Agriculture is equal to life for all of the country and society
Today, nearly 1/3 rd of the population live in agricultural orrural areas. Agriculture’s place in the national income isonly at the 8 – 10 % percent level. In developed countriesthis situation is much more different, the population’s 3 – 5% percent part works in agriculture. During the process ofThe European Union membership, agriculture andindustry’s political policies need to be applied in harmonyand in Turkey agriculture’s problems can be solved withonly excessive accumulation and investment. Thedisintegration seen in the agricultural sector, causesunqualified labor force to head towards cities and especiallywestern cities and this process accelerates social problemsas well as the unemployment rate.
Agriculture is one of the basicsectors for Turkish Economy
Although the contribution of exports in termsadded value and employment. The labor force andprovides are living for the population of our countryoccupies an important position in terms of volume.Agricultural policies implemented in Turkey, it hasbeen widely discussed over the past decade."Economic denounces the traditional agriculturalpolicies and political events that are open to abuseis no longer lost" jurisdiction, creating a commondenominator of the discussions, recommendationsfor new policies are different.
Agricultural policies determite the way for success
Agricultural policies, it creates one of the most importantconstraints that appear in front of policy makers in thepublic finance deficit. On the other hand largely dominatedby political concerns of the 1990s turned into duty losses ofagricultural support programs fostering public financingdeficits.However, without financial constraints, a common andcontinuous government support to the agricultural sector ofthe market mechanism insensitive, competitive conditionsand prevent the formation of agricultural holdings should benoted that an effective and powerful. Outward-orientedgrowth strategy since the early 1980s in Turkey, creatingthe international policies and developments in agriculturalpolicies can not be considered to remain indifferent. In aworld that has the economic globalization process thesedevelopments, as required to be reckoned with at everystage becomes a constraint.
Related to the agricultural sector as the most importantdevelopment in recent years in the world, which comes into effectin 1995. The World Trade Organization (WTO) "AgricultureAgreement" . This agreement is also important for Turkey,agricultural policies and support for government intervention inagricultural production are minimized as possible and hasadopted as a general trend of change in the release of theorientation of the market mechanism. On the other hand theEuropean Union (EU) implemented in 1996 within the frameworkof full membership in the Customs Union (CU) Agreement tocover agricultural products, the Turkish agricultural policies, "theCommon Agricultural Policy" (CAP) is consistent with. CAP’scompliance, in fact, the WTO, "Agriculture Agreement" with thepolicy changes to raise the same direction. These two constraintsin most developing countries like Turkey, which appeared outsidethe external constraint in the other, establishing a framework foragricultural liberalization in the International Monetary Fund (IMF)and the structural adjustment programs signed.
Economic size of agricultural production in Turkey
4 million to 18 million hectares of farm land is in cropproduction. This is the number of farms in three million to 12million hectares of meadows and pasture at the same time15 million cattle, 60 million small ruminants feeds. 92percent of the producers are very small producers, theyhave an average total of 65 acres of agricultural land in parts2-6. Small businesses all over the classical method and yieldof 14 million hectares of land has low agricultural operations.The number of medium-sized agricultural holdings is 680thousand units, the sum of their average 500-100 acres ofagricultural land in parts 2-3 / acre varies. 2.1 millionhectares is operated on the part of modern agriculture. Upto 40 thousand is a large number of holdings of 2.2 millionhectares of land is on the efficient management of a farm.U.S. and EU agricultural producers of the country, 2.5 timesthe size of the land to produce agricultural products, animalfeeds, and Turkey to more than twice the presence ofanimals.
