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Workstudy

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  • 1. Managing Efficiency, Processes & Productivity
  • 2. Work Study
    • generic term for management services and system engineering techniques, used to investigate
      • methods of performing work (method study) and improve its efficiency and economy
      • the time taken to do it (work measurement) with a view to rationalization, routinisation, utilisation, cost and incentive improvement
    • the worker-work system-technology relationship: how this is best designed and improved (ergonomics and the human-machine-information interfaces)
  • 3. Productivity
    • a measure of performance.
    • broadly a ratio of output to input, i.e. comparing amount produced (output) with resources used (input)
    • materials, machinery, labour, capital, energy --- a combination
    • What improvements have there been over the last 50 years in
      • construction productivity
      • payroll processing
      • Car servicing
      • banking
    • How do we evaluate productivity levels and identify areas for improvement?
  • 4. A work study curriculum - 1
    • historical development & commitments of Work Study
    • basic concepts, objectives and procedures
    • Method Study approaches and tools of Method Analyst
      • Flow Diagrams & Process Charts etc
      • Critical questioning techniques
    • Work Measurement and calculating times for Jobs
      • Defining job elements & calculating
      • performance rating and standard/basic times
      • Determining allowances: fatigue, unavoidable & avoidable delays, extra allowances
    • various incentive plans
  • 5. A work study curriculum - 2
    • examining worker-machine relationships
      • workload & line balancing & staff/machine inefficiencies
      • material handling, human controls, tools and devices
      • Workstation layout & design (EU work-station directive)
      • Occupation Health & Safety:signals, reaction times, eyes, backs, RSI safety criteria, preventing accidents
    • Ergonomics & human-machine-environment interfaces
      • use of visual displays for dynamic information
      • Designing for: lighting systems, industrial noise, thermal controls, vibration etc
    • Systems analysis the human-machine information system
      • data capture and processing
      • design of the user interface
    • Business process re-engineering (BPR)
  • 6. System relationships Process analysis Method study Plant layout Incentive rewards Time study Jobs Work breakdowns standard times Engineer workflows Design work station & information arrangements
  • 7. Nature of the Theory
    • organised common sense, human ingenuity & creation of tools
    • functional and assumed to be neutral/unemotional
    • critical questioning & taking nothing for granted
    • focus on efficiencies, utilisation and costs
    • predictability and control over quality
    • maximise use (utilisation) of compliant labour & capital - unit costing
    • machine & economic man vs. social/sentient
    Separation of worker from means of production
  • 8. Opposition to Work Study
    • All work is different - idiographic vs/ nomothetic
    • Large firm/employer and large engineered systems only
    • Work study is obsolete
    • It is exploitative of workers
    • It has never been and never will be accepted here
    Is this so? What is the evidence of work study in the world around you
  • 9. Pioneers of efficiency measurement & systems
    • Gunpowder manufacture
    • Chinese ceramics industry
    • Adam Smith observations of French - pin making
    • Pioneers of agrarian and industrial revolutions
    • Abraham Derby & Josiah Wedgwood
    • Madame Guillotine, Springfield Rifle
    • F W Taylor at Bethlehem Steel work
    • Henry Gantt
    • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
      • Time and motion study
    • Charles Bedaux
      • Work measurement
  • 10. Methods, times and systems for performance
    • improve methods - get it right:
      • Method study
      • O & M & Ergonomics
      • Industrial & systems engineering
    • define & maintain work standards
    • incentive schemes e.g. piece work & measured day work
    • human-computer interface & systems analysis & design
    • rationalisation, automation & substitution of machine technologies for people
    Braverman and de-skilling in the labour process
  • 11. Method study
    • Select job/process to be examined & observe current performance
      • high process cost, bottlenecks, tortuous route, low productivity, erratic quality
    • Record & document facts
      • activities performed
      • operators involved - how etc
      • equipment and tools used
      • materials processed or moved
    • apply critical examination - challenge job components & necessity (purpose, place, sequence, method).
    • develop alternative methods & present proposals
    • document as base for new work system
    • Install, monitor (slippage) & maintain
    Process re-engineering? Risk assessment for safety?
  • 12. ASME Symbols and Process Charting Operation Move Delay Store Inspect/ process Decision
  • 13. Traditional O&M critical examination questions
    • Purpose
      • What, Why, What else might & Should be done ?
    • Place
      • Where, Why, Where else & Where should it be done ?
    • Sequence
      • When, Why then, When else could & When should ?
    • People
      • Who, Why, Who else might & should do it?
    • Method
      • How, Why, How else could, How else should
    • a sound reason for every activity
    • no assumptions so double check
    • quality, safety and health must not compromised
  • 14. Other types of process modelling
    • multiple activity charts
    • string diagrams
    • 3-dimensional models
    • recording methods - video,etc
    • computer-based modeling
  • 15. Measuring Work
    • Why define/measure work?
      • standard, reliable methods
      • control performance & quality
      • obtain predictability
      • defined labour costs & performance
      • set pay rates & provide data for effort-reward relationship
    • Why set standard times
      • assumptions about competent, motivated workers
      • be clear about "allowances" & fatigue
    • Toyota Avensis 10000 mile service
    • MOT testing
    • Service times & queue management
      • Banks
      • Airline check-in
      • Call centres
      • Out-sourcing & service level agreements
    • Work-load balancing
    • Work related bonuses
  • 16. Work Measurement
    • techniques to establish the time for a qualified, motivated worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working.
