BusinessMarketing
Nature of Business Marketing
What is Business Marketing? Business marketing also referred to as “Industrial marketing” or “B2B marketing” or “Organizat...
B2B Marketing vs. Consumer Marketing Areas                        Industrial Markets                Consumer Markets 1. Ma...
B2B Marketing vs. Consumer Marketing Areas                        Industrial Markets               Consumer Markets 5. Cha...
Industrial Demand                                                                             Demand Derived Demand       ...
Industrial Market & Environment                                                         Industrial         Intermediaries ...
Industrial Market & Environment                                                                         Basic products lik...
Marketing Implications for DifferentCustomer & Product Types    Materials & Parts products, for large OEMs or users, selli...
Marketing Strategy for Capital Items,Supplies & ServicesCapital Items (heavy machinery, office buildings, construction of ...
Purchasing Orientations of IndustrialCustomers Business buyers choose one of the three purchasing orientations   Buying Or...
Purchasing Orientations of IndustrialCustomers    Risk           Buyers avoid risk from buying from new suppliers. The tac...
Purchasing Orientations of IndustrialCustomers  Supply chain management (SCM) Orientation – Focus is on how to improve the...
Purchasing Orientations of IndustrialCustomers                                 SCM Orientation                            ...
Purchasing Practices of IndustrialCustomers  Purchasing in Commercial Enterprise    Depends on nature of business, size of...
Purchasing Practices of IndustrialCustomers  Purchasing in Govt. Units    Get the name of the company & the products regis...
Purchasing Practices of IndustrialCustomers  Institutional Purchasing & Purchasing in Cooperative Societies    Institution...
Environmental Analysis in BusinessMarketing                                                                  Air & water p...
Strategies for Managing IndustrialEnvironment  Effective use of marketing mix such as 4Ps are not adequate for the surviva...
Strategies for Managing IndustrialEnvironment The strategies to respond proactively & creatively for managing external env...
Strategies for Managing IndustrialEnvironment  Strategic Planning: An industrial firm carries out strategic planning by id...
Organizational Buying & Buying Behavior
Purchasing ObjectivesThe purchase / materials management objective is defined as buying the right items inthe right quanti...
Purchasing ActivitiesThe industrial purchasing/buying activities consists of various phases/stages of buyingdecision makin...
Supplier Evaluation System  Attribute (Factors)   Weight (Importance)         Supplier            Supplier Rating         ...
Supplier Evaluation - Balanced ScorecardsTechniqueThe Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Framework                                  ...
Internal-Business-Process                                                                              Operations Processe...
Buying SituationsThree types of buying situations also called ‘buyclasses’.  New purchase (or New Task) – In this situatio...
Buying Centre or Decision making Unit(DMU)The buying center is a useful tool which answers the question – Who are involved...
Buying Centre or Decision making Unit(DMU) contd..  Influencers – People who can influence the buying decision like techni...
Buying Centre or Decision making Unit(DMU) contd..Key members of Buying Centre  Buyer/Purchasers or Purchase Dept. (Sr. Ex...
Models of Organizational Buying Behavior- The Webster and Wing Model  Environmental Variables  • Physical                 ...
Models of Organizational Buying Behavior- The Sheth Model Component (1)         Component (2)          Component (3)      ...
Buyer-Seller Relationship
Buyer-Seller RelationshipDevelopment of mutually satisfying, profitable, long-term relationships withcustomers is a major ...
Buyer-Seller Interaction – A ConceptualFramework             Compatible Style   Incompatible StyleCompatibleContent       ...
Relationship MarketingRelationship marketing is a task of creating strong customer bond or loyalty.                    Add...
Methods used to influence IndustrialCustomers                Sales Presentation                Get information about the b...
Methods used to influence IndustrialCustomers contd..                Reciprocity                It is a practice of buying...
Customer Service                   In B2B, customer service is sometimes more important                   than the physica...
Types of Relationship                  • It include one-time-only exchanges with economy & necessity as the main Transacti...
Marketing Strategies  Concentrated Marketing - is a market segmentation and market coverage strategy  whereby a product is...
Marketing Strategies4 criteria - mostly used in Business Marketing:  Technological Contributions  Dependence  Purchasing O...
B2B Marketing through E-commerce
What is E-commerce? E-commerce is defined as a modern business methodology that addresses the needs of organizations & con...
Marketing Strategy for Electronic Market Place  Major Components of Marketing Strategy     Segmenting & Targeting     Prod...
Logistics
Distribution Channels                                        Manufacturer              Mfg’s Sales    Value-Mfg’s Rep /   ...
Channel Design Framework                                Channel Objective                                                 ...
Logistics Management – Business Logistics System  Physical supply             Industrial manufacturer          Physical di...
Marketing Research & Intelligence
Marketing Research & Marketing Intelligence Marketing research is defined as the objective & systematic process of obtaini...
Scope of Industrial Marketing Research    Development of Market potential    Market Share Analysis    Sales Analysis    Fo...
Marketing Research Process    Identify the     problem /                                                                  ...
Industrial marketing Intelligence              Marketing              research               studies Secondary     Marketi...
Components of DSS             Action                             Marketing Manager                      Question          ...
Strategic Planning, Implementing &Controlling
Market-Oriented Organizations   Market-oriented organizations stay   close to the customers & ahead of   the competitors. ...
Marketing in Strategic Planning   Strategy hierarchy                          Organization (Type of management)           ...
Role of Marketing in an Organization  Organizational Level                 Role of Marketing                       Formal ...
Developing Corporate Strategies Strategic planning gap is filled by:                                         Current produ...
Strategic Planning Process at BU Level                         Define the business unit’s mission                  Scannin...
Business Unit’s Mission The business mission statement should have the following components:   What business the company i...
SBU’s Objective & Goals          Corporate mission      Corporate objectives & goals            SBU Mission            SBU...
Formulating Strategies at BU LevelPorter’s Generic Strategies Framework                                                   ...
Developing Industrial Marketing PlanSection                ContentsSituational analysis   Market situation        Includes...
Developing Industrial Marketing PlanSection                    ContentsMarketing strategy         Selection of target mark...
Controlling Marketing Performance                   Setting Goals                     Performance                     Meas...
Types Marketing Controls                        •   The firm’s marketing opportunities & strategies    Strategic Control  ...
Product Strategy & New ProductDevelopment
What is an Industrial Product?  The industrial product is defined not only as a physical entity, but also as a complex  se...
