INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTPRESENTATION BY: EESHA MEHTA MANIFESTATIONS OF
Meaning of Conflict The Webster's dictionary conceives conflict both as a noun and a verb As a noun it refers to a sharp difference, disagreement, collision or opposition of interests, ideas, etc, clash, hostility; Conflict emphasizes process rather than the end- conflict over sharing the profits According to Newstorm and Davis, “conflict is any situation in which two or more parties feel themselves in opposition”
Definition Stephen Robins defines conflict as “ a process that begins with a party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that first party cares about”. It encompasses the wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations- incompatibility of goals, differences over interpretations of facts, disagreements based on behavioral expectations and like
Nature of Conflict Conflict is a process in which one party perceives that its interests are opposed or negatively affected by another party. The process word implies that sources of conflict and issues can be real or imaginary. Whether real or imaginary the result of conflict is same Conflict occurs whenever disagreements exist in social situations over issues of substance and /or emotional antagonisms.
Nature of Conflict Conflict can escalate (strengthen) or de-escalate (weaken) over time The conflict process unfolds in a context- escalates or not and whenever conflict occurs the disputants or third parties attempt to manage it in some manner Consequently we need to understand the dynamics of conflict and know how to handle it effectively.
Industrial Conflict IC has negative connotation for many… strikes, lockouts, rallies etc. IC is institutionalized through conciliation and arbitration It has a stabilizing effect on the industrial society and is instrument of social change. Conflict has its roots in fundamental rights… the freedom of expression. IC also means some disorder, the parties involved in a conflict seek to maximize the disorder.
Levels of Disorders (Robert Dubin) Disorder designed to halt the regular functioning of the organization- strikes, lockouts; Disorder designed to be disruptive while the organization continues to operate, slowdowns or work-to-rule strikes, unilateral management actions; Disorder directed at redefining an existing institutional practice to the advantage of the party creating the disorder- grievance procedure. The grievance procedure helps the parties to adjust.
Inevitability of conflict What makes conflict inevitable in organizations? Constant change- industrial societies are dynamic. Unlimited needs and desires of the parties Divergent interests. Greater employee diversity and more groups in the workforce- formal and informal groups. Identity and survival instincts of the parties- union must resist to retain its identity, management cannot go on agreeing to demands. More dynamic careers (less loyalty to organization) A global economy with increased cross-cultural dealings.
Introduction Industrial conflicts in organisations are inevitable. For employers to perform their crucial roles effectively and efficiently there must exist a strong cordial relationship between the employees and employers in the organisation. Employees occupy a very strategic place in an organization because of their centrality to the production process. They contribute a very indefinable role both in the achievement of various organization goals and objectives as well as the government economic programme.
Concept of conflict and industrial conflict Unions and management tend to have opposite views because of the divergence between the expectations of management and labour in organization which often leads to conflicts. Conflict by nature is a constant phenomenon in anyhumanorganization. It is so ubiquitous in social life that it has been isolated by some as the basic unit for understanding social existence (Ajala, 2003; Alimba, 2010).
SOURCES OF CONFLICT Conflicts arise in organizations in two ways namely, internal and external. A. INTERNAL SOURCE This comprise of disagreements arising within the organisation. Conflict orientations within a work setting centres basically on the opposed nature of the interest of the employers and workers. The employer is seeking the greatest possible output at the least cost. The employer is constantly seeking to lower the wage rate, to lengthen the hours of work, to speed up the workers, to layoff and to discharge workers whenever it is temporarily economical. On the other hand, the union which represents the workgroup is seeking continuous employment for its members at the highest possible conditions in respect of hours of work, security and continuity, safety, comfort, sanitation, esteem and so on.
In this relation, both the employers and the employees want the largest cut of the industrial cake that they both cannot get. Moreover, conflict arises because the needs of all three actors of industrial relations often conflict with one another. Therefore, according to Otobo (2000), internal sources of conflict would include: i. Style of management ii. Nature of physical environment of the work place iii. Orientation or social consciousness of workers iv. Other conditions of service v. Efficacy or otherwise of the promotion system and vi. Cumbersomeness of grievance and disputes procedure.
B) EXTERNAL SOURCE These include government industrial and economic policies, the nature of laborlegislation, unpatriotic and unethical behaviour of the political and economic classes, national economic mismanagement and general distribution of wealth and power in the society. The important thing to note about these factors is that both workers and management respond to them. Some of the external causes of conflict may however not directly instigate industrial conflict, but they do influence general social expectation.
Manifestations of Conflict Manifestations of conflict are not confined to a single outlet. The means of expressing conflict are as unlimited as ingenuity of a man The manifestations of industrial conflict can be broadly classified into: The manifestations of organized group conflict (union management) and The manifestations of individual and unorganized conflict
Manifestations of Conflict The first type of manifestations of conflict are: i) Strikes, lockouts and removal of machinery, thereby interrupting the production ii) Organized restrictions of output in the form of work limitations, slow downs, sabotage and unilateral changes of work standards, piece rates etc. iii) Conflicts in the interpretation of contract negotiations, implementation of settlement and awards, grievances etc but without work stoppages.
Manifestations of Conflict The other group of manifestations are further divided on the basis of the party directly responsible for the conflict, into: Industrial conflict resulting from employee behavior, and Industrial conflict arising from management behavior The first of these includes unorganized withholding of effort, intentional waste and inefficiency, high labor turnover, and absenteeism, complaints and grievances, violation of rules and regulations etc
Manifestations of Conflict On the other hand, industrial conflict results from management behavior of the following types Autocratic supervision and over strict discipline and penalties Unnecessary discriminatory firings, demotions, discharge and dismissals and Unofficial speedups, etc
Causes of Industrial Conflict In Indian organizations conflicts have mainly been due to: Wages and allowances Bonus Personnel matters Retrenchment Leaves and hours of work/ shift working Indiscipline and violence, and Other reasons
Conflict in Indian Industries Major form of conflict- strikes and lock-outs Extent of work stoppages- before 1991 and after 1991 and contemporary times. Consequences of work stoppages: To workers: wage loss, loss of jobs For Management: loss of production, markets, damages to company property. To society: loss/disruption of services To the State: loss of revenue