Reproduction System in Human


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Reproduction System in Human

  1. 1. Reproduction System By: Maharini, S.Pd Anik Rahmawati, S.Pd SMP Negeri 1 Ponorogo
  2. 2. Learning Objective Students be able to identify the various structures of the male reproductive systems and state their functions; Students be able to identify the various structures of the female reproductive systems and state their functions;
  3. 3. Introduction  Reproduction is the process that continues life on Earth  Males and females each have structures specialized for their roles in reproduction.  Hormones are the key to how the human reproductive system functions,  Sex hormones are necessary for the development of sexual characteristics, such as breast development in females and facial hair growth in males.  Hormones from the pituitary gland also begin the production of eggs in females and sperm in males. Eggs and sperm transfer hereditary information from one generation to the next.
  4. 4. Male Human Reproductive Organ and Function Organ Function Testes (biji zakar) Produces sperm Scrotum (buah zakar) Place of testes Penis Canal sperms from testes to vagina Sperm tube (vas deferens) Canal sperms from testes to the urethra urethra Canal sperm and urine out of the body Seminal gland Produces fluid enabling sperms to move Epididimis Place of maturity of sperm Prostat gland Produce liquid to flow to sperm tube
  5. 5. Female Human Reproductive Organ and Function Organ Function Ovaries Produce eggs and sex hormones Oviduct or fallopian tube Channels an egg from ad ovary to the uterus and place of fertilization Uterus Place of developing embryo and fetus Vagina Receives sperms from outside and lets a baby pass through at birth cervix Duct which connect uterus and vagina and produce mucus liquid Fimbrae To cacth ovum which ovulated
  6. 6. 1. The Male Reproductive System
  7. 7. 1.1 THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS The male reproductive system: 1) external organs: penis and scrotum (contains two organs called testes => begin to produce testosterone, the male hormone, and sperm). Because the scrotum is located outside the body cavity, the testes, where sperm are produced, are kept at a lower temperature than the rest of the body. Sperm are produced in greater numbers at lower temperatures. 2) Internal organs 
  8. 8. 1.2 SPERM
  9. 9.    Sperm are male reproductive cells Each sperm cell has a head and tail. The head contains hereditary information, and the tail moves the sperm. A gland called the seminal vesicle provides sperm with a fluid. This fluid supplies the sperm with an energy source and helps them move. This mixture of sperm and fluid is called semen.
  10. 10. 2. SPERM TRAVELING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. After sperm are produced, they travel from the testes through sperm ducts that circle the bladder. Behind the bladder, a gland called the seminal vesicle provides sperm with a fluid. Sperm mix with fluid, now sperm with the fluid called semen. Semen leaves the body through the urethra, which is the same tube that carries urine from the body. However, semen and urine never mix. A muscle at the back of the bladder contracts to prevent urine from entering the urethra as sperm leave the body.
  11. 11. 2. The Female Reproductive System
  12. 12. 2.1 THE OVARIES Unlike male reproductive organs, most of the reproductive organs of the female are inside the body.  The ovaries—the female sex organs—are located in the lower part of the body cavity. Each of the two ovaries is about the size and shape of an almond.  The two ovaries release eggs on alternating months. One month, an egg is released from an ovary. The next month, the other ovary releases an egg, and so on. 
  13. 13. 2.2 The Egg When a female is born, she already has all of the cells in her ovaries that eventually will develop into eggs—the female reproductive cells. At puberty, eggs start to develop in her ovaries because of specific sex hormones. About once a month, an egg is released from an ovary in a hormone-controlled process called ovulation After the egg is released, it enters the oviduct. If a sperm fertilizes the egg, it usually happens in an oviduct. Short, hair like structures called cilia help sweep the egg through the oviduct toward the uterus.
  16. 16. 2.3 The Uterus
  17. 17.  The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped, muscular organ with thick walls in which a fertilized egg develops. The lower end of the uterus, the cervix, narrows and is connected to the outside of the body by a muscular tube called the vagina. The vagina also is called the birth canal because during birth, a baby travels through this tube from the uterus to the outside of the mother’s body.
  18. 18.  The menstrual cycle is the monthly cycle of changes in the female reproductive system.  Before and after an egg is released from an ovary, the uterus undergoes changes. The menstrual cycle of a human female averages 28 days. However, the cycle can vary in some individuals from 20 to 40 days.  Changes include the maturing of an egg, the production of female sex hormones, the preparation of the uterus to receive a fertilized egg, and menstrual flow.
  19. 19. Endocrine Control
  20. 20.    Hormones control the entire menstrual cycle. The pituitary gland responds to chemical messages from the hypothalamus by releasing several hormones. These hormones start the development of eggs in the ovary. They also start the production of other hormones in the ovary, including estrogen and progesterone. The interaction of all these hormones results in the physical processes of the menstrual cycle.
  21. 21. The three phases of the menstrual cycle make up the monthly changes in the female reproductive system.
  22. 22. 2.5 MENOPAUSE For most females, the first menstrual period happens between ages nine years and 13 years and continues until 45 years of age to 60 years of age. Then, a gradual reduction of menstruation takes place as hormone production by the ovaries begins to shut down. Menopause occurs when both ovulation and menstrual periods end. It can take several years for the completion of menopause. Menopause does not inhibit a woman’s ability to enjoy an active life.
  23. 23. DISEASES IN REPRODUCTION SYSTEM Caused by Virus 1. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), it attack a type of leukocyte which use to control the immune system. The symptoms are continuous fatique, excessive sweating at night, fever above 38 degrees for weeks, constant headaches, chronic diarrhea, dry coughs, and shortness of breath, along with swollen lymph gland for more three months. 2. Genital warts, caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). The symptom are warts growing in genital areas, anus, thighs, and urinary tract.
  24. 24. 3. Genital herpes, is caused by the herpes simplex virus. The symptom are pain or itchness in genital areas and the presence of watering blisters (lepuhan berair) or ulcers. Caused by bacteria 4. Gonorea (kencing nanah) ia caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium, the symptom painful urination, and discharge of pus from genital tract and frequent urination.
  25. 25. 5. Syphilis is caused by infection of bacteria Treponema pallidum. The symptom are painless wound on genital, rectum, tongue, or lips, swelling (pembengkakan) of lymph gland in thighs, pain in bones or joint, and rash (ruam)on the body. 6. Chlamydia is caused by bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. The symptom of it is leucorrhoea with pain. Caused by Fungi 7. Leucorrhoea (fluor albus) is caused by Candidia albicans infection. The symptom are leucorrhoea with itch, feel burn and reddish on genital or around it.
  26. 26. Caused by Protozoa 8. Trichomoniasis that is infected by a protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis. The symptoms are itch on genital, greenish leucorrhoea and bad/nasty smell. Caused by cancer Prostate cancer is cancer which attack prostate gland. Cyst, tissue develops abnormally in womb.