Changes in Product Strategy                  Customer                   Needs                  Factors                dete...
Industrial Product Life Cycle – General Model                                                           Industrial product...
Industrial Product Life Cycle – High-tech Products Sales                                        Time              NPD     ...
Locating Industrial Products in their Life-Cycle   Develop a trend analysis for the past 3-5 years based   on information ...
Developing Product Strategies for ExistingProducts          Evaluate the performance of all existing products or product  ...
Product Evaluation Matrix     Company Sales               Decline                          Stable                       Gr...
Perceptual Mapping Technique                        High Quality                               This technique is used to s...
Product Elimination     Dropping the product or product line is the most controversial decision as many     stakeholders a...
New Product Development  Classification of New Products:    Products that are innovative & new to    the world.    Product...
New-Product Development Process                                              Is the new product in line with the          ...
High-Tech Marketing High-Tech includes a wide range of industries such as telecommunications, computers, software, biotech...
High Technological Uncertainties                         Will the product function as promised?                           ...
High Market Uncertainties                  Which are the customer needs that new technology can meet?                     ...
Classification of Marketing Situations                                                           Low-tech marketing includ...
Technology Adoption Life Cycle                         Early majority        Late majority                         (34%)  ...
Unique nature of High-tech MarketingStrategy                              Plan Whole          Target a Niche              ...
Business Communication
Steps to Develop Effective Communication             Determine the communication objectives                 Identifying th...
Role of Advertising in Industrial Marketing     Creating awareness     Reaching members of buying centre     Increasing sa...
Promotional Tools & Media Promotion   Advertising        Sales               PR & Publicity   Direct             Personal ...
Pricing Strategies & Policies
Pricing & Factors Influencing PricingDecision  Pricing is the process of               Pricing objectives  determining wha...
Cost Behavior at Different Production Levels– Economies of Scale                            300  Cost / Unit (in rupees)  ...
The Pricing Strategies    Competitive bidding in competitive markets          Probabilistic bidding    Pricing new product...
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Business marketing

  1. 1. BusinessMarketing
  2. 2. Nature of Business Marketing
  3. 3. What is Business Marketing? Business marketing also referred to as “Industrial marketing” or “B2B marketing” or “Organizational marketing”. Business marketing is the marketing of products & services to business organizations. Business organizations include: Manufacturing companies Business organizations buy products & services to satisfy many objectives Govt. undertakings like production of other goods & Private sector organizations services, making profits, reducing costs, & so on. Educational institutions Hospitals Consumer marketing is the marketing Distributors / Dealers of products & services to individuals, families, & households. The consumers buy products & services for their own consumption. ISB&M Business Marketing
  4. 4. B2B Marketing vs. Consumer Marketing Areas Industrial Markets Consumer Markets 1. Market characteristics • Geographically concentrated • Geographically distributed • Relatively fewer buyers • Mass markets 2. Product characteristics • Technical complexity • Standardized • Customized 3. Service characteristics • Service, timely delivery & • Service, timely delivery & availability is very important availability is somewhat important 4. Buying behavior • Involvement of various • Involvement of family functional areas in both buyer members & supplier firms • Purchase decisions are mainly • Purchase decisions are made on rational/performance mostly made on physiological basis / social / psychological needs •Technical expertise • Less technical expertise • Stable interpersonal • Non-personal relationship relationship between buyers & sellers ISB&M Business Marketing
  5. 5. B2B Marketing vs. Consumer Marketing Areas Industrial Markets Consumer Markets 5. Channel characteristics • More direct • Indirect • Fewer intermediaries • Multiple layers of intermediaries 6. Promotional • Emphasis on personal selling • Emphasis on advertising characteristics 7. Price characteristics • Competitive bidding & • List prices or maximum retail negotiated prices price (MRP) • List prices for standard products ISB&M Business Marketing
  6. 6. Industrial Demand Demand Derived Demand for new homes The demand for industrial products & services does not exist by itself. It is derived from the ultimate demand for Demand for consumer goods & services. furniture Demand Industrial customers buy goods & services for use in for wood producing other goods & services. Joint Demand Demand Joint demand occurs when one industrial product is useful if Demand for ink other product also exists. for pen Cross-Elasticity Demand Demand is „elastic‟ if the %age change in quantity demanded is more than the %age change in price. Cross elasticity of demand is the responsiveness of the sales Price of of one product to a price change in another product. Tea Back ISB&M Business Marketing
  7. 7. Industrial Market & Environment Industrial Intermediaries / middlemen, reselling to OEMs, Commercial enterprise distributors / dealers users, Govt. firms Business / Industrial customers Original equipment For Exide (battery manufacturer), Telco, is an OEM manufacturers Users For HMT, TVS-Suzuki is the ‘user’ customers Govt. Public sector units BHEL, ONGC, IOL Govt. undertakings Indian Railways, Defence units, State Elec. Boards Institutional customers Public institutions Govt. hospitals, prisons Private institutions Schools, colleges Cooperative Manufacturing units societies Maharashtra Sugar Cooperative Society Non-manufacturing Cooperative banks, housing cooperative societies units ISB&M Business Marketing
  8. 8. Industrial Market & Environment Basic products like iron ore, crude oil, fish, fruits, Materials & Raw materials vegetables parts Manufactured Acids, fuel oil, steel, chemicals Industrial products & services materials Semi-finished parts like bearings, tyres, small Component parts motors, batteries Subassemblies Semi-finished goods like exhaust pipe in motorcycle Light equipment or Hand tools, dies, computer terminals Capital items accessories Installations or heavy Furnaces, machines, turbines equipment Offices, plants, warehouses, parking lots, real Plant & building estate property Suppliers & Operating & maintenance suppliers like fuels, services Supplies packaging materials, lubricants, paints, elec. items Services Legal, auditing, advertising, courier, marketing research agency ISB&M Business Marketing
