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Marine and Freshwater Ecology Revision
 

Marine and Freshwater Ecology Revision

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Anig Van Der Anal (et al. 2012) has compiled a full set of revision notes to prepare you for Friday's M&F/W Eco Test!

Anig Van Der Anal (et al. 2012) has compiled a full set of revision notes to prepare you for Friday's M&F/W Eco Test!
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    Marine and Freshwater Ecology Revision Marine and Freshwater Ecology Revision Presentation Transcript

    • Compiled by Anig Van Der Anal (et al. 2012)
    •  Bathygraphic mapping • Underwater land survey that maps features and ocean depth. • Continental shelf and slope • Abyssal region (Oceanic floor)  Largest cover more than 50% earths surface.  Flattest and least explored regions on earth • Oceanic Ridge and Hadal System  Peaks and troughs
    • Abyssal Region
    •  Shore/Splash • Lichens • Barnacles • Periwinkles Intertidal • Mussels and urchins • Seastars • Algae Subtidal • Abalone • Sea cucumber • Crabs
    •  Shore/Splash • Small bodies – surface area : volume ratio • Thicker shells – reduces evaporation rate • Muscular foot - fixation Intertidal • Algae – holdfast prevent washaway • Byssal threads – fastening • Congregate together - prevent dessication Subtidal • Crabs – recirculate water over gills prevent dessication • Urchins – hollow out in rock cavities • Algae – hollow stipe acts as air bladder - buoyancy
    •  Physiological tolerance • Temperature • Water quality Larvaland adult preferences Competition for space Predation
    •  Littorial:located at splash zone and king tides height -edge of }intertidal Palegic: open water - beginning at {intertidal zone at high tide Neretic: includes {intertidal and subtidal} Oceanic: Begins at end of subtidal{ • 600ft – Euphotic • 3,000ft – Disphotic • 10,000ft - Aphotic
    • Intertidal/Subtidal2012 Anig Van Der Anal.
    •  Close to continental shelf • Shallow seas • Few 100m deep • Most diverse • Covers 7-8% of total ocean area Abyssal • Ocean floor - 7-11kms deep • covers 50% Ridge & Hadal System • Trenches and troughs caused by erosion
    • Horizontal Verticle Devision Light Depth Verticle Depth Province Neretic epipalegic euphotic 200m Oceanic mesopelagic disphotic 200-1,000m Oceanic bathypalegic aphotic 1,000-4,000m Oceanic abyssalpalegic Aphotic 4,000-10,000m Benthic  Derriere dwellers  Six-gilled sharks
    •  Plankton:drifting organisms that live in the water column with limited locomotion ability. • Defined by ecological niche rather than taxonomic classification. Phytoplankton:autotrophic component of the plankton community. • Usually single celled and invisible, but when multi- cellular looks like a green blur.
    •  Zooplankton:non-autotrophic organisms with locomotion ability. • Feeds on phytoplankton, plankton, nekton, bacteria. Nekton: actively swimming organisms • Primarly tiny algae and bacteria, small eggs and larvae of marine animals. • Larger and stronger than plankton. • Eg. Squid marlon
    •  Neritic: Horizontal province containing intertidal and subtidal oceanic zones Epibenthic: Benthic region of the epipalegic zone Infauna: Organisms that reside in the epibenthic substrate • Bivalves • Tubeworms • Crabs
    • A woody plant community in saline sediments, often inundated by tides. • Location: tropics and subtropics True: • Only occur in mangrove forests Associates: • Found elsewhere  Rainforest
    •  Sponges • Facultative mutualism  For habitat and carbon energy; enhances root growth and protection Sea-squirts Gastropods • Decomposers and nutrient cycling Crabs (mudskippers) • Nutrient cycling Habitat for threatened and endangered species • Brown pelican and green sea turtle
    •  Verticle branches • Snorkel • Knee • Plank • Props Root system • Pneumataphores – above ground spongey tissue roots with small holes allow oxygen transport in anoxic sediments • Salt removal – reverse osmosis
    •  Tough succulent leaves • Excretes salt • Move leaves out of direct sunlight • Stomata open/close to sunlight/water loss • Sacrificial leaf – salt collected and dropped.
    •  Low tidal range • Dominance of freshwater flow Seasonal flood plains that are inundated with freshwater Salinity is reduced during wet season
    •  Seasonal influx of salt water Inter-tidal • High wave action along bays and lagoons “Fringing” mangroves • Pioneered to occupy intertidal mudflats Vertical profile • snorkle
    •  Most common community type Inland depressions • Irregularly flushed by tides Salinity variable • evaporation/rainfall Contributelarge amount of organic debris to adjacent waters
    •  Protect shorelines • erosion Provides habitat • Nursery ground Improves water quality • Filtering pollutants  Heavy metals Renewable resource • Harvested for water-resistant wood Nutrient-source to organisms in systems • Leaf litter
    •  All coastal seas. • Minus Antarctic regions. • 7 species in Victoria Angiosperms: • Sexually, or • Asexually Majority are diecious Hydrophilous pollination • Pollen dispersed by water movement
    •  Ecological importance • Resource  Nursery ground  Food supply for small grazers  Shelter Mitigateeutrophication Bind organic pollutants • CO2 -> O2
    •  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wydM5X-HRDY Aim: To detect seagrass health outside natural variability. Information collected is used to track how seagrass habits change over time to help inform how they are managed. Seagrass monitored in two ways. (1) Seagrasses mapped annually in 6 areas within the bay using aerial photography. (2) Seagrass health including cover, height and shoot density measured by scubas quarterly within sites of mapping regions.
