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Ember, C. (2007). Anthropology. Singapore: Pearson Educational South Asia.
Ember, C., Ember, M., & Peregrine, P. (2009). Human evolution and culture: Highlights of anthropology. (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Ervin, A. (2005). Applied anthropology: Tools and perspectives for contemporary practice. Boston: Pearson.

Kottak, C. (2011). Anthropology: Appreciating cultural diversity. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.

Kottak, C. (2008). Anthropology: The explanation of human diversity. Boston: Mc Graw-Hill.

Launda, R. (2010). Core concepts in cultural anthropology. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Nanda, S. (2007). Cultural anthropology. Belmont, California: Walsworth/Thomson Learning.

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  2. 2. Anthropology?It is the discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings Anthropos= man Logos= studyBroader in scope, geographically and historically correct or mistaken beliefs about people
  3. 3. Fields of Anthropology 1. Biological a. Human paleontology b. Human variation 2. Cultural a. Archeology b. Linguistics c. Ethnology 3. Applied Anthropology 4. Archeology
  4. 4. Reflect a possible social concernissue or problem in which you think you would face in the exercise of the profession you are preparing for. How can the discipline of anthropology be used in understanding this concern?
  5. 5. Culture is the entire way of life of society including its customs, values, socialinstitutions, attitudes, music and arts.
  6. 6. Material Culture Made up of the artifactspeople construct on the basis of cultural norms
  7. 7. Non-material Culture Abstract aspect
  8. 8. Non-material Culture 1. Norms Rules of conduct that guide the behavior of people in society Examples:•Obedience to Elders•Applaud after a musicalperformance but not when apriest finishes a sermon
  9. 9. 1.A Folkways Have the force of custom but do not necessarily have a moral connotation Examples:•Simple greetings•Dress code Norms for routine, casual interaction
  10. 10. 1.B Mores Ideas of right or wrong Example: •Not engage in pre-marital sex; concept of morality (not provided by law) •Not engage in infidelity (provided by law)May be sanctified by religion and strengthened by incorporation into a law
  11. 11. 1.C Laws Formalized social norms Examples:•Smoking•Pedestrian Crossing Recognized and should be followed
  12. 12. 2. Cognitive a. Values Culturally defined measures of goodness or desiresExample: equal opportunities for men and women, good looks, success b. Beliefs Example: Pamahiin (Superstitious), Supernatural
  13. 13. Subculture Behavior and value system of agroup which is a part of the society but has a unique cultural patterns Example: subculture of poverty, subculture of students
  14. 14. Counter Culture A subculture which is not merely different but sharply opposed tothe dominant values of the society Examples: Criminals, NPA, CPP
  15. 15. Cultural Relativism Function and meaning of aculture depends on its setting EthnocentrismBelief in the superiority if one’s culture
  16. 16. Culture Shock Reaction on things ortraditions they encounter or the first time Enculturation Process of socialization Learn the culture
  17. 17. Characteristics of Culture• It is learned• It is shared• It is transmitted from one generation to generation• It is adaptive/dynamic• It is diverse• It is integrated• It is symbolic
  18. 18. Features of Human Language Conventionality Human language use a limited number of sounds in combination to make an infinite number of utterances/meanings
  19. 19. Productivity Humans produce and understand an infinite number of utterances they have never said or heard before Eg. I don’t know the man who took the spoonthat Jordan left on the table that was lying upside down in the upstairs hallway of the building that burned down last night.
  20. 20. All human speech is adaptive allows humans to think to plan, coordinate activities to store up knowledge and teach others. Human beings have innate language learning capacity. Eg. Take a child’s initiative in learning language and tospeak grammatically. This potential for speech will only berealized, however, through interaction with other humans speaking a language.
  21. 21. Descriptive/Structural LinguisticsDiscovers the rules that predict how most speakers of a language talk Phonology Pattern/system of sounds Morphology Pattern of sound sequences to form meaningful units Syntax Pattern of phrases and sentences
  22. 22. Historical Linguistics Focuses on how language changesover time records and dates linguistics divergence Geographic separation Racial or social distance Conquest and colonization
  23. 23. What language would a humanspeak if he/she were not taught any particular language? Linguistically impaired Do animals have culture? No, because only humans have culture and humans are able to adapt.
  24. 24. Variations in getting Food Food collectors Horticulturalists Pastoralists Intensive Agriculture
  25. 25. Food Collection• Food getting strategy that obtains wild plants and animals thru hunting (men), gathering (women), scavenging or fishing.• Don’t own land.• Nomadic.• Division of labor in food collecting in based age and gender.
  26. 26. Food Collection Example Hadza of TanzaniaDo not believe that they haveexclusive rights over land on which they hunt
  27. 27. Horticulture• Growing of crops with simple hand• Allocate plots of land to industries or families for their use but don’t own these.• More sedentary communities may more after several years• Exhibit social differentiation part time political officials certain members of a kin group may have more status
  28. 28. Horticulture Example Mundurucu of BrazilThe village controls the rights to use landA person who cultivates the land owns the produce
  29. 29. Pastoralism• Depend on domesticated herds of animals• Animals are owned by industries/families but decisions about where and when to move them are made by the community
  30. 30. Pastoralism Example BasseriHave rights to pass through certain areas but do not own the entire territory Baluch Claim a tribal territory which they defend by force, if necessary
  31. 31. Intensive Agriculture• Cultivate fields permanently rely on mechanization• Individual ownership of land resources• Concept of ownership is a political and social matter
  32. 32. Intensive Agriculture Example Under the Homestead Act of 1862If a person cleared a 160 acre pieceof land and farmed it for 5 years, the federal government would consider that person the owner of the land
  33. 33. Intensive Agriculture societies are more likely to face famines and food shortage than horticultural societies. Why?• They are producing crop for the market• Ergo farmers cultivate plants that give them the higher yield that those that are drought resistant• Farmers also concentrate on one crop. Crop diversity is a protection against total crop failure• There are fluctuations in market demands. If the prices fall for a particular crop, farmers may not have money
  34. 34. Conversion to resources/types of economic production• Domestic family or kinship mode of production• Industrial mechanized production• Tributary, most people produce their own food but an elite or aristocracy controls of production (feudal, medieval, western)• Postindustrial computer drive, machines and robots• Businesses are more knowledgeable
  35. 35. Why do people work?• Household consumption• For survival• Profit motive universal• Need for achievement• Social Rewards• Forced Labor• Taxation Inca Empire in the Central Andres; work for the state or as personal servants; the draft or compulsory military service Emperors of China (Great Wall) Egyptians (Pyramid)
  36. 36. Distribution of Goods and Services Reciprocity Giving and taking without the use of money Generalized Without any apparent expectation Balanced Immediately or in the short term
  37. 37. RedistributionAccumulation of goods by a particular person for subsequent distribution Competitive feasting in New Guinea; produce more than what they need, adaptive in agricultural activities
  38. 38. Market or Commercial ExchangePrices depend on supply and demand Occurs with increasing level of economic productivity