Exports of Turkish Agricultural Products
Mainly exported to Turkish markets, the appropriate species /breeds does not make production. Countries agricultural exportmarkets, the basic measure of a leaderby producing more than 20percent of the population need to export the product that theycaught the target.Measure of exports agricultural products produced in the standardone-fifth of the quantity and quality is protected.2 percent of the cereal crop is exported to Turkey. Market insteadof being prescriptive, law-abiding country. Average of 50 countriesthat export fruit and vegetables in 60 countries, the focal point ofthe problem for Turkey, product quality and less quantity ratio.Use of the soils in Turkey according to the intended use of theterritory of our country is divided as follows:Cultivated land is planted area: 174,480,000 acresFallow land: 36,551,000 acresForestry: 192,376,000 acresBearing: 113,403,000 acres Grassland: an unused area of 123,776,000 acres: 662,195,000acres.
Surface area of cultivated land by Region Plantation area Rates:1. Marmara Region: 30%2. Central Anatolia Region: 27%3. Aegean Region: 24%4. South Eastern Anatolia Region: 20%5. Mediterranean Region: 18%6. Black Sea Region: 16%7. Eastern Anatolia Region: 10%
Overview of Agriculture Sector in Turkey
Turkey, its geographical location, climate, facilities,mostly young, on the 70 million population,increasing purchasing power and expandingdomestic market due to a very advantageousposition compared to many countries.Local Benefits- Geographically, the most suitable climate, acountry with enough natural resources.- Increasing population and buying power with thecapacity to support the agricultural sector.
Foreign Market Advantage- European countries are having problems of climate.- Middle East and North Africa have climate and available waterproblem.- Russia and the Turkic Republics in agriculture due to climateproblems are just in need of foreign purchase.- Increasing the purchasing power of oil every day throughout thiscountry have.- Especially in the emerging manufacturing technologies and theadvantages of the climate of our country in many agriculturalproducts year-round to produce the specific standards and has thepotential to marketing these products.Advantages of the product- Overseas demand for economic production of many products thatcan be done in our country.- Turkey is located in the world in the production of agriculturalproducts grown a lot.
Impact of Agricultural Economy in Turkey
Agricultural exports surpassed U.S. $ 15 billion atthe end of 2010, but there is still a very bigpotential.- The population is 1 / 3 of the third agricultural activitiesprovide livelihood.- One out of every 4 Employees working in agriculture.- Agricultural production has exceeded the annual 62 billiondollars.- The majority of uses of agricultural materials as rawmaterials in industrial plants in Turkey. This situation is ofgreat importance in the development of the industry.- Agricultural exports in total exports with 15 billion dollarshas a significant share of 13.2%. Exports, nuts, citrus,cotton, tobacco, oil crops, olive and agricultural productslike tea occupies an important place.
The future of agriculture in Turkey
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, agriculturalproduction, $ 150 billion in 2023, provides for exports wouldbe 30 billion dollars.Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs last 5 years,significant amounts of agricultural production increased, theagricultural production in 2002 of $ 23.7 billion by the year2010 reached $ 62 billion announced. The Ministry ismanaging the development process on behalf of the planconcentrates on the control and recording systems. Easyintegration of these systems are common uses of thetechnology production sectors. In other words, instead ofthe traditional methods of agricultural production, focuseson high-capacity models of agricultural production.
In these circumstances and under cover of Dairy Cattlefarming practices that will gain importance in theadaptation capability in the future. Both domesticproduction and exports of both agricultural activity will bea major force in increasing our share.All of these applications and the development processwill be an important criterion business size. Because ofthe high cost of these investments will bring. Capitalstructure of the available capacity of non-smallbusinesses that are inevitable in the long term, non-system will inevitably fail to fulfill the conditions. As aresult, agricultural, educated, informed, investors whotake care of the economies of scale will be needed.
Target 2023 to 150 billion USDollar of agricultural production!
- Quality standards will be important in agricultureand food security. For this reason, the capacity andquality will increase the number of businessesdeclined.- Products able to compete in foreign markets willincrease with the planned arrangements. Will beimportant, especially fresh fruits and vegetables.- Organized livestock zones will be established.- Contract production and organic agriculture willcome to the fore.- R & D investments will increase its support of theState.- The majority of investors in high-tech agriculturalactivities will be managed.