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electric vs fuel injector cars

electric vs fuel injector cars



electric vs fuel injector cars

electric vs fuel injector cars



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electric vs fuel injector cars electric vs fuel injector cars Presentation Transcript

  • Super Cars Anil Kumar ISMC
  • Topics
    • Electric Vehicles (EVs)
    • Fuel Cell Vehicles
  • Electrical Vehicles Outline
    • Introduction
    • Background
    • How an EV works
    • Batteries used in EVs
    • Efficiency of electric motors
    • Benefits
    • Disadvantages
    • Future outlooks
    • Summary
  • Introduction
    • What is an EV?
    • -A vehicle that is
    • run by electrical
    • power instead of
    • gasoline
  • History of Electrical Powered Vehicles
    • EVs were built starting in the late 1890s
    • Outnumbered gasoline powered cars 10:1
    • Hand assembled
    • Declined due to gasoline-car assembly line
  • How does an EV work?
    • Charged overnight
    • Twelve to twenty-four batteries used
    • Batteries run the electric motor and motor runs wheels
    • Energy density and power density depend on the types of batteries used
  • Batteries
    • Nickel Metal Hydride (“NiMH”)
        • Higher energy densities
        • Environmentally friendly
        • Higher self-discharge
        • Easy storage and transportaation
    • Nickel Cadmium
        • Quick and easy charge
        • Good load performance
        • Good low temperature performance
        • Must be periodically used or large crystals will form on the cell plates (memory effect)
        • Contains toxic metals
    • Lithium-Ion
        • Used in consumer electronics
        • One of the best energy-to-weight ratios
        • Short life-span if not taken care of properly
        • Low-self discharge
  • Batteries (continued)
    • Lithium-Ion Polymer
        • 20% higher energy density than Li-ion batteries
        • Greater life cycle than Li-ion
    • Sodium Sulfur
        • Batteries will freeze if left unused for too long
        • 15X more electrical energy than lead-acid batteries
    • Lead-Acid
        • Used in gasoline vehicles
  • Efficiency of Electric Motors
    • Loading between 75% and 100% of full power rating
    • Heavier copper wire, higher core-steel grade, thinner core laminations, better bearings and reduced windage design help give more efficiency
  • Benefits
    • Lowers fuel dependency from other nations
    • Fuel would be used at least 30% less if more EV cars were used
    • Cheaper than gasoline
    • No oil changes or smog checks
    • No spark plugs, fuel pump, valves, transmission, clutch, crankshaft, flywheel, starter motor, or any other fuel-run equipment. Will not have any problems related to any of these objects
    • Brakes become generators and produce more electrical power = regenerative braking
  • Disadvantages
    • Limited range
    • Not enough charging stations
    • Constant cooling of batteries so vehicle can perform at its best
    • Ideal for driving only in city ranges
  • Future Outlooks for EVs
    • More charging stations contributed by government
    • Marketing more EVs = more affordable
  • Summary
    • Introduce an EV
    • History of EVS
    • How an EV operates
    • Various batteries used in EVs
    • Efficiency of electric motors
    • Benefits of owning an EV
    • Disadvantages of owning an EV
    • Future outlooks for EVs
  • *Fuel Cell Cars* Topics:
    • What are Fuel Cells?
    • The History
    • How a Fuel Cell Works
    • Single Cell v. Stack
    • The Advantages Disadvantages
    • Cars of today and tomorrow
  • Introduction
    • Internal Combustion engines:
      • not environmentally friendly.
      • emit gases that cause global warming.
      • Gas is really expensive
      • What can we do about this??
  • What is a Fuel Cell
    • “ A fuel cell is an electrochemical direct energy conversion device which uses a single-step energy conversion process directly from chemical energy to electric energy” (Montes).
  • History
    • Sir William Grove(1839)- completed experiments on the electrolysis of water
    • Francis Bacon (1932)- made 1 st successful fuel cell (<http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/FuelCell/History.htm> )
    • 1950’s NASA used fuel cells on some of the Apollo missions.
  • The Fuel Cell
    • Air from the atmosphere and hydrogen from a compressed tank are sent through the cell creating an reaction
    • Has a Proton Exchange Membrane(PEM) that only allows protons to go through.
    • Electrons moving around external circuit produce electrical energy.
    http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fc_pics/fuel_cell_still.gif http:// www.gl-group.com/images/glgroup/fuel_cells_working_principle.jpg
  • Fuel Cell Assembly
    • Hydrogen goes through vertical flow path
    • Oxygen goes through Horizontal flow path
    • Catalyst and an electrolyte is placed in between plates
  • Single Cell vs. Stack
    • Many Cells + Many Cells = A stack
  • Where to get the Hydrogen?
      • Hydrocarbon Fuels:
        • Methane, Gasoline, Natural Gas, Ethanol, etc.
      • Water (H 2 O)
      • Solar power
      • Algae
    • Hydrogen:
      • Compressed into a 5000 psi or more tank
  • The Car– The Motor and other power sources
    • Has an electric induction motor and electric power inverter
    • Batteries are used as an alternate source of power
    • Regenerative braking
  • The Advantages
    • Only emits water
    • Easy to find hydrogen
    • More energy efficient
    • Low Maintenance
    • Quiet
    http:// www.googobits.com/articles/p2-2840-fuel-cells-engines-of-the-future.html
  • The disadvantages
    • Currently expensive
    • Hydrogen is easily combustible
    • Difficult to store and has to be pure
    • Has to be taken from other materials  more energy costs
    • Platinum is rare and expensive.
    http:// www.googobits.com/articles/p2-2840-fuel-cells-engines-of-the-future.html
  • Some of the Cars
    • Two 5000 psi aluminum tanks on board
    • 80 Horsepower, 201 lbs of torque
    • Can go 170 miles
    • 93 mph (top speed)
  • Summary
    • What is a fuel cell?
    • How a fuel cell works
    • The advantages
    • The disadvantages
    • Sources for Hydrogen
    • The cars of Tomorrow