing concepts are mostlyused in the US. In Germany 35% of the companies use unconventional advertising forms.The outcome of a Robert&Horst24 research was that 46% of the top 3000 Marketing DecisionMakers in Germany have or will use alternative marketing forms in the future. It becomesclear, that they see alternative marketing forms as cost-effective means, since they do notwant to invest much of their budget on such forms. One third is willing to spend 5% and onlyone fourth will spend 10% of their marketing funds.The main difference between small and bigger firms, next to the size of their budget, is theway Guerilla Marketing is used. Global players and other established companies cannot in-herit the philosophy of Guerillas one-to-one since the strategy is made for small companiesand consequently addresses only a limited customer base. Some additional and personalizedservices cannot be offered by businesses that serve millions of clients. Consequently theseenterprises only use Guerilla Marketing with all its facades for a specific time in the courseof a campaign. They use the main characteristics of Guerilla Marketing that are still impor-tant today. Creativity and flexibility, the surprise effect, and the unexpected are the main key-words here.A Guerilla Marketing campaign does not change the whole marketing strategy of a company.Larger companies do not have to opt for Guerilla Marketing like smaller companies some-                                                   24  Robert&Horst Marketing GmbH    19  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  28. 28. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  times have to. They choose it as an additional way of promoting their products and it is usedcomplimentary to the traditional marketing mix which works for the company.3.5. Case Study: BionadeSo far the background, development, and usage of Guerilla Marketing have been outlined. Tocomplement this progress, the case study will exemplify how Guerilla Marketing is imple-mented today. The company chosen is Bionade. They have used many facades of the strategyin the course of a campaign. Their example nicely illustrates how wit, creativity, and diver-sity can help a rising company to succeed in a saturated market.In the following paragraphs it will be described why and how the Bionade Corporation im-plemented Guerilla Marketing to create brand awareness for their product: Bionade. To fa-miliarise with the product, a company background will be given first.3.5.1. Company ProfileBionade Corporation is a German company which sells soft drinks under the brand name“Bionade”. The product is currently available in 5 flavours. Bionade differentiates itself fromcommon refreshments by being “the first and only non-alcoholic refreshment drink producedby a purely organic process.”25 It is fermented like a beer, according to the German puritylaw “Reinheitsgebot” which is a regulation for beer quality standards and originates from the16th century. Bionade is produced with natural ingredients of organic quality. Thus it standsfor a non-alcoholic refreshment, which does not taste as sweet as other soft drinks. It alsodifferentiates itself from competitors by its uncommon flavours. Regional growers providethe natural ingredients such as herbs and fruits. Current flavours are: Elderberry, Lychee,Herbs, Ginger-Orange and Aktiv.From a slow seller to a moneymakerThe story of the company’s success can be read like a fairytale. It all started at the end of the1980s, when the family-owned beer brewery Peter in Bavaria was experiencing stagnatingturnover in the beer sector. The owner’s husband Dieter Leipold wanted to find a solution tosurvive in the market. In the evenings after work he experimented on inventing a non-                                                   25 Bionade    20  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  29. 29. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  alcoholic drink by fermentation. It took him 8 years and 3 million Euro of investment to cre-ate the drink Bionade. “Bio” stands for biological/organic, and “nade” reminds of lemonade.The brand name was also chosen since it can be used internationally. In 1995 the soft drinkBionade was ready to be sold. Unfortunately even the best development does not sell auto-matically. Sales started slowly. Then the company got lucky. By mistake Bionade bottleslabelled in Hungarian were delivered to a client in Hamburg, Germany. There advertisers gota hold of Bionade and saw its potential. It might have been the brand label; it might havebeen the fact that Bionade is filled in beer bottles. In any case, trendsetter in Hamburg sawBionade as cult, and it became a scene drink in bars and clubs. That was the beginning oftheir track record.By now Bionade Corporation has become successful in all of Germany. 