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Indian Politics
 

Indian Politics

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    Indian Politics Indian Politics Presentation Transcript

    • Politics of India
    • India
    • Republic of India
      • A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government
      • capital: New Delhi
    • 2nd most populous nation
      • Population: over one billion
      • Growing at 1.5% a year
    • Population in 2005
    • A nation of diversity: languages
      • Constitution lists 14 official “principal languages”
      • English
      • Hindi (30%)
    • A nation of diversity: religions
      • Religions:
        • Hindu (~81%)
        • Muslim (~12%)
        • others (e.g. Buddhist 0.7%)
      • all major religions in the world are present
      • one of the major causes of conflict
      • religion can become a political vehicle for social movement
    • Brief history
      • One of the world’s oldest civilizations
        • 5,000 years
      • foreign incursions
        • Aryans, Arabs, Turks, Portugal, France, and Britain
        • from 1,500 B.C. to 19th Century A.D.
    • 190 years of British colonial rule
      • Informal colonial rule through the British East India Company (1750s-1850s)
      • formal colonial rule after the Mutiny rebellion of 1857
    • Struggle for independence
      • Indian National Congress was formed in 1885
      • non-violent resistance to colonial rule
      • Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
        • transformed INC
        • unity within diversity
        • non-cooperation movement
      • Nehru (1889-1964)
    • Independence & partition
      • Division of the subcontinent (1947)
        • India
        • Pakistan
    • Republic of India
      • Prime Minister Nehru (1947-1964)
      • His daughter (Indira Gandhi) as Prime Minister (1966-1977, 1980-1984)
    • Nehru’s legacies
      • His grandson
        • Rajiv Gandhi
        • Prime Minister (1984-1989)
      • His granddaughter-in-law
        • Sonja Gandhi
        • Congress party president (1999 - )
    • World’s largest democracy
      • Resilient democratic institutions, processes, and legitimacy
        • except 1975-1977
        • Indira Gandhi declared national emergency
      • politics in India is characterized by
        • governments of precarious coalitions
        • weakened political institutions
        • political activism along ethnic lines
    • Turnout % in General Elections
    • A federal system
      • 28 states and 6 centrally administered Union Territories
        • 2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China
    • Federal system
      • Relatively centralized
      • federal government controls the most essential government functions
        • defense
        • foreign policy
        • taxation
        • public expenditures
        • economic (industrial) planning
    • The legislature
      • Parliamentary system of government
        • the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament
    • The legislature
      • bicameral Parliament
        • Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
        • Lok Sabha (House of the People)
    • Elections to Lok Sabha
      • Vote share of 3 major political parties
    • Prime Minister
      • Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister
      • prime minister nominates a cabinet
        • members of Parliament in the ruling coalition
        • Council of Ministers
      • effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister
        • where most of the important policies originate
    • Prime Ministers of India
      • 38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family
      • more and more rapid turnover
    • Economic development
      • Under Prime Minister Nehru’s rule
        • private property and government guidance
        • powerful planning commission
        • government rules and regulations
          • opportunities and incentives for corruption
        • self-sufficiency
          • domestic sector was protected from foreign competition
          • protected industries became inefficient
    • Economic development
      • The “green revolution” in agriculture
        • new agricultural strategy in late 1960s
        • seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation
        • India became self-sufficient in food
    • Economic development
      • state-led economic development
        • government-planned private economy
        • substantial industrial base
    • Economic liberalization
      • Dissatisfaction with the relatively slow economic growth
        • dismantle controls over private sector
        • further integrate into global economy
      • Financial crisis in early 1990s
        • emergency funds from IMF & World Bank
        • conditional on economic liberalization
          • reduce government budget deficit
          • selling government shares in public enterprises
    • Foreign direct investment
    • Economic liberalization
      • Economic performance
        • average growth rate of 6% since 1990
        • reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points
        • purchasing power parity GDP: $3 trillion
    • Economic liberalization
      • India has large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language
        • India is a major exporter of software services and software workers