  9. 9. Marketing Implications for DifferentCustomer & Product Types Materials & Parts products, for large OEMs or users, selling is done directly from a seller organization to a buyer organization. For smaller volume OEMs & users, standard raw materials or components are sold through industrial dealers or distributors as it is cost effective. If the components are custom-made, considerable interaction takes place between technical & commercial persons from both buyer & seller organizations. Selling is direct. Industrial salesman remain in close touch with various departments like purchase, finance, R&D, marketing, production & quality of buyer organizations as they influence the buying or payment releasing decisions. Personal contacts, product leaflets/brochures help as industrial marketer in communicating product & other information. For standard products, the factors which influence buying decisions are: Product quality & performance Payment terms Delivery dependability Customer service Price Customer rapport ISB&M Business Marketing
  10. 10. Marketing Strategy for Capital Items,Supplies & ServicesCapital Items (heavy machinery, office buildings, construction of factories etc.) Direct selling with extensive interactions, involving top executives from both sides. Negotiations take considerable time on key factors such as price, ROI, credit facilities, delivery period, installation time etc. Personal selling is the primary promotional method used.Suppliers Direct selling is used for large-volume buying firms. Distributors or dealers are used to market to diverse markets consisting of small & medium size companies. The purchase or materials department generally make buying decisions based on dependable delivery, price, & location convenience. Advt. in magazines, trade journals, local newspapers, & yellow pages are used to create awareness of the company & its products to potential users & distributers/dealers.Services (consulting, advising etc.) Buying firms contact the selling firms who have their reputation by way of word-of mouth. Continuation of service depends upon the quality, price, & timeliness of service. ISB&M Business Marketing
  11. 11. Purchasing Orientations of IndustrialCustomers Business buyers choose one of the three purchasing orientations Buying Orientation - Firms has narrow & short-term focus. Lowest price They follow the practice of Lowest Price where they select the lowest price supplier. Quality & availability are the “qualifying factors” for a supplier. Negotiation style – “I win-you lose”. Gain power Buyer firm gain power over suppliers by applying tactics like Commoditization – all suppliers provide similar technical services, product quality & product features. Price is the only thing to be negotiated. Multisourcing – the buyer firm asks quotations from various suppliers, & after negotiations, places order with many suppliers, who compete to get more share of buying firms purchase. ISB&M Business Marketing
  12. 12. Purchasing Orientations of IndustrialCustomers Risk Buyers avoid risk from buying from new suppliers. The tactics used for avoiding risks are • Follow the standard purchasing procedure of the company. • Depend on suppliers who have proved their performance earlier. Procurement Orientation – Purchasing firm has a strategic (i.e. long term) focus & is proactive. The buyers seek both quality improvement & cost reduction. Practices adopted by the company to fulfill the above objectives are: Collaborative relationship with major suppliers This results in quality improvements & cost reduction. The buyer & supplier have inter-firm teams who implement JIT delivery scheduling & quality assurance to attain zero defects level. Integrative negotiation – resources can be expanded to benefit both buyer & supplier. Working closely with other functional areas Buyers are involved in describing specifications of products & services ensuring quality & timely availability. ISB&M Business Marketing
  13. 13. Purchasing Orientations of IndustrialCustomers Supply chain management (SCM) Orientation – Focus is on how to improve the value chain from raw-materials to end users. Purchasing philosophy Deliver value to end users Using market research, the supply managers would understand the requirements of end-users. Outsource non-core activities The firm would outsource those systems or sub-systems that have become non competitive, are non-strategic, involve mature technology, & have qualified suppliers. Support collaborative relationships with major suppliers Partnering relationship requires cooperation, communication, trust, & commitment between buyers & suppliers. The objective is to lower total cost and/or increase value in order to achieve mutual benefit. ISB&M Business Marketing
  14. 14. Purchasing Orientations of IndustrialCustomers SCM Orientation Procurement Orientation Buying Orientation Component Intermediaries & (dealers) Raw Material Subassembly Final Suppliers Suppliers Assembly Consumers / Manufacturer End users Back ISB&M Business Marketing
  15. 15. Purchasing Practices of IndustrialCustomers Purchasing in Commercial Enterprise Depends on nature of business, size of the enterprise, volume, variety, & technical complexity of the products purchased. In large/medium organizations, purchase decision involves persons from departments like production, materials, quality, finance, engineering, & also senior management executives. Various techniques, such as material planning, supplier rating system, EOQ etc. are used by the buyer organization. Take use of in-house technical expertise when required. Major tasks in purchasing process are: Identifying potential suppliers Negotiating & selecting suppliers Ensuring right quality & quantity of material at right time A long-term business relationship with the suppliers Many commercial organizations have separated purchasing (material or purchase function) from manufacturing to form a distinct functional area, on the same level as marketing, finance, R&D etc. ISB&M Business Marketing
  16. 16. Purchasing Practices of IndustrialCustomers Purchasing in Govt. Units Get the name of the company & the products registered with the govt. units. Registration involves the submission of duly filled standard forms, product leaflets, & company details certified by a chartered accountant. Some govt. units depute their inspectors to inspect the company‟s manufacturing facilities before approving their registration. For standard products & services, tender notices are advertised in national newspapers, based on which suppliers procure tender fees. In closed & limited tender, tender inquiry is to only few (limited) suppliers who are registered with govt. unit for certain category of non-standard products. Based on the lowest price or the lowest landed cost, the orders are released on the lowest bidder. If the tender value is large, maximum order is placed on the lowest bidder (L1) & the balance order is distributed to more than two bidders (L2, L3, L4, .. etc) if they match the lowest bid. ISB&M Business Marketing
  17. 17. Purchasing Practices of IndustrialCustomers Institutional Purchasing & Purchasing in Cooperative Societies Institutional buyers are either the government or the private organizations. For govt. organizations, it normally follows the govt. purchase procedure. An industrial marketer should study the purchasing practices of each institutional buyer so as be effective in marketing the company‟s goods or services. Purchasing in Reseller’s Market Reseller market (replacement market) consists of industrial dealers/distributors whose main goals are profits & sales volume. Dealers / distributors select suppliers not only on product quality but also on the policies of the supplier‟s product. Supplier related policies which affect competiveness of traders are Sharing local advt. cost by the supplier Providing product leaflets or display materials Competitive prices & trade discounts Flexible payment terms with credit facility etc. Both reseller & supplier has to work harmoniously to beat the competition. ISB&M Business Marketing
