World War


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World War

  1. 1. 1648 (a turning point) Signing of PEACE OF WESTPHALIA that ended the 30years war 2 principles established by the PEACE OF WESTPHALIA Sovereignty Collective Security
  2. 2. Nation’s Involved CENTRAL POWERS ALLIED POWERS  Austria-Hungary  British Empire  Germany  France  Bulgaria  Russia  Ottoman Empire  SerbiaAlliances  ItalyGermany backed Austria-Hungary and Russia backed Serbia  United States
  3. 3. Nationalism  Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sajarejo(Bosnia) On June28,1914 Heir to the Austria-Hungary’s crown Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia in 1908 (but it was an area claimed by Bosnia) Austria-Hungary Ethnic and linguistic composition was completely mixed, minority groups demanding separation and independence
  4. 4. Rise of Germany Germany’s neighbor(France) became alarmed by Germany’s economic and military strength Germany on the other hand feared encirclementImperialism Germany’s bid for power reflected in the desires for colonies. This antagonized Britain
  5. 5. TheTREATY OF VERSAILLES WASSIGNED ON JUNE 28,1919 Ended the state of war between Germany and allied powers Created the League of Nations Led to WWIIUS->Emergingeconomic powerWhen US came->Germany lost
  6. 6. The fall of Empires: Germany Ottoman Empire Austria-Hungarian Empire are divided into smaller nations
  7. 7. Germany must amid armamentsPay reparationsAdmit guilt in starting warGreat minorities fairly, Germany
  8. 8. AXIS POWERS ALLIED POWERS Germany  United States Italy  France Japan  Britain  USSR
  9. 9. Germany Adolf HitlerBritain Winston ChurchillItaly Benito MussoliniSoviet Union Joseph StalinUS Franklin RooseveltJapan Hideki Tojo
  10. 10. Treaty of Versailles Harsh terms and the ineffective enforcementGermany angered over the war guilt clause Nazi expansionism-> sought to restore Germany to its original borders, expanded to include all Germans Annexed Austria and the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia German people were the master race Lebensraum (living space)
  11. 11. Hitler exploited the nation’s resentment topromote his Facist ideology A totalitarian philosophy of government Glorifies the state and nation Assigns to the state and nation Every aspect of nation lifeLeague of Nations A weak league (US did not join) Unable to prevent German Aggression Adopted a policy of appeasement Giving concessions to an aggressor
  12. 12. Pearl Harbor December 7,1941 Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor which was the principal American Naval Base in the Pacific Japanese Leader’s decided that their only chance to avoid total defeat was to launch a preemptive strike against the US Naval ForceThe Philippines-> Pro-USThe US-> promised independence for Filipino’s
  13. 13. Why? 1931-The US condemned the Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1937-Japan invaded China, the US imposed economic sanctions 1940-Japan occupied French Indochina, the US imposed on embargo(no one can enter/exit a territory on scrap metal & steel) 1941-Japan would not pull of China, the US halted oil experts to Japan and froze Japanese assets, thus restricting Japan’s ability to pay for imports
  14. 14. WWII in Europe ended with theunconditional surrender ofGermany in May1945In the East, the war ended whenJapan surrendered unconditionally onAugust 5, signing their surrender onSeptember 2 following the bombingof Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August
  15. 15. The US and the USSRbecame super powersThe League of Nationsbecame United NationsThe Cold War starts
  16. 16. Each defeated nation has to pay separations and limit the size of its military force