Ethics, Ethnography, Archeology

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Anthropology
REFERENCES:
Ember, C. (2007). Anthropology. Singapore: Pearson Educational South Asia.
Ember, C., Ember, M., & Peregrine, P. (2009). Human evolution and culture: Highlights of anthropology. (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Ervin, A. (2005). Applied anthropology: Tools and perspectives for contemporary practice. Boston: Pearson.

Kottak, C. (2011). Anthropology: Appreciating cultural diversity. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.

Kottak, C. (2008). Anthropology: The explanation of human diversity. Boston: Mc Graw-Hill.

Launda, R. (2010). Core concepts in cultural anthropology. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Nanda, S. (2007). Cultural anthropology. Belmont, California: Walsworth/Thomson Learning.

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Ethics, Ethnography, Archeology

  1. 1. Ethics in Doing ResearchEthnography: Anthropologys Distinctive Strategy Archeology
  2. 2. Ethics in Doing ResearchAsk permission before doing research (confidential reasons)Do not offend them by asking offensive questionsInformants must have a pseudo nameReport what is true and what you seeReport objectively
  3. 3. Ethnography: Anthropologys Distinctive Strategy Simple societies: • Informants (people you interview) • Conversation interviews Informants(people you talk to from time to time) Key informants (people you always talk to) Observation • Participant observation You don’t just observe but you do the activities they hold Rapport (befriend the people), Culture, Language, Professional distance
  4. 4. Ethnography: Anthropologys Distinctive Strategy Genealogical method • deals with the principles of kinship, descent and marriage to reconstruct history and understand reaps. • Ex. Use of symbols. Male Male Female Or Marriage Divorced Female Life histories • provides more info about the study • Ex. (witchcraft)
  5. 5. Survey Research • large, populous societies • respondents • sampling, impersonal data collection and statistical analysis • limitation? Margin of error- you don’t get the opinion of the whole population Just given out, not sure if the participation is guaranteed or if the questionnaire is returned Not a 100% reliable- some people dont take it seriously
  6. 6. Goals of Archaeology• Reconstruction of the past; culture history• Test specific explanations about evolution and behavior• Identify trends and patterns in human biological cultural evolution
  7. 7. Evidence to learn the past Artifacts • Lithics (stone tools) • Ceramics (baked clay) Ecofacts natural objects used by human • Bones of animals; pollen; remains of pets and insects Fossils hardened remains of skeletal system (humans) Features intrinsic feature of the site (cannot move) • Pits, Floors, Building
  8. 8. How sites are createdVolcanic Activity • Mt. PinatuboDirt Accumulation and erosionTaphonomy • Study of the processes of site disturbance and destruction • exercise caution: might damage the site
  9. 9. How sites are foundByAccidentPedestrian SurveyRemote Sensing • examines the earths magnetic or gravitational field
  10. 10. Excavation Goals Dating • Relative Dating -determine the age relative to another specimen or deposit; based on stratography (record of evidences) • Absolute Dating or Chronometric Dating -ex. C14 dating Putall materials in context The deeper the artifact the older it is
  11. 11. References: Ember, C. (2007). Anthropology. Singapore: Pearson Educational South Asia. Ember, C., Ember, M., & Peregrine, P. (2009). Human evolution and culture: Highlights of anthropology. (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Ervin, A. (2005). Applied anthropology: Tools and perspectives for contemporary practice. Boston: Pearson. Kottak, C. (2011). Anthropology: Appreciating cultural diversity. New York: Mc Graw- Hill. Kottak, C. (2008). Anthropology: The explanation of human diversity. Boston: Mc Graw- Hill. Launda, R. (2010). Core concepts in cultural anthropology. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Nanda, S. (2007). Cultural anthropology. Belmont, California: Walsworth/Thomson Learning.
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