Acids Bases and Salts

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Acids Bases and Salts

  1. 1. Credits to:- Aniket Angadi aniket.angadi@live.com Notes Chemistry
  2. 2. Acid: A substance that releases H+ ions in an aqueous solution “aqueous” means: water
  3. 3. Characteristics of Acids:  Acids have a sour taste  Acids react with metals  Acids contain Hydrogen  Many are poisonous and corrosive to skin H
  4. 4. Strong Acids (break down completely to give off many H+ ions)
  5. 5. Weak Acids (only partially breaks down, gives less H+) Mark Bishop Acid animation
  6. 6. Common Acids: All others considered Weak (examples) Strong Acids The Formula Sulphuric acid Hydrochloric acid Hybrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Nitric acid Perchloric acid H2SO4 HCl HBr HI HNO3 HClO4 Acetic acid (vinegar) HC2H3O2 Carbonic acid HCO3 Weak Acid The Formula
  7. 7. Base: A substance that releases OH- ions in an aqueous solution
  8. 8. Characteristics of Bases:  Bases usually taste bitter  Bases feel slippery  Bases contain hydroxide ions  STRONG bases are also poisonous and corrosive to skin OH-
  9. 9. Strong Bases The Formulae Lithium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Rubidium hydroxide Caesium hydroxide Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Strontium hydroxide LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH Ba(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 Sr(OH)2 Common Bases: (Hydroxides of Group 1 and Group 2 Metals are STRONG) All others are WEAK
  10. 10. Some bases (VERY FEW) don’t have OH- Most commonly: ammonia NH3
  11. 11. Reactions between acids and bases When and acid and a base react with each other, the characteristic properties of both are destroyed. This is called neutralization.
  12. 12. Reactions between acids and bases General formula for acid base reaction: Acid + Base → H2O + Salt “Salt” means any ionic compound formed from an acid/base reaction NOT JUST NaCl !! Neutralization Reaction Animation
  13. 13. Neutralization HCl + NaOH → H2O + NaCl acid base water salt
  14. 14. Neutralization Another Example HNO3 + KOH → H2O + KNO3 H OHKNO3 acid base water salt
  15. 15. Indicators An indicator is a compound that will change color in the presence of an acid or base Universal indicator (pH paper) Used for the full pH range Red Litmus-Turns blue in base Blue Litmus-Turns red in acid Phenolphthalein-Turns pink in base
  16. 16. pH pH stands for “potential hydrogen” and is a measure of how many H+ ions there are in solution. The MORE H+ there are, the LOWER the pH will be.
  17. 17. pH Scale Shows the range of H+ concentrations High H+ concentration Low H+ concentration

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