  18. 18. Environmental Analysis in BusinessMarketing Air & water pollution, solid waste disposal, conserving natural resources Ecological & Physical Water, power, skilled manpower, low-cost labor, transportation Environment Company location, R&D facilities, production Internal facilities, HR, Financial resources, marketing effectiveness, reputation or image of the company Strength & weaknesses analysis • Customers & competitors Micro • Suppliers External Affect a particular firm • Economic Opportunity & threat analysis • Technological Macro • Govt. & political, & legal • Cultural & social Affects all firms • Public-press, institutional investors, shareholders, banks, public interest groups ISB&M Business Marketing
  19. 19. Strategies for Managing IndustrialEnvironment Effective use of marketing mix such as 4Ps are not adequate for the survival & success in such a dynamic environment. The first step is the continuous gathering & monitoring of information on the relevant external environment. This is done by: Collecting information on customers & competitors through marketing & field sales persons. Analyzing trade & govt. publications. Carrying out marketing research & economic forecasting. These activities help the company to: Understand changes in customer needs. Monitor competitor‟s actions & strategies. Identify technological innovations. Consider the changes talking place in govt., political, & legal factors. Identify changes in demand of major customers & the total market. Consider the changes in any other relevant environmental factors. ISB&M Business Marketing
  20. 20. Strategies for Managing IndustrialEnvironment The strategies to respond proactively & creatively for managing external environment Independent Strategies: These are the independent efforts of an industrial firm by using its own resources (or strengths). Pricing strategy based on competitors pricing. Product superiority through product development. Carry env. protection measure & creates awareness through corporate image advt. If the product is not performing well, a firm might decide to demarket in that geographic region. Cooperative Strategies: An industrial firm cooperates with other firms, industries, or groups in the environment. Industry associations like Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) & Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industries (FICCI) protect the Indian industries from unfair political or legal regulations of the govt. ISB&M Business Marketing
  21. 21. Strategies for Managing IndustrialEnvironment Strategic Planning: An industrial firm carries out strategic planning by identifying long- term product/markets, based on forecasts of external env., analysis of its strengths & weaknesses, & its long-term objectives & goals. Backward integration – A company seeks ownership or control of its supply system. Eg., Set up new manufacturing plant for the product which earlier was procured from other supplier. Forward integration – A company seeks ownership or increased control on its distribution system. Eg., open own branches with warehousing facilities, in place of agents, in order to improve customer service. Horizontal integration – A company seeks ownership or control of some of its competitors. Eg., Reduce the competition by acquiring the management control of some competing firm. Back ISB&M Business Marketing
  22. 22. Organizational Buying & Buying Behavior
  23. 23. Purchasing ObjectivesThe purchase / materials management objective is defined as buying the right items inthe right quantity, at the right price, for delivery at the right time & place. Delivery / availability – Purchased goods are delivered when & where it is needed. Product quality – Consistent quality as per the specifications & product use. Lowest price – Lowest price consistent with availability & quality of the product. Services – Services accompanying the purchase of goods like: Prompt & accurate information from suppliers Technical assistance Spare-parts availability Repairs & maintenance capability Training (if required) Supplier relationship – Develop a good long-term supplier/vendor relationship & to develop new sources of supply.Buying members are influenced by both purchasing objectives of the firm & personalobjectives like higher status, job security, salary increments, promotions, & socialconsiderations (friendship, mutually beneficial relationships etc.) ISB&M Business Marketing
  24. 24. Purchasing ActivitiesThe industrial purchasing/buying activities consists of various phases/stages of buyingdecision making process called ‘Buyphases’.Phases in Buying Decision Process Recognition of a problem or need. Determination of the application or characteristics & quantity of needed product. Development of specifications or description of needed product. Early Supplier Involvement (ESI) Program: Involving purchasing persons as active members of cross-functional development teams. Search for & qualification of potential suppliers. Obtaining & analyzing supplier potential. Evaluation of proposals & selection of suppliers. Selection of an order routine. – Placements of orders, quantity, frequency, levels of inventory needed, follow-up of actual delivery to ensure delivery is as per schedule, payment. Performance feedback & post-purchase evaluation. ISB&M Business Marketing
  25. 25. Supplier Evaluation System Attribute (Factors) Weight (Importance) Supplier Supplier Rating performance Quality 30 0.8 30 X 0.8 = 24 Delivery 25 0.4 25 X 0.4 = 10 Price 15 0.6 15 X 0.6 = 9 Service 20 0.6 20 X 0.6 = 12 Flexibility 10 0.2 10 X 0.2 = 2 Total 100 57The supplier(s) who gets the highest total score receives the business or the order formfrom the buying organization. ISB&M Business Marketing
  26. 26. Supplier Evaluation - Balanced ScorecardsTechniqueThe Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Framework Financial To succeed financially, Company should focus on financial objectives that will satisfy shareholders. Internal-Business-Process Customer Mission To satisfy shareholders & Which customer value & customers, what business company should focus on to Strategy process company must excel achieve its mission? at? Learning & Growth How can company improve & change to achieve its mission? The BSC is a new technique or framework that can be used to evaluate supplier performance in information age companies. It translates a company‟s mission & strategy into a set of performance measurements. ISB&M Business Marketing
  27. 27. Internal-Business-Process Operations Processes Identify Customer Design & Develop Make/Buy Needs & Market Product/Services Products/Services Innovation Processes Market Products/ServicesCompany executives should identify the key internalprocesses in which the company must excel in order to – Satisfy Customer • deliver superior customer value Needs • satisfy shareholders with excellent financial performance ISB&M Business Marketing
  28. 28. Buying SituationsThree types of buying situations also called ‘buyclasses’. New purchase (or New Task) – In this situation the company is buying the item for the first time. Risk is more Decision takes longer time More people are involved in decision making Change in supplier (or Modified Rebuy) – This situation occurs when the company is not satisfied with the performance of the existing supplier, or there is a need for cost reduction or quality improvement. Repeat Purchase (or Straight Rebuy) – This situation occurs when the buying organization requires certain products or services continuously & when such products/services has been purchased in the past. ISB&M Business Marketing
  29. 29. Buying Centre or Decision making Unit(DMU)The buying center is a useful tool which answers the question – Who are involved inbuying decision in an industrial organization?Buying Center Roles Initiators – This category includes individuals who first recognize a problem or a need, which could be resolved by purchase of a product or service. Often users play this role. Buyers – Their major responsibility includes Obtaining quotations Supplier evaluation & selection Negotiation Processing purchase orders Expediting deliveries Implementing purchasing policies of the organization They are usually purchase officers. Users – Individuals who use the product or service that is to be purchased. They may be floor workers, R&D engineers etc. ISB&M Business Marketing
