Liberalism and Marxism

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The Globalization of World Politics
Theories of World Politics
Baylis and Smith

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Liberalism and Marxism

  1. 1. LIBERALISM A paradigm predicated to the hope that the application of reason and universal ethics to international relations can lead to a more orderly, just and cooperative world; liberalism assumes that anarchy and war can be policed by institutional reforms that empower international organizational law
  2. 2. ComparisonFeature Realism LiberalismKey Actors States States, International Institutions, Global corporationsKey War and Security (how vulnerable Institutionalized Peace (how selfConcerns self interested states survive in an serving actors learn to see benefits environment where they are to coordinating behavior through uncertain about the intensions rules and organizations in order to and capabilities achieve collective gainCentral Anarchy, Self-help, Balance of Collective Security, Reciprocity,Concerns power, National interest, Relative International regimes, complex Gains independence, transnational relationsApproach to Protect sovereign autonomy Institutional regimes throughPeace Military preparedness & alliances democratization Open marketsGlobal Pessimistic (Negative) Optimistic (Positive)Outlook Great powers are locked in Cooperative view of human nature relentless and security
  3. 3. LIBERAL INTERNATIONALISMKANT & BENTHAMIDEA OF PERPETUAL PEACE• Immanuel Kant • Jeremy Bentham• A federal contract between • Establish a common states to abolish war. This tribunal: federation is likened to a • An extension of the social permanent peace treaty contract between rather than a super state individuals in domestic society to state in the actor or world government international level
  4. 4. LIBERAL INTERNATIONALISMSMITH, RICHARD COBHENHARMONY OF INTERESTS •Free Trade (each country desires profits) • Breaking down the barriers which nestle the feelings (pride, revenge) • Promotion of free trade promotes peace • Treaty between states
  5. 5. IDEALISM (1900’s to the late 1930’s)•Peace can only be secured with the creation of aninternational institution to regulate internationalanarchy•Domestic Analogy • International society must have a system of governance that has democratic procedures and an international force that would be mobilized if negotiations fail
  6. 6. IDEALISM (1900’s to the late 1930’s)•League of Nations • Collective security • The president proposed the League of Nations • USA did not join • ISOLATIONIST(did not want to be dragged into war)
  7. 7. LIBERAL INSTITUTIONALISM•Military & Haas • Transnational cooperation • International and regional institutions • Pluralism (mix of actors)•Keohane & Nye • Transnationalism • Interdependence Ramification •Cooperation in one sector would lead governments to extend the range of collaboration across other sectors •Ex. European Coal and Steel Community, 1952- European Union
  8. 8. NEOLIBERAL INTERNATIONALISM•Democratic Peace Thesis • Doyle: Separate Peace • Liberals do not go to war with other liberal states • Liberals go to war with non-liberal states•Fukuyama: The End of History • Triumph of Liberalism
  9. 9. NEO IDEALISMINTERDEPENDENCE = PEACE•Cosmopolitan model of democracy • To represent civil society • Giving voice to NGOs • Promotes developing countries with voices•Globalization from below • Global civil society groups • Help democratic international crisis group
  10. 10. NEO LIVERALISM INSTITUTIONALISM•Keohane & Nye•Actor- State and Nonstate•Structure- Anarchic (The environment is anarchicbut anarchy can be mitigated with the creation ofinternational regimes•Process- Interdependence and Integration (Statesdoesn’t have to be one but one state will be affectedby the decision of another state
  11. 11. •A State is liberal if there is capitalism and if there isfree trade or freedom of the individual.•Process of a closer union adopting common lawsgive up a part of their sovereignty to join one bigentity•Motivation • States are motivated by absolute gains • Both sides gain something by cooperating
  12. 12. MARXISM The social Historical Class Community world MaterialismChanges in the economic development should be analyzed Economic Bourgeoisie as a totality development is Proletariatwill change the superstructure effectively the motor of history A political theory BASE- advocating SUPERSTRUCTURE class war and leading a Means of production Political and society is Ecological advancement legal institutions publicly owned totality of the material and/by each elements of economic The relationship person works production including the between those who and is paid factories, mines, own the means of according to machinery, tools, raw production and their abilities materials means of those who do not and needs transportation
  13. 13. IMPERIALISM•Lenin :Imperialism is the highest stage”•Rich countries will exploit the poor countries = “neocolonialism”•There is no longer an automatic harmony ofinterest among all workers because “thebourgeoisie will exploit poor countries to help theirproletariat”•There will be no revolution of workers
  14. 14. WORLD SYSTEM THEORY•Prebish “ the declining term of trade”•Rich becomes richer, poor becomes poorer•Walterstein • Core – rich states • Semi-Periphery – Authoritarian Government • Periphery – Non-democratic governments
  15. 15. GRAMSCIANISM•Hegemony “dominant state of the system”•Power as centaur: a mixture of • Coercion – military force, economic sanctions • Consent – other countries should agree that the state(US) is the hegemon (Influence) • To ensure consent of the state through coercion

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