Super Cars Anil Kumar ISMC
Topics  <ul><li>Electric Vehicles (EVs) </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Cell Vehicles </li></ul>
Electrical Vehicles Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>How an EV works </li></ul>...
Introduction <ul><li>What is an EV? </li></ul><ul><li>-A vehicle that is  </li></ul><ul><li>  run by electrical  </li></ul...
History of Electrical Powered Vehicles <ul><li>EVs were built starting in the late 1890s </li></ul><ul><li>Outnumbered gas...
How does an EV work? <ul><li>Charged overnight </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve to twenty-four batteries used </li></ul><ul><li>Ba...
Batteries <ul><li>Nickel Metal Hydride (“NiMH”) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher energy densities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>...
Batteries (continued) <ul><li>Lithium-Ion Polymer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% higher energy density than Li-ion batterie...
Efficiency of Electric Motors <ul><li>Loading between 75% and 100% of full power rating </li></ul><ul><li>Heavier copper w...
Benefits <ul><li>Lowers fuel dependency from other nations </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel would be used at least 30% less if more ...
Disadvantages <ul><li>Limited range </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough charging stations </li></ul><ul><li>Constant cooling of b...
Future Outlooks for EVs <ul><li>More charging stations contributed by government </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing more EVs = mo...
Summary <ul><li>Introduce an EV </li></ul><ul><li>History of EVS </li></ul><ul><li>How an EV operates </li></ul><ul><li>Va...
*Fuel Cell Cars*   Topics: <ul><li>What are Fuel Cells? </li></ul><ul><li>The History </li></ul><ul><li>How a Fuel Cell Wo...
Introduction <ul><li>Internal Combustion engines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not environmentally friendly. </li></ul></ul><ul><...
What is a Fuel Cell <ul><li>“ A fuel cell is an electrochemical direct energy conversion device which uses a single-step e...
History <ul><li>Sir William Grove(1839)- completed experiments on the electrolysis of water  </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Bac...
The Fuel Cell <ul><li>Air from the atmosphere and hydrogen from a compressed tank are sent through the cell creating an re...
Fuel Cell Assembly <ul><li>Hydrogen goes through vertical flow path </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen goes through Horizontal flow ...
Single Cell vs. Stack <ul><li>Many Cells + Many Cells = A stack </li></ul>
Where to get the Hydrogen? <ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon Fuels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane, Gasoline, Natural Gas, E...
The Car– The Motor and other power sources <ul><li>Has an electric induction motor and electric power inverter </li></ul><...
The Advantages <ul><li>Only emits water </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to find hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>More energy efficient </...
The disadvantages <ul><li>Currently expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is easily combustible </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult...
Some of the Cars <ul><li>Two 5000 psi aluminum tanks on board </li></ul><ul><li>80 Horsepower, 201 lbs of torque </li></ul...
Summary <ul><li>What is a fuel cell? </li></ul><ul><li>How a fuel cell works </li></ul><ul><li>The advantages </li></ul><u...
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  • electric vs fuel injector cars

    1. 1. Super Cars Anil Kumar ISMC
    2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Electric Vehicles (EVs) </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Cell Vehicles </li></ul>
    3. 3. Electrical Vehicles Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>How an EV works </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries used in EVs </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of electric motors </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Future outlooks </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>What is an EV? </li></ul><ul><li>-A vehicle that is </li></ul><ul><li> run by electrical </li></ul><ul><li> power instead of </li></ul><ul><li> gasoline </li></ul>
    5. 5. History of Electrical Powered Vehicles <ul><li>EVs were built starting in the late 1890s </li></ul><ul><li>Outnumbered gasoline powered cars 10:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Hand assembled </li></ul><ul><li>Declined due to gasoline-car assembly line </li></ul>
    6. 6. How does an EV work? <ul><li>Charged overnight </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve to twenty-four batteries used </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries run the electric motor and motor runs wheels </li></ul><ul><li>Energy density and power density depend on the types of batteries used </li></ul>
    7. 7. Batteries <ul><li>Nickel Metal Hydride (“NiMH”) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher energy densities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmentally friendly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher self-discharge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy storage and transportaation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nickel Cadmium </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quick and easy charge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good load performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good low temperature performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be periodically used or large crystals will form on the cell plates (memory effect) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains toxic metals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lithium-Ion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in consumer electronics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the best energy-to-weight ratios </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short life-span if not taken care of properly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-self discharge </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Batteries (continued) <ul><li>Lithium-Ion Polymer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% higher energy density than Li-ion batteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater life cycle than Li-ion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sodium Sulfur </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Batteries will freeze if left unused for too long </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15X more electrical energy than lead-acid batteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lead-Acid </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in gasoline vehicles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Efficiency of Electric Motors <ul><li>Loading between 75% and 100% of full power rating </li></ul><ul><li>Heavier copper wire, higher core-steel grade, thinner core laminations, better bearings and reduced windage design help give more efficiency </li></ul>