  30. 30. Buying Centre or Decision making Unit(DMU) contd.. Influencers – People who can influence the buying decision like technical people (QC engineers, design engineers etc.) Deciders – People (Senior executives / purchase executives) who make the actual buying decisions. Gatekeepers – People who control/filter the flow of information regarding products/services to the members of buying center.Key members of Buying Centre Top Management Persons (MD, President, VP, GM etc.) Generally involved in - • Purchase policy decisions like diversification into a new product/project • Approval of purchase or materials department annual budgets & objectives • Deciding the guidelines for purchase decisions Technical Persons (Design Engr., Prod. Mgr., Maintenance Mgr., QC Mgr., R&D Mgr., Industrial Engr. etc.) Generally involved in product specification, technical evaluation, negotiation with suppliers, performance feedback of product supplied etc. ISB&M Business Marketing
  31. 31. Buying Centre or Decision making Unit(DMU) contd..Key members of Buying Centre Buyer/Purchasers or Purchase Dept. (Sr. Exe., Managers, Purchase Officers or assistants) Generally involved in - • Coordinate with Top Management, Technical persons, Finance persons within the org. as well as with suppliers. • Maintain good relationship with Suppliers & Decision making members. Accounts/Finance Persons (or Dept.) The contribution of finance/accounts are seen while finalizing commercial terms such as mode of payment, financial approval of capital purchases, issuing payments to suppliers etc. Marketing Function Ensure the product is marketable (packaging). ISB&M Business Marketing
  32. 32. Models of Organizational Buying Behavior- The Webster and Wing Model Environmental Variables • Physical Individual Variables • Technological • Personal Goals • Economic • Education • Political & legal • Experience • Labor unions • Expertise • Cultural • Values • Customer demands • Job Position • Competitive practices & • Lifestyle pressures • Income • Supplier information Organizational Buying Decisions • Choice of suppliers • Delay decision & search for more information • Do not buy Organizational Variables Buying Centre Variables • Objectives/goals • Authority • Organization structure • Size • Purchasing policies & procedures • Key influencers • Evaluating & reward systems • Interpersonal relationship • Degree of decentralization in • Communication purchasing ISB&M Business Marketing
  33. 33. Models of Organizational Buying Behavior- The Sheth Model Component (1) Component (2) Component (3) Situational Factors Differences among Variables that Methods used for individual buyers determine if the conflict resolution in caused by factors: buying decision is joint-decision making Supplier or • Background of autonomous or process individuals joint: Brand choice • Problem solving • Their • Persuasion/influence information (A) Product specific • Politicking sources factors - • Active search • Time pressure • Perceptual • Perceived risk distortion • Type of purchase • Satisfaction with past purchases (B) Company specific factors – • Company size • Company Situational Factors orientation • Economic condition • Degree of • Labor disputes centralization • Mergers & acquisition ISB&M Business Marketing
  34. 34. Buyer-Seller Relationship
  35. 35. Buyer-Seller RelationshipDevelopment of mutually satisfying, profitable, long-term relationships withcustomers is a major business asset of an industrial marketer. Buyer’s perception of sales rep Is the Dimensions of Buyer- Role played industrial by industrial buyer rational Seller buyer or irrational Relationship Role played by industrial sales rep ISB&M Business Marketing
  36. 36. Buyer-Seller Interaction – A ConceptualFramework Compatible Style Incompatible StyleCompatibleContent Ideal Inefficient Transaction Transaction Task Oriented InteractionIncompatible Inefficient No OrientedContent Transaction Transaction Self- oriented Styles of interaction ISB&M Business Marketing
  37. 37. Relationship MarketingRelationship marketing is a task of creating strong customer bond or loyalty. Add financial Transaction marketing is benefits transaction oriented buyer-seller interaction, which focuses on closing a sale with a customer. Approaches for This is achieved by single sales developing customer person. Add structural bond ties to Add social For large customer, companies financial & benefits social are moving towards team selling benefits & relationship marketing. ISB&M Business Marketing
  38. 38. Methods used to influence IndustrialCustomers Sales Presentation Get information about the buying centre members, needs of potential customer firms. A sales presentation must be tailor made to fit the needs & expectation of the potential customer. A sales presentation should first present the positive points about his products, services & company, & keep difficult or negative points at the en. Project the products/services as differentiator. Negotiation with Industrial Customers Negotiation is a process that tries to maximize the benefits to both buyer & seller, & takes long-term view of their relationship. Purpose | Information | Customer Trust | Styles of negotiation | Time factor Styles of negotiation I win, you lose | Both of us win | You win, I lose | Both of us lose ISB&M Business Marketing
  39. 39. Methods used to influence IndustrialCustomers contd.. Reciprocity It is a practice of buying from one’s own customers & also using purchasing power to sell to one’s supplier. When products are homogenous or products have little differentiation & price competition are less, reciprocal dealings are likely to occur. Caution must be exercised to keep it to minimum level. Dealing with Customer’s Customer One of the complexities in Industrial marketing is the need to deal with a customer’s customer & become the customer’s competitor. ISB&M Business Marketing
  40. 40. Customer Service In B2B, customer service is sometimes more important than the physical product. Customer service supplements the sales of physical product & creates a total value for a customer. The nature of customer service varies with the type of the product & the stage of PLC. ISB&M Business Marketing
  41. 41. Types of Relationship • It include one-time-only exchanges with economy & necessity as the main Transactional motivation factors. • Customers prefer a transactional relationship, when (a) many suppliers are Exchanges or available, (b) the supply market is stable, (c) the purchase decision is not Relationships complex, & (d) the purchase is considered as less important to meet firm’s objective. Value-added • The focus is on complete understanding of the present & future needs of the customer, & meeting those needs better than competitors, so as to obtain a Exchanges maximum share of the customer’s business. Collaborative • The focus is between a customer firm & a supplier firm, & it is the process of building strong social, economic, service, & technical ties over a period of time. / Partnering • The purpose of partnering is to lower the total cost or increase value, in order Exchanges to achieve mutual benefits. ISB&M Business Marketing
