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Network forensics and investigating logs

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Network Forensic - Primary investigation of network device

Network Forensic - Primary investigation of network device

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  • 1. NETWORK FORENSICS AND INVESTIGATING LOGS
  • 2. AGENDA OF DAY  Look for evidence  Perform an end-to-end forensic investigation  Use log files as evidence  Evaluate log file accuracy and authenticity  Understand the importance of audit logs  Understand syslog  Understand Linux process accounting  Configure Windows logging  Understand NTP
  • 3. KEY TERM  Intrusion detection the process of tracking unauthorized activity using techniques such as inspecting user actions, security logs, or audit data  Network Time Protocol (NTP) an Internet standard protocol that is used to synchronize the clocks of client computers
  • 4. NETWORK FORENSICS  Network forensics is the capturing, recording, and analysis of network events in order to discover the source of security attacks.  An investigator needs to back up these recorded data to free up recording media and to preserve the data for future analysis
  • 5. ANALYZING NETWORK DATA  An investigator needs to perform network forensics to determine the type of an attack over a network and to trace out the culprit.  The investigator needs to follow proper investigative procedures so that the evidences recovered during investigation can be produced in a court of law.  Network forensics can reveal the following information:  How an intruder entered the network  The path of intrusion  The intrusion techniques an attacker used  Traces and evidence
  • 6. THE INTRUSION PROCESS Network intruders can enter a system using the following methods: Enumeration:  Enumeration is the process of gathering information about a network that may help an intruder attack the network.  Enumeration is generally carried out over the Internet. The following information is collected during enumeration: • Topology of the network • List of live hosts • Network architecture and types of traffic (for example, TCP, UDP, and IPX) • Potential vulnerabilities in host systems
  • 7. LOOKING FOR EVIDENCE Vulnerabilities:  An attacker identifies potential weaknesses in a system, network, and elements of the network and then tries to take advantage of those vulnerabilities.  The intruder can find known vulnerabilities using various scanners.  Viruses: Viruses are a major cause of shutdown of network components. A virus is a software program written to change the behavior of a computer or other device on a network, without the permission or knowledge of the user.  Trojans: Trojan horses are programs that contain or install malicious programs on targeted systems. These programs serve as back doors and are often used to steal information from systems.
  • 8. CONT..  E-mail infection: The use of e-mail to attack a network is increasing. An attacker can use e-mail spamming and other means to flood a network and cause a denial-of-service attack  Router attacks: Routers are the main gateways into a network, through which all traffic passes. A router attack can bring down a whole network.  Password cracking: Password cracking is a last resort for any kind of attack.
  • 9. LOOKING FOR EVIDENCE  An investigator can find evidence from the following:  From the attack computer and intermediate computers: This evidence is in the form of logs, files, ambient data, and tools.  From firewalls: An investigator can look at a firewall’s logs. If the firewall itself was the victim, the investigator treats the firewall like any other device when obtaining evidence.  From internetworking devices: Evidence exists in logs and buffers as available.
  • 10. LOOKING FOR EVIDENCE  From the victim computer: An investigator can find evidence in logs, files, ambient data, altered configuration files, remnants of Trojaned files, files that do not match hash sets, tools, Trojans and viruses, stored stolen files, Web defacement remnants, and unknown file extensions.
  • 11. END-TO-END FORENSIC INVESTIGATION  An end-to-end forensic investigation involves following basic procedures from beginning to end.  The end-to-end concept: An end-to-end investigation tracks all elements of an attack, including how the attack began, what intermediate devices were used during the attack, and who was attacked.  Locating evidence: Once an investigator knows what devices were used during the attack, he or she can search for evidence on those devices. The investigator can then analyze that evidence to learn more about the attack and the attacker.
  • 12. END-TO-END FORENSIC INVESTIGATION  Pitfalls of network evidence collection: Evidence can be lost in a few seconds during log analysis because logs change rapidly. Sometimes, permission is required to obtain evidence from certain sources,  such as ISPs. This process can take time, which increases the chances of evidence loss. Other pitfalls  include the following:  An investigator or network administrator may mistake normal computer or network activity for attack activity.  There may be gaps in the chain of evidence.  Logs may be ambiguous, incomplete, or missing.  Since the Internet spans the globe, other nations may be involved in the investigation. This can create legal and political issues for the investigation.
  • 13. END-TO-END FORENSIC INVESTIGATION  Event analysis: After an investigator examines all of the information, he or she correlates all of the events and all of the data from the various sources to get the whole picture.
  • 14. LOG FILE AS EVIDENCE
  • 15. LEGALITY OF USING LOGS  The following are some of the legal issues involved with creating and using logs that organizations and investigators must keep in mind :  Logs must be created reasonably contemporaneously with the event under investigation.  Someone with knowledge of the event must record the information. In this case, a program is doing the recording; the record therefore reflects the a priori knowledge of the programmer and system administrator.  Logs must be kept as a regular business practice.  Random compilations of data are not admissible.
  • 16. LEGALITY OF USING LOGS  If an organization starts keeping regular logs now, it will be able to use the logs as evidence later.  A custodian or other qualified witness must testify to the accuracy and integrity of the logs. This process is known as authentication. The custodian need not be the programmer who wrote the logging software; however, he or she must be able to offer testimony on what sort of system is used, where the relevant software came from, and how and when the records are produced.  A custodian or other qualified witness must also offer testimony as to the reliability and integrity of the hardware and software platform used, including the logging software.  A record of failures or of security breaches on the machine creating the logs will tend to impeach the evidence