200 million bottleswere sold in 2007, among others at McCafé, Starbucks, Ikea, and in the majority of super-markets and bars. Coca Cola offered a nine-figure range amount to take over the company,but Bionade Corporation rejected. “Selling the company will not be an option for our proudfamily business”26, said CEO Peter Kowalsky, Leipold’s stepson, who leads the BionadeCorporation, since it was founded in 1995. The next step for Bionade Corporation is to extenttheir sales to the global market. A second production plant will be built in Iowa, USA in2009. Bionade is the first soft drink after Red Bull to be exported to the USA.27Ongoing success through clever marketingBionade Corporation developed from a scene drink in Hamburg to where they are positionednow, and not merely by luck. Part of the success can be attributed to their low-budget com-munication strategy. Wolfgang Blum, Chief of Marketing, transformed the brand Bionadefrom a purely organic product into a lifestyle drink.Since the company only had a low Marketing budget, Blum successfully used a viral market-ing- and communication strategy on the basis of product sponsoring, media publicity, andword-of-mouth marketing. Through public relations the company started to get national at-tention. Major German economy magazines and newspapers, such as Financial TimesDeutschland, printed the Bionade company profile and interviews with the CEO PeterKowalsky. Thereby the emphasis was purposefully put on the enormous success story: An                                                   26  Emsdettener Volkszeitung  27  Emsdettener Volkszeitung    21  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  30. 30. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  almost bankrupt family-owned brewery in the middle of nowhere is saved through 8 years ofresearch and development. Readers sympathised with the company, promotional materialwas provided to bars, and Bionade further engaged in attracting opinion leaders by sponsor-ing student parties and regional sport teams. The word about the unusual product spread;Blum’s viral marketing plan started to work out. The strategy now is to sustain Bionade’sposition as being an original: Firstly to be a competition to Coca Cola28, secondly to giveplagiarism no chance.3.5.2. Guerilla Marketing CampaignIn 2007 Bionade Corporation used cross medial advertising for the first time. Cross mediameans the interaction of different media. Done cleverly, it can produce added value and savecosts. 29 The company’s aim was to attain wide brand awareness and image profiling in Ger-many. With a budget in the lower seven-figure range, they targeted children and adults be-tween 14 and 49 years of age, and used crossmedial advertising, including out-of-home,online marketing, radio and public relations. The skilful interaction between the differentcommunication channels is vital. 303.5.2.1. ImplementationIn March 2007 Bionade Corporation started to implement the Guerilla Marketing campaignin cooperation with advertising agencies. The theme was, “Bionade. The official drink of abetter world“31 , and aimed to spread a positive attitude for instance through welfare actionsthat made people connect the brand to good deeds.RadioThe radio campaign “Telephone Calls for a Better World” is a main pillar of the cross-medialBionade advertising. A variation of eight different radio spots were produced and broad-casted in three intervals from March till September 2007 at 138 private radio stations inGermany. 32 Every spot displays one phone call, in which a caller (always the same man)surprises a normal person with kind words, a joke, or amusing honesty. The called persons                                                   28  Reich  29  Holzapfel   30 Active Mobile Media AG  31  Seissler  32  Radio Marketing Service    22  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  31. 31. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  often have a stressful job and thus reacted happily. An example will clarify how this wasdone: Radio Spot “Batteries”The content of the “Batteries” spot is the following: The man calls the service point of anelectronic retailer and tells the woman who answers that he was in the store last week andstole a package of batteries, because he felt a need for a thrill. He claims to have had a badconscience and says that he came back this morning and secretly placed the batteries back inthe shelf. She should not wonder if the stock counts one more battery package in the evening.The woman laughs and says: “I don’t know what to say. Well Done.”33The content of the spots varied, though the message was similar: doing something good,based on the theme, with which every spot ended: “Bionade. The official drink of a betterworld”.PosterBeginning at the time of the second interval of the radio spots, the product behind the spotswas shown by a poster advertising campaign. Huge bills in four different styles were postedon various locations in 15 large German cities. People in Berlin, Hamburg, Cologne, Munich,Stuttgart or Frankfurt were able to see four different posters, each presenting one bottle of aBionade flavour, decorated with the slogan: “Das offizielle Getränk einer besseren Welt”.The reference to the website www.stille-taten.de was also printed at the bottom. Figure 5: Out‐of‐home, Bionade Poster34                                                    33  Radio Marketing Service  34  Bionade    23  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  32. 32. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Guerilla SensationBut Bionade also tried to make their advertising an unusual event. With the help of a so-called “Leuchtbotschafter” (literally translates to “illuminated messenger”), a person whowalks through the streets and projects Bionade messages to house walls, pavements, and ve-hicles with a mobile beamer, they brought their messages as close as possible to their cus-tomers. Figure 6: Bionade Leuchtbotschafter35  Projected messages such as, “Smile”, “Write it Down”, “Be here”, “Wake up and Dream”,“Give and don’t ask for something in return”, and “Wishing helps” aimed to inspire goodfeeling. “Elderberry is underestimated”, “Let your stomach decide”, “Give fruits more funnynames, like lychee”, rather focused on the product. The Bionade crown cap at the bottom ofthe display and the blue coloured background are connections to the brand, whereas the namedoes not play as big of a role. “Bionade” is displayed infrequently between the other mes-sages.In the course of the Bionade campaign, the Leuchtbotschafter has been deployed in severalmajor German cities to create brand awareness and profile the Bionade image.36 Mostly atdusk during the summer, he approached crowded places such as café terraces. Next to that, avideo about the Leuchtbotschafter in action has been created by the advertising agency Kolle& Rebbe. This video is spread on the internet and can be viewed on the websites of Bionade,                                                   35  Bionade  36  Schulz    24  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  33. 33. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Kolle&Rebbe, diverse Online Newspapers, and also on You Tube. Alone on the latter web-site the video has been viewed nearly 5000 times.37BannerBionade advertisment banners38 were placed at diverse German Lifestyle, Sport, and Well-ness Portals on the internet. They are in the same style as the outdoor posters and also pointto the website www.stille-taten.de which is another clever part of the campaign:Stille Taten“Stille Taten” can be translated to “silent doings”. The idea behind the initiative is to bringjoy and hope to people. This is based on a voluntary favour that people do one another. Theysurprise others in their daily lives with little, wonderful doings though they stay anonymous,to create speculation and discussion. He or she only leaves the “Stille Taten” postcard at thescene. The website documents what “good” people have done to others and also how the re-ceivers experienced the silent doings. Examples are dropping a nice CD in a mailbox, or pol-ishing shoes that are standing in front of an apartment.The website is not a campaign by Bionade, but Bionade Corporation supports the initiative.Thus people do not feel to be an instrument of a Bionade marketing campaign, but neverthe-less link to the brand to the good doings of people. Some silent doings even reach more thanone person. A “Hug Zone” was drawn with chalk in a city’s shopping street. It attracted theattention of pedestrians and after some time people actually stepped into the “zone” andhugged each other with a happy smile on their faces. The silent addresser of this action de-signed the Bionade crown cap on the sign that points to the “Hug Zone”. Thus he or she ad-vertised for the brand Bionade for free. A video of the action can be seen on the internet,which creates potential for viral marketing. On You Tube it has been watched almost 9000times.39ResponseThe Bionade campaign was implemented only a few days before the G8-Summit in Germanystarted. The slogan “Bionade. The official drink for a better world” felt right for hundreds of                                                   37 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hb13uMKKlN0  38 Appendix: Online Bionade Banner  39 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbPFt7xil7Y    25  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  34. 34. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  thousands of protesters of the G8-Summit, who called Bionade their favourite drink. News-papers, radios, and TV channels reported about the protests, about Bionade, about their slo-gan. Bionade Corporation distances themselves from political statements, but in fact theystand for social and environmental responsibility. People should interact with themselves andtheir surroundings more consciously.40 Topics of conversation about Bionade rose and thatattention was used for the campaign. The media mix of out-of-home, online marketing, radio,and public relations media was well chosen and it came into play at a critical time to createrising tension.3.5.2.2. ResultIn 2007, the year of the Guerilla Marketing campaign, Bionade Corporation tripled their salesfrom 2006 to 200 million sold bottles41. The aided brand awareness42 was 10% in 200643 andincreased to almost 50% in 200744. German customers refer to Bionade as a lifestyle drinkwhich is healthier than common soft drinks.45 The characteristics which come to mind whentalking about Bionade now, are far from the original image of being a drink solely sold inhealth-food shops. Thus it can be concluded that the goal of the campaign to achieve widebrand awareness and image profiling for Bionade was reached.The cross-medial advertising created added value and cost only a few million Euros. Forthose results the budget is not high. “Minimal costs for maximal output”, just like the defini-tion of Guerilla Marketing. Bionade Corporation, the small company from Bavaria, nowholds a good position in the saturated beverage market, thanks to the Guerilla MarketingStrategy of being creative and having wits among other things. Bionade acknowledged thatthe skilful interaction between the different communication channels is vital and used it totheir advantage. 