INTRODUCTION TO IOS AND
CISCO ROUTERS
By
Anil Kumar Vishwakarma
MCA,MCTS,CCNA
CISCO ROUTER IOS
oThe Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System) was
created to deliver network services and enable network...
CISCO ROUTER
 Router uses to connect: -
 Subnet with another Subnet (By LAN Interface).
 LAN with another LAN (By WAN I...
INTERNAL COMPONENT
CONNECTING TO A CISCO ROUTER
 You can connect to a Cisco router to configure
it, verify its configuration, and check stat...
COMPUTER CONSOLE CONNECTION
MODEM CONNECTION
BRINGING UP A ROUTER
 When you first bring up a router, it will
takes this Boot Sequence: -
 Perform POST (Power On Self...
MEMORY ARCHITECTURE
MEMORY TYPES
 RAM
 Used to store working tables as well as running
IOS image
 ROM
 Stores a bootable IOS image that pr...
MEMORY TYPES
RAM
(Working Memory)
Flash
(IOS)
ROM
(Basic IOS)
NVRAM
(Startup Config)
CONFIGURATION AND IOS IMAGES
CONFIGURATION FILE
 The configuration is a text file that contains
configuration commands that are executed
at startup
 ...
SAVING A CONFIGURATION
RAM
(Running-Config)
NVRAM
(Startup-Config)
Copy running-config startup-config
Copy startup-config ...
SYNTAX OF THE COPY COMMAND
Copy From-Location To-Location
Where:
From- and To-Location - {tftp|running-config|startup-conf...
ENTERING THE CONFIGURATION
 Setup Mode
 If no configuration exists when the router boots, it
enters setup mode
 Router ...
SETUP MODE
 Setup Mode allows configuration of:
 Interface summary
 Router hostname
 Passwords
 SNMP
 Various networ...
VIEWING CONFIGURATIONS
Show {running-config|startup-config}
THE CLI AND GETTING HELP
COMMAND LINE INTERFACE
 Most Cisco devices use a command line
interface
 Commands can be entered and edited
before they ...
COMMAND LINE INTERFACE
 If a command has an error the command will be repeated
and a “^” will mark the location of the er...
COMMAND HISTORY
 Up and Down arrows scroll through command history
 Also ctrl+p (up) and ctrl+n (down)
 Command history...
GETTING HELP
 Typing ? at any point will cause IOS to show what
options exist at that point
 Just ? on a line will list ...
CONNECTING TO THE ROUTER
CONNECTING TO THE ROUTER
 Console
 Connect directly to console port and use a terminal
program like Windows Hypertermina...
IOS MODES
IOS MODES
User Mode
Router>
Privileged (Enable) Mode
Router#
disable enable
Telnet Aux Console
IOS CONFIGURATION MODES
Configuration Mode
Router(config)#
Privileged Mode
Router#
Config terminal
(config t)
Interface Co...
ROUTER INTERFACES
INTERFACES
 LANs
 Ethernet (Ethernet 0, E0, E1, etc.)
 FastEthernet (FastEthernet 0, F0, F1, etc.)
 Token Ring (TokenR...
INTERFACES ON EXPANSION CARDS
 Interfaces on add in expansion cards include the
slot number followed by a slash then the ...
LOOPBACK INTERFACES
 Loopback interfaces are internal interfaces and
treated like other interfaces
 Loopback interfaces ...
INTERFACE CONFIGURATION MODE
 Use the Interface command in configuration or
interface configuration mode to enter configu...
BRINGING UP AN INTERFACE
 By default, all interfaces (except loopback
interfaces) are in administrative shutdown mode
 T...
ASSIGNING AN IP ADDRESS
 IP addresses are assigned in interface
configuration mode
Router#config t
Router(config)#interfa...
SETTING THE CLOCK RATE
 On serial connections the DCE must set a
clock rate to synchronize communication
 In the lab the...
SETTING THE SERIAL ENCAPSULATION
 We‟ll discuss this in more detail later in the
semester but the data link layer protoco...
PASSWORDS
PRIVILEGED MODE PASSWORDS
 Enable password
 Enable password <password>
 Enable password is shown in clear text
 Not us...
USER MODE PASSWORDS
 Console
Line console 0
Login
Password <password>
 Auxiliary
Line aux 0
Login
Password <password>
 ...
ENCRYPTING PASSWORDS
 User mode passwords are normally stored
in the configuration file in clear text
 To encrypt them u...
IOS COMMANDS TO KNOW
 Enable/disable
 Enable secret/password
 Config
 Editing commands
 Show history
 Show terminal
...
IOS COMMANDS TO KNOW
 Service password-encryption
 Banner
 Interface
 Shutdown
 Know the interfaces commands for ethe...