  • 17. LEGALITY OF USING LOGS  If an investigator claims that a machine has been penetrated, log entries from after that point are inherently suspect.  In a civil lawsuit against alleged hackers, anything in an organization’s own records that would tend to exculpate the defendants can be used against the organization.  An organization’s own logging and monitoring software must be made available to the court so that the defense has an opportunity to examine the credibility of the records. If an organization can show that the relevant programs are trade secrets, the organization may be allowed to keep them secret or to disclose them to the defense only under a confidentiality order.
  • 18. LEGALITY OF USING LOGS  The original copies of any log files are preferred.  A printout of a disk or tape record is considered to be an original copy, unless and until judges and jurors are equipped computers that have USB or SCSI interfaces.
  • 19. EXAMINING INTRUSION AND SECURITY EVENTS  Examining intrusion and security events includes both passive and active tasks.  A detection of an intrusion that occurs after an attack has taken place is called a post-attack detection or passive intrusion detection.  In these cases, the inspection of log files is the only medium that can be used to evaluate and rebuild the attack techniques.  Passive intrusion detection techniques usually involve a manual review of event logs and application logs.  An investigator can inspect and analyze event log data to detect attack patterns.
  • 20. EXAMINING INTRUSION AND SECURITY EVENTS  There are many attack attempts that can be detected as soon as the attack takes place.  This type of detection is known as active intrusion detection.  Using this method, an administrator or investigator follows the footsteps of the attacker and looks for known attack patterns or commands, and blocks the execution of those commands.
  • 21. INTRUSION DETECTION  Intrusion detection is the process of tracking unauthorized activity using techniques such as inspecting user actions, security logs, or audit data.  There are various types of intrusions, including unauthorized access to files and systems, worms, Trojans, computer viruses, buffer overflow attacks, application redirection, and identity and data spoofing.  Intrusion attacks can also appear in the form of denial of service, and DNS, e-mail, content, or data corruption.  Intrusions can result in a change of user and file security rights, installation of Trojan files, and improper data access.  Administrators use many different intrusion detection techniques, including evaluation of system logs and settings, and deploying firewalls, antivirus software, and specialized intrusion detection systems.  Administrators should investigate any unauthorized or malicious entry into a network or host.
  • 22. USING MULTIPLE LOGS AS EVIDENCE  Recording the same information in two different devices makes the evidence stronger.  Logs from several devices collectively support each other.  Firewall logs, IDS logs, and TCPDump output can contain evidence of an Internet user connecting to a specific server at a given time.
  • 23. MAINTAINING CREDIBLE IIS LOG FILES  Many network administrators have faced serious Web server attacks that have become legal issues.  Web attacks are generally traced using IIS logs.  Investigators must ask themselves certain questions before presenting IIS logs in court, including:  What would happen if the credibility of the IIS logs was challenged in court?  What if the defense claims the logs are not reliable enough to be admissible as evidence?  An investigator must secure the evidence and ensure that it is accurate, authentic, and accessible.  In order to prove that the log files are valid, the investigator needs to present them as acceptable and dependable by providing convincing arguments, which makes them valid evidence.
  • 24. LOG FILE ACCURACY  The accuracy of IIS log files determines their credibility.  Accuracy here means that the log files presented before the court of law represent the actual outcome of the activities related to the IIS server being investigated.  Any modification to the logs causes the validity of the entire log file being presented to be suspect.
  • 25. LOGGING EVERYTHING  In order to ensure that a log file is accurate, a network administrator must log everything.  Certain fields in IIS log files might seem to be less significant, but every field can make a major contribution as evidence.  Therefore, network administrators should configure their IIS server logs to record every field available.  IIS logs must record information about Web users so that the logs provide clues about whether an attack came from a logged-in user or from another system.  Consider a defendant who claims a hacker had attacked his system and installed a back-door proxy server on his computer. The attacker then used the back-door proxy to attack other systems.  In such a case, how does an investigator prove that the traffic came from a specific user’s Web browser or that it was a proxied attack from someone else?
  • 26. EXTENDED LOGGING IN IIS SERVER  Limited logging is set globally by default, so any new Web sites created have the same limited logging. An administrator can change the configuration of an IIS server to use extended logging.  The following steps explain how to enable extended logging for an IIS Web/FTP server and change the location of log files:  Run the Internet Services Manager.  Select the properties on the Web/FTP server.  Select the Web site or FTP site tab.  Check the Enable Loggingcheck box.  Select W3C Extended Log File Formatfrom the drop-down list.  Go to Properties.
  • 27. EXTENDED LOGGING IN IIS SERVER  Click the Extended Properties tab, and set the following properties accordingly:  Client IP address  User name  Method  URI stem  HTTP status  Win32 status  User agent  Server IP address  Server port  Select Daily for New Log Time Period below the general Properties tab.
  • 28. EXTENDED LOGGING IN IIS SERVER  Select Use local time for file naming and overturn.  Change the log file directory to the location of logs.  Ensure that the NTFS security settings have the following settings:  Administrators - Full Control  System - Full Contro
  • 29. KEEPING TIME  With the Windows time service, a network administrator can synchronize IIS servers by connecting them to an external time source.  Using a domain makes the time service synchronous to the domain controller. A network administrator can synchronize a standalone server to an external time source by setting certain registry entries: Key: HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetServicesW32TimeParameters Setting: Type Type: REG_SZ Value: NTP Key: HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetServicesW32TimeParameters Setting: NtpServer Type: REG_SZ Value: ntp.xsecurity.com
  • 30. UTC TIME  IIS records logs using UTC time, which helps in synchronizing servers in multiple zones.  Windows offsets the value of the system clock with the system time zone to calculate UTC time.  To check whether the UTC time is correct, a network administrator must ensure that the local time zone setting is accurate.  The network administrator must verify that during the process IIS is set to roll over logs using local time