46 Online and offline activities should be linked, since individuals todaycommunicate through all available media. 47                                                   40 Convenience Shop  41 200 million sold bottles achieved a turnover of 48.6 million € in 2007  42 Aided awareness occurs when you show or read a list of brands and the person expresses familiarity  with your brand only after they hear or see it (http://www.davedolak.com/articles/dolak4.htm)  43 MSN News  44 Reich  45 Results from Consumer Questionnaire Chapter 4    46 http://www.activemobile.ch/_admin/4_upload/_files/Factsheets.05/Crossmedia.pdf   47 Holzapfel    26  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  35. 35. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  3.6. Obstacles of Guerilla MarketingGuerilla Marketing goes another way than traditional marketing. Therefore it is often diffi-cult to recognize the fine line between provocation and offence, between drawing the atten-tion to a company and to create a negative reputation, to get new customers and to lose pros-pects.The following example shows a Guerilla Marketing campaign that failed. There are some-times invisible limits that a company should not cross:A company promoted its new comedy series by placing a large electronic billboard featuringan adult character in the city centre of Boston, MA. Lose cables were hanging out of the bill-board. People passing by believed that they were explosives and panicked. They called thepolice and an anti-terror unit was sent to disarm the billboard which was wrongly interpretedas a bomb. The city centre and all access roads were closed. Later that day the mistake wasuncovered and it resulted in two arrests and costs of 500,000 US$.48 Even though the adver-tising was already in the city for some days and was also placed in other major US cities anddid not cause any excitement there, it is obvious that those in charge should have dealt withthis topic in a more sensitive way.New technologies – like many things – are a blessing and a curse at the same time. Viral andMobile Marketing are the most successful marketing trends that spread the word so fast thatit often cannot be retraced or controlled anymore. As described in the example above a crea-tive idea can quickly turn into bad publicity. Especially in these cases it would be beneficialif the advertising could be just erased and would thereby limit the number of people that seeit. Thus an even greater damage could be avoided. But in times of Viral Marketing and mediacoverage from all over the world, it is almost impossible to let something “disappear“ thatwas presented to the public once before. Consequently this means that every publication thathas not been thought through carefully can damage the reputation of the company and canresult in the loss of customers.49                                                   48  Spiegel Online  49  Dr Prof Zerr      27  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  36. 36. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  4. How is Guerilla Marketing perceived today?4.1. Customer Perception of Guerilla Marketing4.1.1. Survey4.1.1.1. PurposeIn order to get an idea about the future of marketing, especially about the future of GuerillaMarketing, we can only draw conclusions from the people that are going to decide over thesuccess of Marketing in the future – the customers. Therefore a field research gives us thebest picture of the reality.It is of course difficult for people to have an idea about how they will perceive advertisingsin 5 or 10 years. On the other hand a general acceptance or rejection now, that can be uncov-ered through a survey, can give some hints about the future trends. Marketing experts alsohave to deal with the question of how customers are going to perceive advertising in the fu-ture. They would be a good alternative to a quantitative survey, but their conclusions are alsoonly a result of feedback from customers. Therefore it is best to get the information from theinitial source directly, the customers. 504.1.1.2. Structure of the QuestionnaireAt the beginning of the questionnaire the respondents are welcomed and are given a shortintroduction to the purpose and the general topic. Basic instructions to answer the questionscorrectly are also given.The questionnaire can be divided into four parts. The first three parts refer to Guerilla Mar-keting campaigns by three different brands. The respondent can see pictures of the first twoactivities and in the last example he or she can also listen to a radio spot that was part of acampaign. Within the three parts mainly closed questions have to be answered. The answerscan be chosen from various possibilities which were ranked according to a Likert scale. Thequestions should clarify if the respondents like the idea and if they have actually seen orheard about the campaign. It is also essential to find out if they understand the message and ifthey are able to connect the information from the current campaign with the attributes and                                                   50  Appendix: Consumer Questionnaire     28  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  37. 37. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  advertisings from former campaigns. Open questions that ask for associations show if thegoal of the companies have been met.The fourth and last part gives the respondent the possibility to evaluate their own perceptionof advertising in general and which aspects are important for their purchase decisions. Somequestions were closed questions and offered various answers. Others let the respondents ratethe given answers according to their importance. The relevant instructions were given withevery question. A specification about gender and age concluded the questionnaire.4.1.1.3. Sample SelectionA determination of a target group that should preferably answer the questionnaire is difficult.Every product targets different groups, but the survey is not about a specific product or itsadvertising, but about marketing and its perception in general. The population that has to betaken into consideration is comprised of everybody that is exposed to advertising and thatincludes almost all of mankind.Even the resulting sample would be much too big. The selected examples were chosen tomake it easier for respondents to evaluate GM ideas. Since they mainly target teenagers andadults up to 50 years, we chose our respondents according to their age group. Our respon-dents were between the age of 12 and 35. We intentionally chose examples of Guerilla Mar-keting that are targeted at young adults, because those who belong to this age group are goingto be the ones with the highest purchase power within the next decades. Consequently theywill be the ones that are going to face the future marketing efforts.The chosen examples show Guerilla activities of products that were released on the Germanmarket. To fill in the questionnaire with reliable data, the respondents needed to have thechance to be exposed to the products and brands before. This can only be guaranteed if therespondents live in Germany. In general the population and sample size cannot be determinedand therefore a non-probability sampling technique was chosen. The survey was sent byemail to people of this age group with the request to redirect it to other people with the sameimportant characteristics – in this case they have to be in the same age group.   29  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 
  38. 38. GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                  Due to time and budget limitations it was not possible to conduct a representative research.With the snowball effect the questionnaire was passed on to other respondents. Feedbackswere collected for three weeks and 100 replies revealed a general trend.4.1.1.4. LimitationsTo weight the results of the survey the research quality has to be analysed. As mentionedabove the resources available for the conduction of the research were limited. Therefore thenumber of replies does not allow the results to be generalized. An evaluation can only show atrend.The answers of the respondents were handled anonymously. Nevertheless it has to be takeninto consideration that a contamination of the answers cannot be out of question. The smallgroup of the respondents we know personally might have hesitated in giving definite answersand therefore might have caused a participant bias. Furthermore not all answers that weregiven could be taken into the evaluation since the respondents did not answer the questionsaccording to the instructions given. Even though the instructions were precisely stated, therewere some issues in the design of the questionnaire that could have avoided these mistakes.4.1.1.5. EvaluationThe 100 filled in questionnaires that we received back within three weeks are the basis forthe results that we use to highlight trends. The results are going to influence the overall con-clusion of the report and will help to answer the question: Can Guerilla Marketing be suc-cessful in the future? In order to make it easier for the reader to understand the essential re-sults of the customer survey, the most crucial points are summarized under various headingsbelow.Guerilla Marketing ExamplesThe respondents were asked to rate how much they like the examples that were shown. Allthree examples showed different products that are sold on the German market. The first wasthe well-known detergent Mr. Clean, the second showed a Guerilla campaign from the airlineSwiss Air. In the last example the respondents could listen to a radio spot from the BionadeGuerilla Marketing campaign that was described as a case study in this report before. Since   30  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 

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