  42. 42. Marketing Strategies Concentrated Marketing - is a market segmentation and market coverage strategy whereby a product is developed and marketed for a very well-defined, specific segment of the consumer population. The marketing plan is highly specialized one catering to the needs of that specific consumer segment. Concentrated marketing is particularly effective for small companies with limited resources because it enables the company to achieve a strong market position in the specific market segment it serves without mass production, mass distribution, or mass advertising. Differentiated Marketing - also called multisegment marketing. It is a market coverage strategy whereby a company attempts to appeal to two or more clearly defined market segments with a specific product and unique marketing strategy tailored to each separate segment. Undifferentiated Marketing - market coverage strategy whereby a company ignores differences within a market and attempts to appeal to the whole market with a single basic product line and marketing strategy. Undifferentiated marketing relies on mass distribution and mass advertising, aiming to give the product a superior image in the minds of consumers. It is cost effective because there is only one product line to be produced, inventoried, distributed, and advertised. Also the absence of segmented market research lowers the costs of consumer research and product management. ISB&M Business Marketing
  43. 43. Marketing Strategies4 criteria - mostly used in Business Marketing: Technological Contributions Dependence Purchasing Orientations Sales Potential (or Business Potential) Information for each customer is obtained by the sales person Customer are categorized into A, B, & C based on high, medium, & low business potential • Type A – Collaborative relationship • Type B – Value-added • Type C – Transaction relationship ISB&M Business Marketing
  44. 44. B2B Marketing through E-commerce
  45. 45. What is E-commerce? E-commerce is defined as a modern business methodology that addresses the needs of organizations & consumers to cut costs, improve the quality of goods & services, & increase the speed of service. It is also defined as the process of using digital technology for transmitting information between organizations. Important parts of E-commerce Internet World Wide Web (WWW) Intranet Extranet ISB&M Business Marketing
  46. 46. Marketing Strategy for Electronic Market Place Major Components of Marketing Strategy Segmenting & Targeting Product Differentiation & Positioning Identifying the target customers’ wants in terms of major benefits Selecting one or more benefits or niche for differentiation based on company’s strengths or distinctive competencies Communicating the company’s positioning to the target market Marketing-mix Strategies, i.e., Product, Price, Promotion & Distribution Strategies Web-design Domain name Distribution channel ISB&M Business Marketing
  47. 47. Logistics
  48. 48. Distribution Channels Manufacturer Mfg’s Sales Value-Mfg’s Rep / Distributor Direct Commission force / added Brokers Merchants Agents / Dealer Marketing Branches Resellers Distributor Online / Dealer Telemarketing Direct Mail Marketing Industrial Customers ISB&M Business Marketing
  49. 49. Channel Design Framework Channel Objective Channel tasks Channel Constraints The type of External intermediaries environment • VARs Channel Alternatives Competition • Industrial distributors / Company dealers Product • Manufacturer’s agents Characteristics Evaluation of Alternative • Brokers Customer • Commission merchants No. of intermediaries / channels Selection of Channel • Selective distribution Economic factors • Intensive distribution Control factors • Exclusive distribution Adaptive factors Terms & responsibility of channel members ISB&M Business Marketing
  50. 50. Logistics Management – Business Logistics System Physical supply Industrial manufacturer Physical distribution Tasks Transportation Raw materials Warehousing Inventory control Packaging Components Material Storage Material handling Order processing Communication Supplies Factory & warehouse Manufacturing locations Customer service Industrial customers Finished goods storage Industrial distributors / dealers Total Distribution Cost = Freight + Warehouse Cost + Inventory Cost + Cost of Lost Sales due to Delayed Delivery ISB&M Business Marketing
  51. 51. Marketing Research & Intelligence
  52. 52. Marketing Research & Marketing Intelligence Marketing research is defined as the objective & systematic process of obtaining, analyzing, & reporting of data (or information) for decision making in marketing. It undertakes periodic projects to collect & analyze data with specific objectives. Marketing Intelligence is an ongoing activity to provide continuous information for decision making. Difference between survey method Areas of survey methods Industrial Research Consumers Research Sample size Small sample due to small Large sample due to large universe (or population) & dispersed population concentration of buyers Respondent cooperation & More difficult due to time Less difficult to obtain data; accessibility constraints; accessibility is accessibility is easier limited to working hours Defining respondent More difficult as buying Simple, as individuals or decisions are made by several household users are the buyers members of the buying committee ISB&M Business Marketing
  53. 53. Scope of Industrial Marketing Research Development of Market potential Market Share Analysis Sales Analysis Forecasting Competitor Analysis Benchmarking New Product Acceptance & Potential Business Trend Studies Sales Quota Determination ISB&M Business Marketing
  54. 54. Marketing Research Process Identify the problem / Present the Develop research Collect the data (or Process & analyze opportunity & research findings design (or plan) information) the data define research (or report) objective Information type Observational | Exploratory | Survey | Sources of Primary data Experimental data Research Secondary data methods Sampling plan Method of contacts Data collection method ISB&M Business Marketing
  55. 55. Industrial marketing Intelligence Marketing research studies Secondary Marketing Decision Marketing Market data Intelligence Support Strategy System Development response sources System Internal Information System ISB&M Business Marketing
  56. 56. Components of DSS Action Marketing Manager Question Answer Decision Statistics models Display Database Environment ISB&M Business Marketing
  57. 57. Strategic Planning, Implementing &Controlling
  58. 58. Market-Oriented Organizations Market-oriented organizations stay close to the customers & ahead of the competitors. Shared They understand the basic principle Values that the purpose of a business is to attract & satisfy customers at a profit. An effective strategic planning includes market-oriented strategies Stakeholders Organization in which marketing function has an important role. Strategy Factors Affecting the Market Orientation ISB&M Business Marketing
  59. 59. Marketing in Strategic Planning Strategy hierarchy Organization (Type of management) structure Corporate Strategy Corporate (Strategic Mgmt.) Office Business/SBU Strategy SBU ‘A’ SBU ‘B’ SBU ‘C’ (Strategic Mgmt.) Functional Strategy Finance Marketing Production (Operations Mgmt.) ISB&M Business Marketing
  60. 60. Role of Marketing in an Organization Organizational Level Role of Marketing Formal Name Corporate Provide information on competition & customer, Corporate & advocate customer orientation for developing marketing long-term corporate strategy Business Unit / SBU Provide competition & customer analysis for Strategic developing long-term business strategy, including marketing competitive advantage Develop segmenting, targeting, & positioning strategies Take product-line decisions Functional Evolve & implement marketing-mix strategy in Marketing short-term to achieve business unit objective management Coordinate marketing activities Allocate resources ISB&M Business Marketing