IOS COMMANDS TO KNOW
 Show interface
 Show controllers
 Clock rate
 Ip address
 Show Version
 Show flash
Thank You
INTRODUCTION TO IOS AND CISCO ROUTERS
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CISCO IOS is an networking operating system for CISCO network hardware including router , switch and check point.

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INTRODUCTION TO IOS AND CISCO ROUTERS

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO IOS AND CISCO ROUTERS By Anil Kumar Vishwakarma MCA,MCTS,CCNA
  2. 2. CISCO ROUTER IOS oThe Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System) was created to deliver network services and enable networked applications. It runs on most Cisco routers. oSome of the important things that the Cisco router IOS software is responsible for include o Carrying network protocols and functions. o Connecting high-speed traffic between devices. o Adding security to control access and stop unauthorized network use. o Supplying network reliability for connecting to network resources.
  3. 3. CISCO ROUTER  Router uses to connect: -  Subnet with another Subnet (By LAN Interface).  LAN with another LAN (By WAN Interface).  LAN with WAN (By WAN Interface).  WAN with another WAN (By WAN Interface).  Router Consist of External Components (Interfaces) and Internal Components
  4. 4. INTERNAL COMPONENT
  5. 5. CONNECTING TO A CISCO ROUTER  You can connect to a Cisco router to configure it, verify its configuration, and check statistics.  There are Three ways to do that: -  Console Session.  Auxiliary Session.  Telnet Session can’t use this method after router has taken valid IP address.
  6. 6. COMPUTER CONSOLE CONNECTION
  7. 7. MODEM CONNECTION
  8. 8. BRINGING UP A ROUTER  When you first bring up a router, it will takes this Boot Sequence: -  Perform POST (Power On Self Test) which is small program stored in ROM to check router components.  Load IOS image from Flash memory and decompress it into RAM.  Display the information from POST.  Running Valid Configuration (Startup Conf).  If no configuration router will go into Setup mode.
  9. 9. MEMORY ARCHITECTURE
  10. 10. MEMORY TYPES  RAM  Used to store working tables as well as running IOS image  ROM  Stores a bootable IOS image that provides basic functionality as well as a barebones interface called the ROM Monitor (ROMMON)  Flash Memory  Stores the full function IOS image and is the default location for IOS at boot  NVRAM  Stores startup configuration file
  11. 11. MEMORY TYPES RAM (Working Memory) Flash (IOS) ROM (Basic IOS) NVRAM (Startup Config)
  12. 12. CONFIGURATION AND IOS IMAGES
  13. 13. CONFIGURATION FILE  The configuration is a text file that contains configuration commands that are executed at startup  When the router boots a copy of the config in NVRAM (startup-config) is executed to establish the initial configuration  Configuration commands entered while the router is running are entered into the temporary configuration stored in RAM (running-config)
  14. 14. SAVING A CONFIGURATION RAM (Running-Config) NVRAM (Startup-Config) Copy running-config startup-config Copy startup-config running-config Merged Replaces
  15. 15. SYNTAX OF THE COPY COMMAND Copy From-Location To-Location Where: From- and To-Location - {tftp|running-config|startup-config} tftp – a trivial ftp server located somewhere on the network
  16. 16. ENTERING THE CONFIGURATION  Setup Mode  If no configuration exists when the router boots, it enters setup mode  Router hasn‟t been configured before  Someone used the „Erase Startup-Config‟ then rebooted  NVRAM was damaged  Setup mode is a question and answer process that can be used to create basic configurations  Command Line Interface (CLI)  Configuration commands entered at command prompt then saved to NVRAM
  17. 17. SETUP MODE  Setup Mode allows configuration of:  Interface summary  Router hostname  Passwords  SNMP  Various network protocols  DECnet, Appletalk, IP, IPX  Routing protocols  Interfaces  When finished setup mode gives the user the option of copying the configuration to NVRAM and RAM
  18. 18. VIEWING CONFIGURATIONS Show {running-config|startup-config}
  19. 19. THE CLI AND GETTING HELP
  20. 20. COMMAND LINE INTERFACE  Most Cisco devices use a command line interface  Commands can be entered and edited before they are executed by hitting the enter key  Commands can be abbreviated as long as they are not ambiguous e.g. Show Interface => sh int
  21. 21. COMMAND LINE INTERFACE  If a command has an error the command will be repeated and a “^” will mark the location of the error access-list 110 permit host 1.1.1.1 ^ %Invalid input detected at „^‟ marker.