    10. 10. Benefits <ul><li>Lowers fuel dependency from other nations </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel would be used at least 30% less if more EV cars were used </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper than gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>No oil changes or smog checks </li></ul><ul><li>No spark plugs, fuel pump, valves, transmission, clutch, crankshaft, flywheel, starter motor, or any other fuel-run equipment. Will not have any problems related to any of these objects </li></ul><ul><li>Brakes become generators and produce more electrical power = regenerative braking </li></ul>
    11. 11. Disadvantages <ul><li>Limited range </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough charging stations </li></ul><ul><li>Constant cooling of batteries so vehicle can perform at its best </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for driving only in city ranges </li></ul>
    12. 12. Future Outlooks for EVs <ul><li>More charging stations contributed by government </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing more EVs = more affordable </li></ul>
    13. 13. Summary <ul><li>Introduce an EV </li></ul><ul><li>History of EVS </li></ul><ul><li>How an EV operates </li></ul><ul><li>Various batteries used in EVs </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of electric motors </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of owning an EV </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of owning an EV </li></ul><ul><li>Future outlooks for EVs </li></ul>
    14. 14. *Fuel Cell Cars* Topics: <ul><li>What are Fuel Cells? </li></ul><ul><li>The History </li></ul><ul><li>How a Fuel Cell Works </li></ul><ul><li>Single Cell v. Stack </li></ul><ul><li>The Advantages Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Cars of today and tomorrow </li></ul>
    15. 15. Introduction <ul><li>Internal Combustion engines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not environmentally friendly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emit gases that cause global warming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas is really expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can we do about this?? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. What is a Fuel Cell <ul><li>“ A fuel cell is an electrochemical direct energy conversion device which uses a single-step energy conversion process directly from chemical energy to electric energy” (Montes). </li></ul>
    17. 17. History <ul><li>Sir William Grove(1839)- completed experiments on the electrolysis of water </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon (1932)- made 1 st successful fuel cell (<http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/FuelCell/History.htm> ) </li></ul><ul><li>1950’s NASA used fuel cells on some of the Apollo missions. </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Fuel Cell <ul><li>Air from the atmosphere and hydrogen from a compressed tank are sent through the cell creating an reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Has a Proton Exchange Membrane(PEM) that only allows protons to go through. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons moving around external circuit produce electrical energy. </li></ul>http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fc_pics/fuel_cell_still.gif http:// www.gl-group.com/images/glgroup/fuel_cells_working_principle.jpg
    19. 19. Fuel Cell Assembly <ul><li>Hydrogen goes through vertical flow path </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen goes through Horizontal flow path </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst and an electrolyte is placed in between plates </li></ul>
    20. 20. Single Cell vs. Stack <ul><li>Many Cells + Many Cells = A stack </li></ul>
    21. 21. Where to get the Hydrogen? <ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon Fuels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane, Gasoline, Natural Gas, Ethanol, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water (H 2 O) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed into a 5000 psi or more tank </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. The Car– The Motor and other power sources <ul><li>Has an electric induction motor and electric power inverter </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries are used as an alternate source of power </li></ul><ul><li>Regenerative braking </li></ul>
    23. 23. The Advantages <ul><li>Only emits water </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to find hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>More energy efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Low Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet </li></ul>http:// www.googobits.com/articles/p2-2840-fuel-cells-engines-of-the-future.html
    24. 24. The disadvantages <ul><li>Currently expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is easily combustible </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to store and has to be pure </li></ul><ul><li>Has to be taken from other materials  more energy costs </li></ul><ul><li>Platinum is rare and expensive. </li></ul>http:// www.googobits.com/articles/p2-2840-fuel-cells-engines-of-the-future.html
    25. 25. Some of the Cars <ul><li>Two 5000 psi aluminum tanks on board </li></ul><ul><li>80 Horsepower, 201 lbs of torque </li></ul><ul><li>Can go 170 miles </li></ul><ul><li>93 mph (top speed) </li></ul>http://www.aiada.org/images/news_photos/Honda_FCX.jpg
    26. 26. Summary <ul><li>What is a fuel cell? </li></ul><ul><li>How a fuel cell works </li></ul><ul><li>The advantages </li></ul><ul><li>The disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Sources for Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>The cars of Tomorrow </li></ul>

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