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electric vs fuel injector cars

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electric vs fuel injector cars

electric vs fuel injector cars

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Super Cars Anil Kumar ISMC
    • 2. Topics
      • Electric Vehicles (EVs)
      • Fuel Cell Vehicles
    • 3. Electrical Vehicles Outline
      • Introduction
      • Background
      • How an EV works
      • Batteries used in EVs
      • Efficiency of electric motors
      • Benefits
      • Disadvantages
      • Future outlooks
      • Summary
    • 4. Introduction
      • What is an EV?
      • -A vehicle that is
      • run by electrical
      • power instead of
      • gasoline
    • 5. History of Electrical Powered Vehicles
      • EVs were built starting in the late 1890s
      • Outnumbered gasoline powered cars 10:1
      • Hand assembled
      • Declined due to gasoline-car assembly line
    • 6. How does an EV work?
      • Charged overnight
      • Twelve to twenty-four batteries used
      • Batteries run the electric motor and motor runs wheels
      • Energy density and power density depend on the types of batteries used
    • 7. Batteries
      • Nickel Metal Hydride (“NiMH”)
          • Higher energy densities
          • Environmentally friendly
          • Higher self-discharge
          • Easy storage and transportaation
      • Nickel Cadmium
          • Quick and easy charge
          • Good load performance
          • Good low temperature performance
          • Must be periodically used or large crystals will form on the cell plates (memory effect)
          • Contains toxic metals
      • Lithium-Ion
          • Used in consumer electronics
          • One of the best energy-to-weight ratios
          • Short life-span if not taken care of properly
          • Low-self discharge
    • 8. Batteries (continued)
      • Lithium-Ion Polymer
          • 20% higher energy density than Li-ion batteries
          • Greater life cycle than Li-ion
      • Sodium Sulfur
          • Batteries will freeze if left unused for too long
          • 15X more electrical energy than lead-acid batteries
      • Lead-Acid
          • Used in gasoline vehicles
    • 9. Efficiency of Electric Motors
      • Loading between 75% and 100% of full power rating
      • Heavier copper wire, higher core-steel grade, thinner core laminations, better bearings and reduced windage design help give more efficiency
    • 10. Benefits
      • Lowers fuel dependency from other nations
      • Fuel would be used at least 30% less if more EV cars were used
      • Cheaper than gasoline
      • No oil changes or smog checks
      • No spark plugs, fuel pump, valves, transmission, clutch, crankshaft, flywheel, starter motor, or any other fuel-run equipment. Will not have any problems related to any of these objects
      • Brakes become generators and produce more electrical power = regenerative braking
    • 11. Disadvantages
      • Limited range
      • Not enough charging stations
      • Constant cooling of batteries so vehicle can perform at its best
      • Ideal for driving only in city ranges
    • 12. Future Outlooks for EVs
      • More charging stations contributed by government
      • Marketing more EVs = more affordable
    • 13. Summary
      • Introduce an EV
      • History of EVS
      • How an EV operates
      • Various batteries used in EVs
      • Efficiency of electric motors
      • Benefits of owning an EV
      • Disadvantages of owning an EV
      • Future outlooks for EVs
    • 14. *Fuel Cell Cars* Topics:
      • What are Fuel Cells?
      • The History
      • How a Fuel Cell Works
      • Single Cell v. Stack
      • The Advantages Disadvantages
      • Cars of today and tomorrow
    • 15. Introduction
      • Internal Combustion engines:
        • not environmentally friendly.
        • emit gases that cause global warming.
        • Gas is really expensive
        • What can we do about this??
    • 16. What is a Fuel Cell
      • “ A fuel cell is an electrochemical direct energy conversion device which uses a single-step energy conversion process directly from chemical energy to electric energy” (Montes).
    • 17. History
      • Sir William Grove(1839)- completed experiments on the electrolysis of water
      • Francis Bacon (1932)- made 1 st successful fuel cell (<http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/FuelCell/History.htm> )
      • 1950’s NASA used fuel cells on some of the Apollo missions.
    • 18. The Fuel Cell
      • Air from the atmosphere and hydrogen from a compressed tank are sent through the cell creating an reaction
      • Has a Proton Exchange Membrane(PEM) that only allows protons to go through.
      • Electrons moving around external circuit produce electrical energy.
      http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fc_pics/fuel_cell_still.gif http:// www.gl-group.com/images/glgroup/fuel_cells_working_principle.jpg
    • 19. Fuel Cell Assembly
      • Hydrogen goes through vertical flow path
      • Oxygen goes through Horizontal flow path
      • Catalyst and an electrolyte is placed in between plates
    • 20. Single Cell vs. Stack
      • Many Cells + Many Cells = A stack
    • 21. Where to get the Hydrogen?
        • Hydrocarbon Fuels:
          • Methane, Gasoline, Natural Gas, Ethanol, etc.
        • Water (H 2 O)
        • Solar power
        • Algae
      • Hydrogen:
        • Compressed into a 5000 psi or more tank
    • 22. The Car– The Motor and other power sources
      • Has an electric induction motor and electric power inverter
      • Batteries are used as an alternate source of power
      • Regenerative braking
    • 23. The Advantages
      • Only emits water
      • Easy to find hydrogen
      • More energy efficient
      • Low Maintenance
      • Quiet
      http:// www.googobits.com/articles/p2-2840-fuel-cells-engines-of-the-future.html
    • 24. The disadvantages
      • Currently expensive
      • Hydrogen is easily combustible
      • Difficult to store and has to be pure
      • Has to be taken from other materials  more energy costs
      • Platinum is rare and expensive.
      http:// www.googobits.com/articles/p2-2840-fuel-cells-engines-of-the-future.html
    • 25. Some of the Cars
      • Two 5000 psi aluminum tanks on board
      • 80 Horsepower, 201 lbs of torque
      • Can go 170 miles
      • 93 mph (top speed)
      http://www.aiada.org/images/news_photos/Honda_FCX.jpg
    • 26. Summary
      • What is a fuel cell?
      • How a fuel cell works
      • The advantages
      • The disadvantages
      • Sources for Hydrogen
      • The cars of Tomorrow

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