  61. 61. Developing Corporate Strategies Strategic planning gap is filled by: Current products New products Intensive growth Integrative growth Product Market penetration development Diversification growth Current strategy strategy marketsConcentric diversification: consistsof searching for new products thathave technological / marketing Product-synergies with firm’s existing Marketproducts. Expansion GridHorizontal diversification: consistsof adding new products Diversificationtechnologically unrelated to the Newexisting products. markets strategy Market Concentric diversificationConglomerate diversification: developmentconsists of seeking new product- strategy Horizontal diversificationmarkets that are unrelated to Conglomerateexisting products. diversification ISB&M Business Marketing
  62. 62. Strategic Planning Process at BU Level Define the business unit’s mission Scanning the ext. env. (Opportunity & threats) Analysis of the int. env. (Strength & weaknesses) Developing objectives & goals Formulating strategies for achieving the goals Preparing programme or action-plan from the strategies Implementing the strategies & action-plan Monitoring results & taking corrective actions (i.e., control) ISB&M Business Marketing
  63. 63. Business Unit’s Mission The business mission statement should have the following components: What business the company is in, & What business it intends to be in? What methods would be uniquely followed (which are different from competitors) in pursuing business activities? What is the social standing of the organization as a business entity? What business the company is in? [Thermometer manufacturer] Customer groups/segments: Who are being satisfied? Which customer groups an SBU intends to satisfy? [Household/Hotels/Health care/ Factories] Customer needs or functions: What needs of customers are being satisfied? [Body temperature/Cooking temperature/Atmospheric temperature/ Process temperature] Technologies used: How customer needs are satisfied? [Mercury-base/Alcohol- base/Digital] ISB&M Business Marketing
  64. 64. SBU’s Objective & Goals Corporate mission Corporate objectives & goals SBU Mission SBU objectives & goals Company history SBU’s business strategy Current preferences Market environment Marketing strategy Company’s resources Company’s core competence ISB&M Business Marketing
  65. 65. Formulating Strategies at BU LevelPorter’s Generic Strategies Framework Strategic Advantage Uniqueness perceived by the customer Low-cost position Strategic Target Industry wide Overall cost Differentiation leadership Particular segment only Focus ISB&M Business Marketing
  66. 66. Developing Industrial Marketing PlanSection ContentsSituational analysis Market situation Includes data on market size, growth, projections, sales, market share , & profits for past 3/5 years. It also indicate target customer needs, buying behavior, buying stage, & buying situations. Competitive situation Consists of identifying, ranking, market share, objectives & strategies, strength & weaknesses, & reaction patterns of major competitors. Product situation Includes data on sales, unit price, profits for each major product item in the product line for past 3/5 years. Macro-env. situation Consists of identifying PEST factors & then forecasting the future trends & the impact on the product.SWOT & issues SWOT analysis Includes identifying major strengths, weaknesses,analysis opportunities, & threats faced by the product. Issues analysis Consists of determining major issues faced by the firm, based on situational & SWOT analysis.Objectives & goals Determine sales, market share, & profit, considering the env. & issues analysis done earlier. ISB&M Business Marketing
  67. 67. Developing Industrial Marketing PlanSection ContentsMarketing strategy Selection of target market segments. Positioning strategy relative to competitors. Marketing-mix strategy. Customer service & marketing research strategy.Action plan Each marketing element is broken down to specific actions to answer: Who will take the specific action, by when, & at what cost?Marketing budget Building the revenue & expenditure budget. Revenue budget includes forecasted sales in units, average unit price, & sales revenue. Expenditure budget includes estimated marketing expenses on personal selling, promotion, distribution, etc.Implementation & control Building marketing org. to implement the marketing plan. Control includes periodic review of actual performance against goals & taking corrective actions.Contingency plans Some firms prepare contingency plans in case uncertain situation arise. ISB&M Business Marketing
  68. 68. Controlling Marketing Performance Setting Goals Performance Measurement Performance Analysis Taking Corrective Actions ISB&M Business Marketing
  69. 69. Types Marketing Controls • The firm’s marketing opportunities & strategies Strategic Control • Use of information technology (Marketing audit) • Impact of changing environment • Strategy implementation • Sales analysis Annual Plan • Market share analysis • Expense-to sales ratio Control • Profit/contribution analysis • Customer satisfaction monitoring • The control system provides information on the resources like money & manpower used in product, Efficiency Control promotion, distribution, & pricing strategies & tactics • Purpose is to find if the company is making or loosing money Profitability • Companies measure the profitability of each product-line & product- Control item, each market segment, each branch, & each distribution channel ISB&M Business Marketing
  70. 70. Product Strategy & New ProductDevelopment
  71. 71. What is an Industrial Product? The industrial product is defined not only as a physical entity, but also as a complex set of economic, technical, legal, & personal relationship between the buyer & the seller. From customer’s point of view, a product is a combination of basic, enhanced, & augmented properties. Basic properties are included in the generic product, with fundamental benefits sought by the customer. Generic products are made differentiable by adding tangible enhanced properties like product features, styling, & quality. Augmented properties include intangible benefits such as technical assistance, availability of spare parts, maintenance & repair services, warranties, training, timely delivery, & attractive commercial payment terms. ISB&M Business Marketing
  72. 72. Changes in Product Strategy Customer Needs Factors determining Technology change in PLC product strategy Govt. Policies / Law ISB&M Business Marketing
  73. 73. Industrial Product Life Cycle – General Model Industrial products typically follow the The behavior of PLC depends on pattern of sales & profits. three factors on which Different marketing strategies are needed management has little or no at different stages of PLC. control. The PLC concept highlights the importance of long-term planning for a new product. Changing Technological needs of Changes Industry customer Sales & Profits sales (Rupees) Changing Industry Competition profits +1 0 -1 Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Time ISB&M Business Marketing
  74. 74. Industrial Product Life Cycle – High-tech Products Sales Time NPD I&G M Decline NPD = New Product Development I&G = Introduction & Growth M = Maturity Period ISB&M Business Marketing
  75. 75. Locating Industrial Products in their Life-Cycle Develop a trend analysis for the past 3-5 years based on information for a product on quality, value of sales, profit %, market share, no. of competitors & prices. Analyze competitors’ market share, product performance, new product introduction, diversification or expansion plans. Estimate & project sales & profits of the product over the next 3-5 years. From the above analysis, fix the product’s position on its life-cycle curve. ISB&M Business Marketing
