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DoWnLoaD kArOh aNd eNjOy kArOh :)

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  1. 1.  RFID = Radio Frequency IDentification. An ADC (Automated Data Collection) technology that: – uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track.. – Is fast and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item. – Attempts to provide unique identification and backend integration that allows for wide range of applications
  2. 2.  Mario W. Cardullo claims to have received the first U.S. patent for an active RFID tag with rewritable memory on January 23, 1973. That same year, Charles Walton, a California entrepreneur, received a patent for a passive transponder used to unlock a door without a key. A card with an embedded transponder communicated a signal to a reader near the door
  3. 3.  A transponder is a wireless communications, monitoring, or control device that picks up and automatically responds to an incoming signal. Transponders can be either passive or active. A passive transponder allows a computer or robot to identify an object. Magnetic labels, such as those on credit cards and store items, are common examples. Simple active transponders are employed in location, identification, and navigation systems for commercial and private aircraft.
  4. 4.  A Radio-Frequency IDentification system has three pArts: A scanning antenna A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data A transponder - the RFID tag - that has been programmed with information. RFID tag may be of one of two types: Active RFID tags Passive RFID tags
  5. 5. STEP 1 IC or microprocessor Transceiver RFID Tag Reader Tag antenna antenna
  6. 6.  STEP 2 Transceiver RFID Tag Reader Tag antenna antenna
  7. 7.  No on-board power source (for example, a battery) Uses the power emitted from the reader to energize itself and transmit its stored data to the reader. Reader always communicates first, followed by the tag.
  8. 8. ACTIVE RFID TAGS Has on-board power source (for example, a battery; other sources of power, such as solar, are also possible). Own on-board power supply to transmit its data to a reader. No need for readers emitted power for data transmission.
  9. 9. RFID system components
  10. 10. A paper label with RFID inside an antenna, printed, etched or stamped ...… and a chip … on a substrateattached to it e.g. a plastic foil ...
  11. 11. oSome RFID tags
  12. 12.  Read-only tags  Tag ID is assigned at the factory during manufacturing  Can never be changed  No additional data can be assigned to the tag Write once, read many (WORM) tags  Data written once, e.g., during packing or manufacturing  Tag is locked once data is written  Similar to a compact disc or DVD Read/Write  Tag data can be changed over time  Part or all of the data section can be locked
  13. 13.  Reader functions:  Remotely power tags  Establish a bidirectional data link  Inventory tags, filter results  Communicate with networked server(s)  Can read 100-300 tags per second Readers (interrogators) can be at a fixed point such as  Entrance/exit  Point of sale Readers can also be mobile/hand-held.
  14. 14.  RFID tags do not require line-of-sight. They can be read through cardboard, plastic, wood and even the human body. RFID tags are less susceptible to damage. An RFID tag is securely placed within an object or embedded in plastic, enabling the system to be used in a variety of harsh environments, such as areas of high temperature or moisture. RFID Eliminates human errors, reduces labor and provides quick access to a wealth of information. The data of a read-write (RW) RFID tag can be rewritten a large number of times.
  15. 15.  Add an RFID tag to all items in the grocery. As the cart leaves the store, it passes through an RFID transceiver. The cart is rung up in seconds.
  16. 16.  No line of sight required for reading Multiple items can be read with a single scan Each tag can carry a lot of data (read/write) Individual items identified and not just the category Passive tags have a virtually unlimited lifetime Active tags can be read from great distances Can be combined with barcode technology
  17. 17.  RFID systems are typically more expensive than alternatives such as barcode systems. Tag collision and reader collision are common problems with RFID. Tag collision occurs when numerous tags are present in a confined area. RFID technology gives rise to numerous security concerns. Since the system is not limited to line-of-sight, external (and malicious) high-intensity directional antennas could be used to scan sensitive tags.