3- 16 Pages
APPROACHES AND METHOD IN
Submitted to Mam Sabahat
Submitted by Anum shahzadie
A brief history of language
This chapter in briefly reviewing the history of
language teaching method .From the historical
perspective we are also able to see that we are
prompted modern method innovation which were
similar to major concern of discussion in language
teaching “ how to teach foreign language”
Change in language teaching method throughout
the history the change in the kind of proficiency
such as move towards the oral proficiency rather
than the reading comprehension the major goal of
It has been estimated60% people of the world are
“ multilingualism” .Bilingualism or multilingualism
are norms rather than exception. Today English
widely use in all over the world but 500 years ago
Latin was dominated language of education ,
commerce, religion and government in the
In 16th century
English , French , Italian gained importance as a
result of political change in Europe and Latin
gradually became displaced as a language of
spoken and written communication.
In the 16th , 17th , 18th century
In England were initially given a rigorous
introduction to Latin grammar which was taught
through rote learning of grammar rules, study of
declensions and conjugation, translation and
practice in writing sample sentences.
But the way of teaching Latin it was deadly
experience for children.
• Roger Ascham
• John Locke
They had specific proposal for curriculum change
and for changes in the way Latin was taught.
In 18th century
As modern language began to enter curriculum of
European school in the 18th century and they
were with same procedure that used for teaching
Text book consisted of statements of abstract
grammar rules. List of vocabulary and sentences
for translate, speaking the foreign language was
not a goal. Oral proficiency was limited to student
reading aloud the sentences they had translated.
In 19th century
In the mid of !9th century a typical textbook thus
consisted the chapter of lesson organized around
grammar point. Each grammar point was listed
rules on its use were explained and it was
illustrated by sample sentence.
In 19th century textbooks complier were mainly
determined to codify the foreign language in to
frozen rules of morphology, syntax to be
explained and eventually memorized. Many
books during 19th century published those by
Seidenstucker and ploz.
He divide the text in to two parts carefully.
The Grammar-Translation method was first
known in the United State as the Prussian
method. An American classic teacher published in
1845 was title The Ciceronian or the Prussian
method of Teaching the Elements of Latin
Characteristics of it…
The Grammar-Translation is a way of studying
language that approaches the language first
through detailed analysis of its grammar rules ,
followed by application of this knowledge to the
task of translating sentences and texts into and
out of the target language. The first language is
maintained as the reference system in the
acquisition of second language.
More focus on reading writing.
Vocabulary selection is based solely on the
reading text used and word are taught trough
bilingual word list, dictionary study and
The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and
language practice. Translate the sentence in to
Accuracy is emphasized.
The Grammar-Translation taught deductively.
The student’s native language use for medium of
The Grammar-Translation dominated European
and foreign language teaching from the 1840s to
the 1940s. According to the Howartt (1984) it is
worst excess for those who introduced that study
of German of French no less rigorous as studied
the classical language. That's why German
translation courses remembered with distaste
thousand of school learner.
In mid of 19th century opposition to The Grammar-
Translation method gradually developed in
several European countries. This reform
movement it was referred to the foundation for
the development of new way of teaching
language and raised controversies that have
continued to the present day.
Language teaching innovation in the
The Frenchman C. Marcel referred to child
learning as a model of language teaching,
emphasized the importance of meaning in
learning , proposed that reading be taught before
other skills and try to locate language teaching
within a broader educational framework.
The Englishman T . Prendergast was one of the
first to record the observation that children use
contextual and situational cues to interpret
utterances and that they use memorized phrases
and routines in speaking.
The Frenchman F. Gouin developed an approach
to teaching foreign language based on his
observation of children use of language to
accomplish events consisting of sequence related
Gouin’s emphasis on the need to present new
teaching item in a context that makes their
meaning clear and the use of gestures and action
to convey the meaning of utterances are
practices that later became part of such
approaches and method as situational language
The reform Movement
The International Phonetics Alphabet was
designed to enable the sound of any language to
be accurately transcribed. It found in 1886.It
The study of spoken language
Phonetics training in order to establish good
The use of conversation text and dialogues.
Inductive approach to the teaching of grammar.
Teaching new meanings through establishing
association within target language.
Henry Sweet argued that sound methodological
principles should be based on a scientific analysis
of language and a study of psychology.
Book “The practical study of languages” he set 4th
principles for the development of teaching
what is to be taught.
Imposing what is to
Arranging what is to
from simple to
Vietor, Sweet and other reformers in the late 19th
century shared many beliefs about principles…
The spoken language is important
The findings of phonetics should be applied to
teaching and to teacher training.
Learner should hear the language first before
seeing it I written form
Sentences should be practice in meaningful
Grammar should b taught inductively.
Translation should b avoided although native
language could be used in order to explain new
The Direct Method
The Direct Method introduced it in France and Germany
and it became widely known in the united state through it
use by Sauveur and Maximilian Berlitz in successful
commercial language school. Following principles are,
Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the
Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught
Oral communication skill were built up
Grammar was taught inductively
New teaching points were introduced orally.
Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration,
objects and pictures and abstract vocabulary taught by
association of ideas
Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
Correct pronunciation and grammar emphasized.
The method era
An approach method refers to a theoretically
consistent set of teaching procedure and define
best practice in language teaching.
Particular approaches and methods, it will lead to
more effective levels of language learning than
alternative ways of teaching.
If teacher use best approach the quality of
language learning will approve.
The most active period in the history of
approaches and methods was from 1950s to the
1980s . The 1950s and 1960s the emergence of
Audiolingual method and situational method.
During the same period other two methods
included the Silent Way , the Natural Approach
and total physical Response.
In the 1990s Content Based Instruction and Task
Based language Teaching emerged as a new
approach to language.