Indian Politics


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Indian Politics

  1. 1. Politics of India
  2. 2. India
  3. 3. Republic of India <ul><li>A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government </li></ul><ul><li>capital: New Delhi </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2nd most populous nation <ul><li>Population: over one billion </li></ul><ul><li>Growing at 1.5% a year </li></ul>
  5. 5. Population in 2005
  6. 6. A nation of diversity: languages <ul><li>Constitution lists 14 official “principal languages” </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>Hindi (30%) </li></ul>
  7. 7. A nation of diversity: religions <ul><li>Religions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu (~81%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim (~12%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others (e.g. Buddhist 0.7%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>all major religions in the world are present </li></ul><ul><li>one of the major causes of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>religion can become a political vehicle for social movement </li></ul>
  8. 8. Brief history <ul><li>One of the world’s oldest civilizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5,000 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>foreign incursions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aryans, Arabs, Turks, Portugal, France, and Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from 1,500 B.C. to 19th Century A.D. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 190 years of British colonial rule <ul><li>Informal colonial rule through the British East India Company (1750s-1850s) </li></ul><ul><li>formal colonial rule after the Mutiny rebellion of 1857 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Struggle for independence <ul><li>Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 </li></ul><ul><li>non-violent resistance to colonial rule </li></ul><ul><li>Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transformed INC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unity within diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-cooperation movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nehru (1889-1964) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Independence & partition <ul><li>Division of the subcontinent (1947) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Republic of India <ul><li>Prime Minister Nehru (1947-1964) </li></ul><ul><li>His daughter (Indira Gandhi) as Prime Minister (1966-1977, 1980-1984) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nehru’s legacies <ul><li>His grandson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rajiv Gandhi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Minister (1984-1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>His granddaughter-in-law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonja Gandhi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress party president (1999 - ) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. World’s largest democracy <ul><li>Resilient democratic institutions, processes, and legitimacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>except 1975-1977 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indira Gandhi declared national emergency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>politics in India is characterized by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>governments of precarious coalitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weakened political institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>political activism along ethnic lines </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Turnout % in General Elections
  16. 16. A federal system <ul><li>28 states and 6 centrally administered Union Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Federal system <ul><li>Relatively centralized </li></ul><ul><li>federal government controls the most essential government functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foreign policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>taxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic (industrial) planning </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The legislature <ul><li>Parliamentary system of government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The legislature <ul><li>bicameral Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rajya Sabha (Council of States) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lok Sabha (House of the People) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Elections to Lok Sabha <ul><li>Vote share of 3 major political parties </li></ul>
  21. 21. Prime Minister <ul><li>Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister </li></ul><ul><li>prime minister nominates a cabinet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>members of Parliament in the ruling coalition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where most of the important policies originate </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Prime Ministers of India <ul><li>38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family </li></ul><ul><li>more and more rapid turnover </li></ul>
  23. 23. Economic development <ul><li>Under Prime Minister Nehru’s rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>private property and government guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>powerful planning commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>government rules and regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opportunities and incentives for corruption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-sufficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>domestic sector was protected from foreign competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protected industries became inefficient </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Economic development <ul><li>The “green revolution” in agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new agricultural strategy in late 1960s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India became self-sufficient in food </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Economic development <ul><li>state-led economic development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>government-planned private economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>substantial industrial base </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Economic liberalization <ul><li>Dissatisfaction with the relatively slow economic growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dismantle controls over private sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>further integrate into global economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial crisis in early 1990s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emergency funds from IMF & World Bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conditional on economic liberalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reduce government budget deficit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>selling government shares in public enterprises </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Foreign direct investment
  28. 28. Economic liberalization <ul><li>Economic performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>average growth rate of 6% since 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purchasing power parity GDP: $3 trillion </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Economic liberalization <ul><li>India has large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India is a major exporter of software services and software workers </li></ul></ul>