    •  Information collected is then analysed against historically seagrass data dating as far back as 60 years in the case of aerial photographs. Results show health vary between sites and seasons changes observed between „08 and „09 were within natural variability, consistent with changes observed prior to channel deepening in the Bay.
    • System Scenario Ecosystem Kelp forest Keystone species Sea otter Prey Sea urchin Removal Sea otter Consequence Urchin populations increase and reduce the kelp forest, creating urchin barriersFurther consequence Decline in sea otters = increase in urchins = kelp decrease
    •  Plankton populations controlled by nutrient availability Marine populations • fluctuate seasonally Influencing factors of recruitment • Food availability • Physical constraints (currents)
    • A species whose conservation confers indirect protection among numerous co- occuring species.
    •  Removal of a species that has dis- proportianal large effects on its environment relative to its abundance. Conservationmaintains the structure of an ecological community.
    •  Predators residing at the top of the food web with no predators of their own. Crucial role in maintaining health of the ecosystem. Affects prey species population dynamics.
    • System Scenario Ecosystem Seagrass meadows Keystone species Tiger shark Prey Dugong Removal Tiger sharks Consequence Dugong populations increase and reduce the seagrass meadowsFurther consequence Decline in tiger sharks= increase in urchins = kelp decrease
    • System Scenario Ecosystem Oceanic province Keystone species Plankton Predator Blue whale Removal Photosynthetic process Consequence Blue whale populations decrease because reduced photosynthetic processes decrease plankton abundanceFurther consequence Decreased photosynthesis = decreased plankton population = decreased blue whale population = decreased Japanese population
    •  Pheramones Temperatures Water quality Nutrients Predators • Higher consumers Physical processes • Turbulance, current speed
    •  Addition of nutrients and chemicals into water Disturbance to wildlife Damage to reefs Crowding, noise, litter Reduction in endemic species richness Habitat fragmentation Introduction of pest species Sustainable tea-bagging
    •  Public educational resources Limit visitor numbers and tour-operators Limit number of tourist sites Develop sanctuary areas Ensure hospitality industry is environmentally friendly Develop guidelines/regulations Ensure tour operators comply to conditions in their permit by enforcement
    •  Transportation • Boats, ice breakers etc… Dredging and construction Hydrocarbon and mineral exploration and recovery Geophysical surveys • airguns Ocean science studies • Seismology, acoustic propagation
    •  Physiologically • Temporary/Permanent transition shift (TTP/PTS) • Rupture of gas bladders • Hemorrhaging Behaviorally • Increase stress levels  limit of feeding, breeding, nurturing of young behaviours • Put animals off sonar path • Increase stranding
    •  Shut down procedures Signals should have a gradual increasing source level onset, to allow the animals sufficient time to displace themselves from the source to a safe distance Observers to look for large marine fauna
    • 6 Consequences: • Temperature increase • Acidification • Shifts in wind and radiation regimes • Hydrological cycle modifications • Alterations related to oceanic circulation and stratification • Irregular occurrence of extreme events such as storms
    •  H2O is bipolar as it has a +ive and –ive end Structure of H2O allows for tension, viscosity and solubility H2O can dissolve salts and nutrients Density of H2O > ice = float (8% lighter than H2O)
    •  Maximum density at 4 C • Ice acts as insulator • Life continues Salt increases density • Freshwater is 3% less dense than seawater
    •  High specific heat • 4.8 kj/kg/ C Low heat transmission • Water conducts heat poorly, therefore heat is localized if molecular diffusion is only route for mixing (e.g. when filling bath)
    •  Highest element surface tension (except for mercury) Adhesion attraction • Hydrophilic; cohesive forces < adhesive forces • Hydrophobic; cohesive forces > adhesive forces Influencedby temperature and organic chemicals, decreased by: • Intense algal blooms • Stained lakes • Aquatic plants  At 10 C
    •  Reflectionand refraction Blocked by suspended sediments • Turbidity • Organic matter Absorption • Water molecules • Suspended matter • Plants • Organic matter
    • Fast-flowing streams that drain through elevated or mountainous country, often onto broad alluvialplains where they become lowland rivers.
    •  Problem: • large number of minor order streams may join to a larger order channel, increasing its discharge but not order.
    •  Problem: • Difficult to compute. • Depends heavily on mapping scale used to identify streams.