  22. 22. COMMAND HISTORY  Up and Down arrows scroll through command history  Also ctrl+p (up) and ctrl+n (down)  Command history commands  Show history – shows commands in history  Show terminal – shows terminal configurations and terminal history size (default = 10)  Terminal history size – changes history buffer size up to a max of 256
  23. 23. GETTING HELP  Typing ? at any point will cause IOS to show what options exist at that point  Just ? on a line will list all commands available in that mode  Typing one letter followed by ? will show all commands that begin with the letter  Adding ? after a command will show what arguments are available for the command
  24. 24. CONNECTING TO THE ROUTER
  25. 25. CONNECTING TO THE ROUTER  Console  Connect directly to console port and use a terminal program like Windows Hyperterminal or Linux‟s Minicom  AUX  The auxiliary port is port you can attach a modem to  Can also be used as a backup connection dial on demand circuit  TTY  Can use Telnet to connect to TTY once router has been configured initially  Most routers have 5 TTY connections
  26. 26. IOS MODES
  27. 27. IOS MODES User Mode Router> Privileged (Enable) Mode Router# disable enable Telnet Aux Console
  28. 28. IOS CONFIGURATION MODES Configuration Mode Router(config)# Privileged Mode Router# Config terminal (config t) Interface Configuration Mode Router(config-if)# Interface <interface> (interface ethernet 0) Router Configuration Mode Router(config-router)# Router <protocol> (Router rip)
  29. 29. ROUTER INTERFACES
  30. 30. INTERFACES  LANs  Ethernet (Ethernet 0, E0, E1, etc.)  FastEthernet (FastEthernet 0, F0, F1, etc.)  Token Ring (TokenRing 0, TO0, TO1, etc.)  WANs  Serial 0, S0, S1, etc.
  31. 31. INTERFACES ON EXPANSION CARDS  Interfaces on add in expansion cards include the slot number followed by a slash then the interface number  The first FastEthernet interface on a card in the first slot would be FastEthernet 0/0  On 7500 series routers three values are required (slot/port-adapter/port) so it would be FastEthernet 0/0/0 for example
  32. 32. LOOPBACK INTERFACES  Loopback interfaces are internal interfaces and treated like other interfaces  Loopback interfaces are never shutdown  Loopback interfaces are useful when you need an interface that will never go down
  33. 33. INTERFACE CONFIGURATION MODE  Use the Interface command in configuration or interface configuration mode to enter configuration mode  Router(config)#interface e0  Router(config-if)#interface Lo0  Router(config)#interface s0/1
  34. 34. BRINGING UP AN INTERFACE  By default, all interfaces (except loopback interfaces) are in administrative shutdown mode  To activate the interface use the no shutdown command in the interface configuration mode
  35. 35. ASSIGNING AN IP ADDRESS  IP addresses are assigned in interface configuration mode Router#config t Router(config)#interface s0 Router(config-if)#ip address 129.130.32.1 255.255.224.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit
  36. 36. SETTING THE CLOCK RATE  On serial connections the DCE must set a clock rate to synchronize communication  In the lab the 2501 that is a router is a DCE because the cable attached is a DCE cable so the clock rate must be set on this router  The 2501 that is a Frame Relay switch is also a DCE but you do not configure this one Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#clockrate 2000000
  37. 37. SETTING THE SERIAL ENCAPSULATION  We‟ll discuss this in more detail later in the semester but the data link layer protocol must be set for the Frame Relay link using the encapsulation command Router(config)#interface s0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
  38. 38. PASSWORDS
  39. 39. PRIVILEGED MODE PASSWORDS  Enable password  Enable password <password>  Enable password is shown in clear text  Not used if enable secret password is set  Enable secret password  Enable secret <password>  Enable secret password is encrypted
  40. 40. USER MODE PASSWORDS  Console Line console 0 Login Password <password>  Auxiliary Line aux 0 Login Password <password>  Telnet Line vty 0 4 Login Password <password> Enter configuration mode Require login Set password Most routers have 5 telnet lines. This command sets all five.
  41. 41. ENCRYPTING PASSWORDS  User mode passwords are normally stored in the configuration file in clear text  To encrypt them use the following sequence of commands service password-encryption line console 0 login password <password> no service password-encryption
  42. 42. IOS COMMANDS TO KNOW  Enable/disable  Enable secret/password  Config  Editing commands  Show history  Show terminal  Terminal history size  Line  How to require login and set password for console, vty and aux
  43. 43. IOS COMMANDS TO KNOW  Service password-encryption  Banner  Interface  Shutdown  Know the interfaces commands for ethernet, fast ethernet, serial, token ring and loopback  Description  Hostname  Show running/startup-config  Copy <running-config/startup-config,tftp> <running-config/startup-config,tftp>
  44. 44. IOS COMMANDS TO KNOW  Show interface  Show controllers  Clock rate  Ip address  Show Version  Show flash
  45. 45. Thank You
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