    • time Study:
      • establish standard times - management knowledge
      • rate operator performance - criteria for appraisal
      • gather information to calculate production capabilities & data for capacity planning.
      • define/cost work content of finished goods and services e.g. for charging & estimating
  • 17. A Time Study
    • select job & identify the work tasks
    • check the method - is it efficient/agreed?
    • start a Time Study sheet & break work task into "units"
    • several times with a stop watch & for a sample of workers, time measure
      • completion times for each unit of work in the job sequence
      • average for each worker
      • determine & apply worker effort rating for each worker (BSI scale)
      • Apply fatigue, personal & other allowances
    • From the observation data (worker average times) calculate standard time for the task
    • Assumes: set sequence, routine work cycle (all workers), little discretion, 100% effort rating - trained/qualified, motivated/committed, working at normal pace & not fatigued
    • Fix standard time and enter into measured work manual/database
  • 18. Example standard time calculation 13.39 minutes Standard time Total 4.55 110% + 15% 3.60 3 5.81 110% + 5% 4.80 2 3.03 110% +10% 2.50 1 Standard time Effort % Relaxation % Basic time Element
  • 19. Incentive Schemes
    • What are incentives?
    • Effort-reward relationships
    • Economic orientation & motivation
      • Time rates of pay & assumptions/requirements
      • Piecework
      • Measured day work
      • Group Schemes
    • Incentive scheme problems
    • Criticism and prevalence
    • cost savings ?
    • economy of operation ?
    • easily understood ?
    • maintain safety standards ?
    • equitable to all ?
    • control and improve effectiveness & standards ?
    • common goal ?
  • 20. Process Analysis and BPR
    • Management services & business process re-engineering
    • how work is done & data for planning, staffing & control functions.
    • applied across a wide range of industrial/commercial activity: manufacturing, office, service industries, facilities layout, materials handling, logistics, IT and IS
    • Identify process components & interrelationships (inputs, processes/transformations, rules, outputs, interfaces
    • break down the process into its logical sub processes (work breakdown structure)
    • map using
      • process flow charts etc
    • describe the business process & jobs at sub process levels
    • document for: capacity planning, quality (zero defects & process orientation, inspection), operator intervention, safety, accounting/cost, planned maintenance, JIT purposes
    Clearly represented in the development and adoption of on-line computer systems
  • 21. From Work Study to Systems Analysis and Design Information modelling Analysis & design Socio-tech Human activity Keep in mind Our focus
  • 22. Analysis, Design, Build Projects
    • Implement
    • Fine-tune
    • Conversion
    • Training
    • Cut-over
    • Build & test
    • databases
    • programs
    • HCI
    • Hardware
    • Design
    • databases
    • programs
    • HCI
    • Hardware
    • security
    Design Specification Business Situation & Information Processing Requirement
    • Feasibility
    • Technological
    • Financial
    • Organisational
    • Analysis
    • data flows
    • d-structures
    • events
    BSOs, TSOs Requirements
    • New system
    • Add modules
    • Review performance
    • Devel. Team dispersed
    • Maintenance
    Accept Continuity contracts Contribution/VfM? Prototyping
  • 23. System Development Costs
  • 24. Modelling the Information System Our 'model' of the information system Input - triggers activities
    • Requirements
    • information processing functions
    • data to store
    Output to activities which use the processed information Data items
  • 25. Data Flow Modelling (DFDs)
    • Data flows across the system boundary & within the system
    • Processes (functions that process data)
    • Data stores
    • Sources/sinks (external entities)
    • Functional decomposition (levels & modularisation)
    • Do not show
      • Time (when things happen & sequence)
      • Decisions (see process specification)
    • System boundary
    • Diagrams - better than narrative
    • CASE tools to draw and record details
  • 26. Context DFD - Level 0
  • 27. Level 1 DFD
  • 28. DFDs - Levelling Consistency of data flows between levels. Are the diagrams consistent?
  • 29. Logical Data Modelling
    • data captured by the system
    • Analyse the data entities, attributes and relationships
      • Entities things (physical or conceptual) of interest that the system needs to store information about.
      • Attributes The data items stored in each occurrence of an entity
      • Relationships how the data in one entity may be related (for functional purposes) to another)
    • Create database schema for developers and DB managers
      • system processes use the data - jobs, calculations, reports
      • maintain the access rules, security and integrity of the data
  • 30. Events acting on data applies interviewed final accept/reject enrols/pays assessed graduates leaves
    • Identify all processes
    • Map against the LDM
    • Data updates
    • Referential integrity & validation
    • Menus, screens, reports
  • 31. Example: Dabbs plc
    • Customers place sales orders
    • A single order may contain several products
    • Each customer is in one of 500 areas
    • Each customer is serviced by one of 6 depots
    • Each customer is allocated a depot depending on their area location
    • All products are stocked at all depots
  • 32. Entity occurrence - 1
    • Entity: Footballer
    • Occurrence: David Beckham
    • Attributes
      • DOB, height, weight, position, skills, goals scored, next of kin, address, salary, contract dates, sending-offs, number of international caps
    • Relationships with
      • Games, team sheets, payments, club TV appearances, insurance policies, contracts, agents, injuries, treatments
  • 33. Entity occurrence - 2
    • Entity: Patient
    • Occurrence: Chris Woodhead
    • Attributes
      • Name, age, address, NHS number, allergies, next-of-kin, {medical conditions}, {treatments}, private health care
    • Relationships with
      • Treatments, appointments, medical conditions, allergies, GP, clinics, medical staff, private health payments

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