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Introduction to Linux
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Introduction to Linux






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Introduction to Linux Introduction to Linux Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Linux © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> All Rights Reserved.
  • What to Expect? Introduction to OS & OSS Linux System Overview Linux Usage Basics © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 2 All Rights Reserved.
  • OS Fundamentals What is an OS? Infinitely Running Program Why do we need an OS? Processor/Time Management Memory Management Storage Management Network Management I/O management © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 3 All Rights Reserved.
  • Open Source Software Fundamentals Originally Free Software Freedom to Run, Change and Redistribute Licenses – GNU GPL (Code) and GNU FDL (Doc) The Freedom provides openness Hence, also referred as Open Source Software Over time FS & OSS have differed But still largely same Latest Complete Definitions FS: http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html OSS: http://www.opensource.org/osd.html © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 4 All Rights Reserved.
  • OSS: Industry Advantage Stable Software – Less Development Cycle Whole Community Support Time to Market And most of all, today OSS provides almost a complete set of software required for any kind of software development Applications, GUIs, Utilities, … - All GPL or LGPL stuff Languages – Whole set from the world :) C Compiler – gcc & friends Debuggers – gdb & friends Profilers, Tracers, ... and the list goes on © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 5 All Rights Reserved.
  • And finally the most important one OS + OSS = Linux © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 6 All Rights Reserved.
  • Why to choose OSS & Linux? Quality and Reliability of Code Availability of Code Extensive Hardware Support Communication Protocols and Software Standards Available Tools Community Support Licensing Vendor Independence Cost And, a wide range of Architecture Support © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 7 All Rights Reserved.
  • Linux on Architectures x86 Started with this Mainly intended for PCs Power PC Intended for PC Have become popular in embedded Strong ARM Faster CPU – Higher Performance PDAs, Setup box etc. ARM Suits well for Embedded Include THUMB – reduce code bandwidth High density code than PPC, x86 Many More Alpha, H8, MIPS, Sparc, SuperH, ... © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 8 All Rights Reserved.
  • Linux System Overview © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 9 All Rights Reserved.
  • The Complete Software System Applications OS Services Operating System Hardware “Kernel Space” “User Space” © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 10 All Rights Reserved.
  • Linux Kernel Subsystem The Process Scheduler (SCHED) The Memory Manager (MM) The Virtual File System (VFS) The Network Interface (NET) The Input/Output System (IO) Additionally, the Inter-Process Communication (IPC) © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 11 All Rights Reserved.
  • Linux OS Services System Call Interface X Window System © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 12 All Rights Reserved.
  • Linux Applications Shell Terminal / Console Window Manager Editor Compiler ... © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 13 All Rights Reserved.
  • Linux Usage Basics © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 14 All Rights Reserved.
  • Topics Root & System Directories Shell Basics & the 'bash' Shell File Basics & related Commands User Basics & related Commands File Access Permissions System & Help Information Standard I/O, Redirection and Pipes © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 15 All Rights Reserved.
  • / the Root of an inverted tree The top-most or super-parent directory The container of your computer Type: ls / © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 16 All Rights Reserved.
  • System Directories /bin, /usr/bin, /sbin - binaries/applications /var - logs, mails /proc, /sys - “virtual” windows into the kernel /etc - configuration files /lib - shared system libraries /dev - device files /boot - Linux kernel and boot related binary files /opt - for third-party packages /root - home directory for super user /usr - user space related filed and dirs /tmp - scratch pad /mnt - mount points © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 17 All Rights Reserved.
  • Shell Basics What is a Shell? Various types of Shells Bourne Shell (sh) C Shell (csh) Korn Shell (ksh) Bourne Again Shell (bash) TENEX csh (tcsh) Z Shell (zsh) Busybox (busybox) – Embedded Systems © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 18 All Rights Reserved.
  • Bourne Again SHell env - shell environment variables export [var_name] - export a shell variable HOME - path to user’s home directory PATH - executable search path PWD - present user directory PS1 - command prompt which - shows executable path history - command recall © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 19 All Rights Reserved.
  • Bourne Again SHell ... alias - create shortcuts to commands file - shows the information about a file type - shows information about a command Scripts /etc/profile - System wide startup script ~/.bash_profile – User specific startup script ~/.bashrc – Shell specific startup script ~/.bash_logout – User specific shutdown script © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 20 All Rights Reserved.
  • File Basics Every thing is viewed as a file in Linux A file under the / Seven Types Regular (-) Directory (d) Character Device (c) Block Device (b) Named Pipe (p) Socket (s) Symbolic Link (l) © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 21 All Rights Reserved.
  • File related Shell Commands ls - list directory/file contents cat, less, head, tail - used to cd - change directory view text files pwd - print working directory vi, vim - editors df - disk free touch - create and update files du - disk usage grep - search in files cp - copy find, locate - search for files mv - move, rename gzip, gunzip, bzip, bunzip - rm – remove compression mkdir - make directory tar - archive rmdir - remove directory sed, awk - file manipulation © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 22 All Rights Reserved.
  • User Basics All Accesses into a Linux System are through a User with a Password Super User – root Normal Users - <user_name> Files: /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow Users can be categorized into groups root, bin, sys, adm, … File: /etc/group © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 23 All Rights Reserved.
  • User related Shell Commands useradd - create user userdel - delete user usermod - modify user su - <username> - start new shell as different user finger - user information lookup passwd - change or create user password who, w, user - to find out who is logged in © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 24 All Rights Reserved.
  • User & File Access All Files have User specific ownerships & access permissions Type: ls -l –rw–r––r–– type user group other Symbol Name Number Position r read 4 r-- w write 2 -w- x execute 1 --x user (anil) group (anil) © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 25 All Rights Reserved.
  • Related Shell Commands chmod – Change file permissions chown – Change file owner chgrp – Change file group © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 26 All Rights Reserved.
  • Few “Help”ful Shell Commands uname - print system information man <topic> - manual pages info <topic> - information pages © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 27 All Rights Reserved.
  • Standard Input & Outputs Standard Input – 0 (default: keyboard) Standard Output – 1 (default: monitor) Standard Error – 2 (default: monitor) Examples read echo q © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 28 All Rights Reserved.
  • Redirections & Pipes command < file - reads standard input from file command > file - directs standard output to file command >> file - appends standard output to file command 2> file - directs standard error to file command 2>> file - appends standard error to file command > file 2>&1 - both standard output & error to file cmd1 | cmd2 - transfer o/p of cmd1 as i/p to cmd2 © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 29 All Rights Reserved.
  • What all have we learnt? Introduction to OS & OSS Linux System Overview The 3 software layers The hardware core Linux Usage Basics Root & System Directories Shell, File, User Basics System & Help Information Standard I/O, Redirection and Pipes © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 30 All Rights Reserved.
  • Any Queries? © 2010 Anil Kumar Pugalia <email@sarika-pugs.com> 31 All Rights Reserved.