    • DISCHARGE CHANNEL SHAPE Base flow  Depth, width and shape • Continuous groundwater influence flow velocity. flow • Altering river flow influences pool & riffles. Rising/recession limb • Fluctuating flashy levels.  Inundation of desert streams
    • SUBSTRATION DRIFT Boulder are rarely moved  Despite except by rare extreme adaptations, organisms can flows. become detached. In constrast, sand and silt  Downstream drift could dislodge by current easily. result in depopulation of upstream reaches. Epilithon covers rocks  Bacterial, fungi and algae biofilms.  Epi = above  Lithon - rock
    •  Permanent attachment • Mainly underside • Eg: freshwater sponges Boundary layer – turbulance protection • Ideal for small organisms and stress toleraters • Static: no nutrients, no oxygen Morphological existence • Streamline bodies • Long appendages for orientation • Movable spines to lock into crevacies • Temporary attachment • Silk attachment - larvae Behavioural • Laying eggs upstream
    •  Bacteria is ¾ of upland stream biomass. Organic Processing: • Day 1: leaching of DOM (dissolved organic matter) • Day 1-7: Microbial colonisation • Day 7+: Invertebrate consumption, continuous physical fragmentation
    •  Pollutants • Heavy metals • Sewerage • Acids and alkilines Removal of Riparian Zone Climate change Eutrophication
    • The general more turbid, warm, slow-flowing waters and fine sediment beds thatchannel from fourth order streams.
    •  Largeorder stream Bounded upstream • By upland reaches Bounded downstream • by ocean tides River is:  Deep  Wide  Slow flow  Meanders across floodplains Frequently turbid • Draws water from large catchment
    •  Autocthonus – internal carbon • Aquatic macrophytes • Epiphytic algae • Phytoplankton • Autrophic bacteria Allocthonus – external carbon • Fringing riparian zones • Upstream CPOM and DOM } detritus • Drift from upstream animals • Groundwater/hyporheic input
    •  Zonebeneath and alongside a stream bed where mixing of ground water and surface water occurs. Important for fish spawns.
    •  Majorly angiosperms Recent re-invaders of terrestrial taxa Reduced root systems Large internal air-space Little woody tissue Thin cuticle
    •  Low light reaches roots High light surface Susceptibility to flooding/drying
    •  Major uses: • Initially transport • Irrigation • Recreation • Hydroelectric power • Vital role for providing peak demands in emergencies • Harvest of riparian zone 55% of Adelaide‟s drinking water
    •  2,500 kilometres long Discharge of 600 cubic metres per second Amazon discharges a days worth of water compared to what the Murray discharges in a year. Aussies utilise rivers better than all other major river flows.
    •  Clearing of riparian zone • Risks flooding Weed invasion • 1/3 of species in Murray floodplain are exotic Grazing • Exotic cattle reducing native growth Salinity • Influx from oceanic tides
    •  Decreasing total flow • Diversions Decreasing variability • More constant Decreasing peak salinities Loss of downstream estuaries Change in sediment load Altered seasonality of flows • inundation
    • A model for classifying and describing flowing water in addition to the classification ofindividual sections of water after the occurence of indicator organisms
    •  Predictschanges in attributes such as functional feeding group representation with changes in stream size.  Different organisms at different structural sites along water flow4 major food types: • Shredders (herbi/detrivores) • Collectors (herbi/detrivores) • Grazers (herbi/detrivores) • Predators (omnivores)
    • SHREDDERS COLLECTORS Feed off CPOM  Feed on fine particulate  Small sections of leaves organic matter (FPOM) • Adapted to filter feed Invertebrates that eat detritivores  Filters of FPOM • Mayfly • Fly larvae • Stonefly • nematodes
    • PREDATORS GRAZERS Feed on other organisms  Feed on biofilm and plants in the river • Periphyton system.  Complex mixture of algae, cynobacteria and Omnivores detritus attached to substrate • Fish • Invertebrates  Biofilm accumulates on rock substrates • Frogs • Snails • Birds • Caddisfly
    •  CPOM at Riparian zone • 35% Shredders • 35% Collectors • 25% Predators • 5% Grazers P:R < 1 • Photosynthesis : Respiration ratio is less than 1. Large allocthorous • External carbon production
    •  FPOM gathers from intercepting stream channels • 55% Collectors • 20% Predators • 20% Grazers • 5% Shredders P:R > 1 • Photosynthesis : Respiration ratio is greater than 1. Increased autocthorous • Internal carbon produtcion (periphyton)
    •  Collectors become strongly abundant in more lowland streams • 80% Collectors • 20% Predators P:R <1 • Photosynthesis : Respiration ratio is less than 1. Continuous autocthorous • Internal carbon production (collector f/feeders)
    •  Consumption of decaying organic material • Coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) • Dissolved organic matter (DOM) Breakdown of leaf cannot release phosphorus
    • 1. 2. Dead Organic Detritivores Matter (eg, fungi, bacteria(eg, leaves, poop) ) feed on detritus 4.Predators feed on 3. Invertebratesinvertebrates, poo feed on detrivores p.
    •  Invertebrates would rather feed on the detritivores rather than the decaying matter because it obtains a higher accumulation of energy • Bacteria that feed on detritus have a nitrogen:carbon ratio of 1:10 • Leaves have a nitrogen:carbon ratio of 1:1000  Thus, less bacteria are littly sacks of nutrients
    • For Marine and Freshwater Ecology Revision We accept Arnott‟s Tim Tams in gratitude