Reproductive system

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  • 1. Animal Reproductive System
  • 2. Reproductive System of a Male Dog
  • 3. Functions of the main parts of the Male reproductive system Bladder Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s Gland Sperm duct Penis Urethra Epididymis TestisProduces1. Sperm Scrotum2 Testosterone
  • 4. Functions of the main parts of the Male reproductive system Bladder Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s Gland Sperm duct Penis Urethra Epididymis Testis Stores sperm Scrotum
  • 5. Functions of the main parts of the Male reproductive system Bladder Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s Gland Sperm duct Penis Urethra Epididymis Testis Carries sperm from the Scrotumepididymis to the urethra
  • 6. Functions of the main parts of the Male reproductive system Bladder Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s Gland Sperm duct Penis Urethra Epididymis TestisProduces Seminal Fluid- For sperm to swim in Scrotum- Nourishment for sperm
  • 7. Functions of the main parts of the Male reproductive system Bladder Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s Gland Sperm duct Penis Urethra Epididymis TestisTube through which the sperm travel Scrotum through the penis
  • 8. Functions of the main parts of the Male reproductive system Bladder Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s Gland Sperm duct Penis Urethra Epididymis TestisKeeps testes at a lower Scrotum temperature
  • 9. Functions of the main parts of the Male reproductive system Bladder Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s Gland Sperm duct Penis Urethra Epididymis TestisPlaces sperm in the Scrotumfemales body
  • 10. Summary of functions of main parts of male reproductive system Part Function Testis Produces sperm and testosterone Epididymis Matures and stores sperm Sperm duct Carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra Seminal vesicles, Produces seminal fluid which feeds the sperm andCowper’s gland and allows them to swim. Sperm and seminal fluid are Prostate gland collectively called semen. Urethra Allows the passage of either urine or sperm. Penis Places sperm inside the body of a female Keeps testes at a lower temperature (35°). This is the Scrotum optimum temperature for Meiosis to occur.
  • 11. Reproductive System of a Female Rabbit
  • 12. Functions• Ovary – These produce the eggs and female hormones• Fallopian Tube – Funnels at the tip of each tube catch the egg after it is released from the ovary – The egg is either fertilised or dies in the fallopian tube• Uterus – Also called the womb – embryo implants here and develops into foetus• Vagina – Allows entry of sperm. – Lined with cells that produce mucous. This serves to protect against the entry of pathogens
  • 13. Structure of the Female reproductive system Fallopian tube (Oviduct) Funnel Ovary Ovarian Ligament Uterus Lining of uterus (endometrium)Cervix Wall of uterus Vagina Vulva
  • 14. Functions of the main parts of the female reproductive system Fallopian tube (Oviduct) Funnel Ovary Ovarian Ligament Uterus Lining of uterus (endometrium) Cervix Wall of uterus Vagina Produces : 1. Egg Vulva 2. Oestrogen 3. Progesterone
  • 15. Functions of the main parts of the female reproductive system Fallopian tube (Oviduct) Funnel Ovary Ovarian Ligament Uterus Lining of uterus (endometrium) Cervix Wall of uterus Vagina 1. Catches the egg after release from ovary Vulva 2. Transports egg from ovary to womb 3. Site of fertilisation
  • 16. Functions of the main parts of the female reproductive system Fallopian tube (Oviduct) Funnel Ovary Ovarian Ligament Uterus Lining of uterus (endometrium) Cervix Wall of uterus Vagina 1. Implantation Vulva 2. Hold foetus 3. Forms placenta
  • 17. Functions of the main parts of the female reproductive system Fallopian tube (Oviduct) Funnel Ovary Ovarian Ligament Uterus Lining of uterus (endometrium) Cervix Wall of uterus Vagina Vulva 1. Allows entry of sperm into female system 2. Birth canal to allow exit of baby
  • 18. Summary of functions of main parts of female reproductive system Part Function To produce the egg (ova). To produce the hormones Ovary oestrogen and progesteroneFallopian tube Catches the egg from the ovary and transports it to (oviduct) uterus. Site of fertilisation. Site of implantation. Holds the developing embryo. Has a lining (endometrium) enriched with blood Uterus vessels to nourish the embryo. Forms the placenta. Vagina Allows entry of sperm and exit of baby at birth.
  • 19. Reproductive Terms• Castration – Surgical removal of the testes – Permanent closing of the sperm ducts• Insemination – In many species the male can be artificially stimulated to ejaculate and the semen collected. It can then be diluted, stored and used to inseminate females• Fertilisation – Fusion of the female egg and male sperm nuclei to form diploid zygote• Crossbreeding – A crossbreed or crossbred usually refers to an animal with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations• Hybrids – the offspring resulting from cross-breeding of different plants or animals
  • 20. FertilisationFertilisation is the fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei to form a diploid zygote.
  • 21. FertilisationFertilisation usually occurs in the fallopian tube.
  • 22. FertilisationThe acrosome releases enzymes to digest the egg membrane A number of sperm may reach the egg at the same time. The sperm loses its tail and the head enters the egg. The sperm and egg nuclei fuse to form a zygote A chemical reaction at the membrane prevents other sperm cells entering.
  • 23. Implantation Implantation is the embedding of the fertilised egg into the lining of the uterus• This occurs 6 - 9 days after fertilisation.• By this time the zygote hasgrown into an embryo.• During implantation a membrane called the amnion develops around the embryo. This secretes amniotic fluid which will surround the developing embryo and act as a shock absorber.• After implantation the placenta forms.