  76. 76. Developing Product Strategies for ExistingProducts Evaluate the performance of all existing products or product lines by using product evaluation matrix. By using perceptual mapping technique, examine the relative strengths & weaknesses of the company’s products in comparison to competitors’ products. Based on the above analysis, decide the product strategies for the existing products. ISB&M Business Marketing
  77. 77. Product Evaluation Matrix Company Sales Decline Stable Growth Profitability Below Target Above Below Target Above Below Target Above Industry Mkt Sales Share Target Target Target Target Target Target Dominant PGrowth Average Product ‘P’ (Last 3 years) Market Share = 40% Marginal Company Share = 30% Dominant Industry Sales = 25% S1 Profitability = as / target AverageStable S Marginal Product ‘S’ (Last 3 years) Market Share = 12% Dominant Company Share = 15% Average Industry Sales = 16%Decline Profitability = below target MarginalMarket Share less than 10% = MarginalMarket Share between 10% to 30% = AverageMarket Share greater than 30% = Dominant ISB&M Business Marketing
  78. 78. Perceptual Mapping Technique High Quality This technique is used to study the strengths & weaknesses of a firm’s product in comparison B* A1* to that of its competitors. New C* Position Deciding Product Strategies Strong ServiceWeak Service Maintain the product & its marketing strategy. Modify the product & A* change the marketing Old strategy. Position Eliminate the product or product line. Low Quality Add new products or product lines. ISB&M Business Marketing
  79. 79. Product Elimination Dropping the product or product line is the most controversial decision as many stakeholders are threatened by this decision. Factors to be considered: Will the customer relationships be affected? Will the profitability be affected due to change in overhead allocation? What will be the reaction of the employees? Will the sales of other products get affected? Is there a new product to replace the eliminated product? Will the company’s image be affected? What will be the possible competitive reactions? ISB&M Business Marketing
  80. 80. New Product Development Classification of New Products: Products that are innovative & new to the world. Products that are new to the company, but not new to the world. Revisions or improvements to the existing products in the existing markets. Additions to the existing product lines with additional markets. Repositioning existing products to new market segments. Products with substantial cost reductions without reduction in performance. ISB&M Business Marketing
  81. 81. New-Product Development Process Is the new product in line with the long-term objectives & strategies? Do we have adequate resources? Is it useful to the customers? What is the future growth, market size, & competition? A detailed version of the product idea that is stated in a meaningful customers’ terms. The purpose is to develop an estimated projection of the sales, costs, & profitability of the new product for 5-7 years. Design Process Engr. Tooling Mfg Final product Testing Alfa & Beta testing Introduction at trade shows Testing at distributors/dealers showroom Test marketing ISB&M Business Marketing
  82. 82. High-Tech Marketing High-Tech includes a wide range of industries such as telecommunications, computers, software, biotech, & consumer electronics. Two major characteristics that Product distinguish hi-tech marketing are: Technology High Technological Uncertainties High Market Uncertainties Other characteristics that Technology distinguish hi-tech marketing are: High Competitive Volatility Management Process Short life or High-tech products Technology Technology High Development Cost ISB&M Business Marketing
  83. 83. High Technological Uncertainties Will the product function as promised? Will the promised delivery be met? Will the supplier give high quality service? Will there be a risk of obsolescence? Will there be any side effects of the new Product/Service? ISB&M Business Marketing
  84. 84. High Market Uncertainties Which are the customer needs that new technology can meet? How will needs change in future? Will the market accept technical standards? How fast will the innovation spread? What is the size of the potential market? ISB&M Business Marketing
  85. 85. Classification of Marketing Situations Low-tech marketing includes known technology applications to meet clear & well known market needs. E.g., Pump sets Technological Uncertainty High Hi-fashion marketing consists of known & slow changing technology applications to meet difficult to predict consumer needs. E.g., Motion pictures, fashion clothes. Hi-tech marketing consists of Low difficult to predict both technology applications & market. E.g., Biotechnology products. Low High Better mousetrap marketing includes a new technology to meet Market Uncertainty well-established market. E.g., Water purifying system. ISB&M Business Marketing
  86. 86. Technology Adoption Life Cycle Early majority Late majority (34%) (34%) Laggards Early adaptors (16%) (14%) Innovators (3%) Time of Adoption of Innovation ISB&M Business Marketing
  87. 87. Unique nature of High-tech MarketingStrategy Plan Whole Target a Niche Develop Product market Partnerships Properties Unique Distribution Communication Positioning Strategy Strategy Strategy Pricing Strategy ISB&M Business Marketing
  88. 88. Business Communication
  89. 89. Steps to Develop Effective Communication Determine the communication objectives Identifying the Target Audience Determining the Promotional Budget Develop the Message Strategy Select the Media Evaluate the Promotional Results Integrate the Promotional Programme ISB&M Business Marketing
  90. 90. Role of Advertising in Industrial Marketing Creating awareness Reaching members of buying centre Increasing sales efficiency & effectiveness Efficient reminding Sales lead generation Supporting distribution channel members ISB&M Business Marketing
  91. 91. Promotional Tools & Media Promotion Advertising Sales PR & Publicity Direct Personal Tools Promotion marketing Selling Promotion Print media Trade shows Charitable Direct mail Sales calls Media, & donations Promotion General business Exhibitions Adopting Telemarketing Sales Support publications villages presentation Trade journals Catalogues Community On-line Team selling relations marketing channels Industrial Sales contests News item in Relationship directories press marketing Promotional novelties (gifts) Seminars Promotional letters Entertainment ISB&M Business Marketing
  92. 92. Pricing Strategies & Policies
  93. 93. Pricing & Factors Influencing PricingDecision Pricing is the process of Pricing objectives determining what a company will Survival receive in exchange for its products. Maximum short-term profits Pricing factors are manufacturing Maximum short-term sales cost, market place, competition, Maximum sales growth (Market market condition, and quality of penetration) product. Maximum marketing skimming Product-quality leadership Demand analysis Cost analysis Break-even analysis Competitive analysis Government regulations Price discrimination Predatory pricing ISB&M Business Marketing
  94. 94. Cost Behavior at Different Production Levels– Economies of Scale 300 Cost / Unit (in rupees) 200 100 0 100 200 240 300 Quantity Produced / Year (in thousand) ISB&M Business Marketing
  95. 95. The Pricing Strategies Competitive bidding in competitive markets Probabilistic bidding Pricing new products Skimming strategy Penetration strategy Pricing across the product life-cycle Growth stage pricing Maturity stage pricing Decline stage pricing ISB&M Business Marketing
  96. 96. Thank You
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