  • 24. Zygote Implanted embryoImplantation is the embedding of the fertilised egg into the lining of the uterus
  • 25. Signs of a female in season• When on heat a bitch has a blood stained discharge from the vulva that changes a little later to a straw coloured one that attracts all the dogs in the neighbourhood.• Female cats “call” at night, roll and tread the carpet and are generally restless but will “stand” firm when pressure is placed on the pelvic region (this is the lordosis response).
  • 26. • A female rat shows the lordosis response when on heat. It will “mount” other females and be more active than normal.• A cow mounts other cows (bulling), bellows, is restless and has a discharge from the vulva.
  • 27. Age and Time of Year species will come into season• Only a few animals breed throughout the year. This includes the higher primates (humans, gorillas and chimpanzees etc.), pigs, mice and rabbits. These are known as continuous breeders.• Most other animals restrict reproduction to one or two seasons in the year-seasonal breeders – It means the young can be born at the time (usually spring) when feed is most abundant and temperatures are favourable. – It is also sensible to restrict the breeding season because courtship, mating, gestation and the rearing of young can exhaust the energy resources of an animal as well as make them more vulnerable to predators
  • 28. Photoperiod• The timing of the breeding cycle is often determined by day length. – the shortening day length in autumn will bring sheep and cows into season so the foetus can gestate through the winter and be born in spring. – In cats the increasing day length after the winter solstice (shortest day) stimulates breeding.• The number of times an animal comes into season during the year varies, as does the number of oestrous cycles during each season – a dog usually has 2-3 seasons per year, each usually consisting of just one oestrous cycle. – In contrast ewes usually restrict breeding to one season and can continue to cycle as many as 20 times if they fail to become pregnant.
  • 29. If fertilisation has not occurred the The Menstrual Cycle cycle begins again with the breakdown of the endometrium. 28 1 2 27 26 3 4 DAY 1-5 : Blood from the 25 5 womb lining is shed from 24 the body 23 6 22 7 After day 5 the lining of the uterus repairs and 21 8 builds up again 20 9 19 18 10 Fertile period 17 11 16 12 15 14 13Implantation may happen Ovulation occurs on Day 14
  • 30. Inside the Ovary Developing Graafian follicle – secretes oestrogen Potential eggEgg is released from ovary Graafian follicle now changes to(ovulation) the Corpus luteum which secretes progesterone
  • 31. Graafian follicle Corpus Luteum Oestrogen________ Progesterone _____s eno m o H rrt e m dn E o 5 14 Days 28
  • 32. Hormones• The corpus luteum continues to secrete progesterone and oestrogen during pregnancy. These maintain the lining of the uterus and prepare the mammary glands for milk secretion. Later in the pregnancy the placenta itself takes over the secretion of these hormones.• Chorionic gonadotrophin is another hormone secreted by the placenta and placental membranes. It prevents uterine contractions before labour and prepares the mammary glands for lactation.• Towards the end of pregnancy the placenta and ovaries secrete relaxin, a hormone that eases the joint between the two parts of the pelvis and helps dilate the cervix ready for birth.
  • 33. Main Differences between Animal and Avian Reproduction• Male birds have testes and sperm ducts and male swans, ducks, geese and ostriches have a penis. However, most birds make do with a small amount of erectile tissue known as a papilla.• To reduce weight for flight most female birds only have one ovary - usually the left, which produces extremely yolky eggs. The eggs are fertilised in the upper part of the oviduct (equivalent to the fallopian tube and uterus of mammals) and as they pass down it albumin (the white of the egg), the membrane beneath the shell and the shell are laid down over the yolk. Finally the egg is covered in a layer of mucus to help the bird lay it
  • 34. • Most birds lay their eggs in a nest and the hen sits on them until they hatch. Ducklings and chicks are relatively well developed when they hatch and able to forage for their own food. Most other nestlings need their parents to keep them warm, clean and fed. Young birds grow rapidly and have voracious appetites that may involve the parents making up to 1000 trips a day to supply their need for food.
  • 35. Main Differences between Animal and Avian Reproduction• Some male birds have a penis but most have a small amount of erectile tissue known as a papilla• All females have only one ovary to reduce weight.
  • 36. Female Reproductive Organs of a Bird
  • 37. InfertilityInfertility is the inability of a pair of mates to achieve conception.
  • 38. Male infertility disorders• Low sperm count – Refers to a low number of sperm per ml of seminal fluid.• Low sperm mobility - If movement of the sperm is slow, not in a straight line or both, the sperm may have difficulty passing through the cervical mucous or penetrating the shell of the egg.• Endocrine gland failure – A failure of the testes to produce sperm
  • 39. Low sperm countCauses:• Abnormalities in sperm production or obstruction of the tubes through which sperm travels
  • 40. Low sperm countTreatment• A change in diet• Medication
  • 41. Female infertility disorders• Blockage of the Fallopian Tube – Scarring of the fallopian tube can block the passage of the egg to the uterus• Endocrine gland failure – A failure of the ovaries to produce an egg
  • 42. Blockage of the fallopian tubesCauses:• Fragments of the uterus lining may spread to the fallopian tube• Inflammation as a result of infectionTreatment• In-vitro fertilisation (I.V.F.)