Efektiviteti i ndërhyrjes së hershme te fëmijët
me Sindromën Down
Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
Tabela e përmbajtjes
Abstrakti1
Objektivat dhe hipoteza2
Metodologjia3
Konkluzione dhe Rekomandime4
Anida Ago & Olaserda L...
Abstrakti
Sindroma Down është një çrregullim kromozomik, e cila prek të gjitha fushat e
zhvillimit. Për këtë arsye është e...
Qëllimi
Kjo temë synon të studiojë më nga afër dhe konkretisht
problemet e zhvillimit te fëmijët me SD, efektet që
shkakto...
Objektivat dhe hipoteza e kërkimit
• Objektivat e studimit:
• Të eksplorohen shkaqet dhe faktorët që shkaktojnë SD.
• Të e...
Metodologjia
 Studimi është realizuar në qytetin e Elbasanit, në shkollën speciale “Zëra Jete”
 Target grupi i studimit ...
Metodologjia
Add Your TextAdd Your TextAdd Your TextAdd Your Text
Add Your Title here
Text1Text1Text1Text1
INSTRUMENTAT MA...
Pyetesori me prinderit
 20 pyetje te mbyllura dhe te hapura i aplikuar te prinderit e femijeve me SD.
 Pyetjet e pyetëso...
Krahasimi i arritjeve FMN me FNP
Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
Krahasimi i
arritjeve
3FMN
Rezultate te larta
ne aspektin
k...
Konkluzione
Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
Rekomandime
• REKOMANDIME PER PRINDERIT
• REKOMANDIME PER SPECIALISTET
• REKOMANDIME PER POLITIKEBERESIT
Rekomandime për prindërit
• Të pranojnë faktin se kanë një fëmijë me SD dhe të kuptojnë se ajo nuk është një
sëmundje por ...
Pyetje?
Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
Bibliografia
1. Abbeduto L, Seltzer MM, Shattuck P, Krauss MW, Orsmond G, Murphy MM. (2004);
Psychological well-being and ...
Faleminderit !
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Efektiviteti i nderhyrjes se hershme te femijet me Sindromen Down

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  • Animated picture pans in window with fade-in captions (Advanced) Tip : For best results, select a high-resolution, vertically oriented picture, where the picture height is larger than the slide height. The picture in the example above is 15” high and 10” wide. (Normal slide dimensions are 7.5” high and 10” wide.) To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following: On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout , and then click Blank . On the Insert tab , in the Images group, click Picture . In the Insert Picture dialog box, s elect a picture, and then click Insert . Select the picture. Under Picture Tools , on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 15” and the width is set to 10” . To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position , enter values into the Height , Width , Left , and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate , enter values into the Height and Width boxes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange , point to Align , and then do the following: Click Align to Slide . Click Align Top . Click Align Center . The remainder of picture will extend beyond the bottom edge of the slide area. You may need to zoom out to view your slide. To zoom out, on the View tab, in the Zoom group, click Zoom . In the Zoom dialog box, select 33% . To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following: On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes , and then under Rectangles click Rounded Rectangle (second option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a rounded rectangle. Select the rounded rectangle. Under Drawing Tools , on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following: In the Shape Height box, enter 2.5” . In the Shape Width box, enter 8” . Also on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, do the following: Click the arrow next to Shape Fill , and then click No Fill . Click the arrow next to Shape Outline , and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). Also on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, in the left pane, click Line Style . In the Line Style pane, in the Width box, enter 12.5 pt . Also in the Format Shape dialog box, in the left pane, click 3-D Format , and then do the following in the 3-D Format pane: Under Bevel , click the button next to Top , and then under Bevel click Circle (first row, first option from the left). Under Surface , click the button next to Material , and then under Standard click Warm Matte (second option from the left). Click the button next to Lighting , and then under Cool click Freezing (second option from the left). On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange , point to Align , and then do the following: Click Align to Slide . Click Align Middle . Click Align Center . On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes , and then under Rectangles click Rectangle (first option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools , on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following: In the Shape Height box, enter 2.51” . In the Shape Width box, enter 10” . Also on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the arrow next to Shape Outline , and then click No Outline . Also on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the arrow next to Shape Fill , point to Gradient , and then click More Gradients . In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following: In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider. Also under Gradient stops , customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop from the left in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0% . Select the second stop from the left in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1, Lighter 25% (fourth row, second option from the left) . In the Transparency box, enter 0% . On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange , point to Align , and then do the following: Click Align to Slide . Click Align Top . Click Align Center . Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow next to Copy, and then click Duplicate . On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange , point to Rotate , and then click Flip Vertical . Also on the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange , point to Align , and then do the following: Click Align to Slide . Click Align Bottom . Click Align Center . Also on the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes , and then under Rectangles click Rectangle (first option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools , on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following: In the Shape Height box, enter 2.55” . In the Shape Width box, enter 1.06” . Under Drawing Tools , on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, in the left pane, click Line Color . In the Line Color pane, select No line . Also in the Format Shape dialog box, in the left pane, click Fill . In the Fill pane, select Solid fill , click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1, Lighter 25% (fourth row, second option from the left). On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange , point to Align , and then do the following: Click Align to Slide . Click Align Right . Click Align Middle . Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow next to Copy, and then click Duplicate . Select the duplicate rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange , point to Align , and then do the following: Click Align to Slide . Click Align Left . Click Align Middle . On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select , and then click Selection Pane . In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the rounded rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange , and then click Bring to Front . In the Selection and Visibility pane, press and hold CTRL, and then select the rounded rectangle and four rectangles. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange , and then click Group . To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following: On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box . On the slide, drag to draw a text box. Type the text you want to appear in the text box, and then select the text. Format the text in the textbox using the following steps: On the Home tab, in the Font group, choose the Calibri font and a font size of 26 . Click the arrow next to Font Color , and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). In the Paragraph group, click Align Text Left . Drag the text box to the lower left part of the rounded rectangle. To reproduce the animation effects for the picture on this slide, do the following: On the slide, select the picture. On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Add Animation , and then, under Entrance , click Fade . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Duration box, type 2 . On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Add Animation , and then click More Motion Paths . In the Add Motion Paths dialog box, under Lines and Curves , click Up . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Duration box, type 20 . On the slide, select the Up motion path, and then do the following: Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the end point (red arrow) of the motion path to the top edge of the slide. Press and hold Shift, and then drag the starting point (green arrow) of the motion path to the bottom edge of the slide. To reproduce the animation effects for the text on this slide, do the following: On the slide, select the text box. On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Add Animation , and then, under Entrance , click Fade . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Duration box, type .5 . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Delay box, type 3.0 . Also on the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Add Animation , and then, under Exit , click Fade . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Duration box, type .5 . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Delay box, type 8.0 . On the slide, select the text box. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow next to Copy , and then click Duplicate . On the slide, click in the second text box and edit the text. On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Animation Pane . In the Animation P ane, do the following: Select the entrance animation on the second text box. Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click Timing . In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 8.5 , and then click OK . Select the exit animation on the second text box. Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click Timing . In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 13.0 , and then click OK . On the slide, select the second text box. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow next to Copy , and then click Duplicate . On the slide, click in the third text box and edit the text. In the Animation P ane, do the following: Select the entrance animation on the third text box. Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click Timing . In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 13.5 , and then click OK . Select the exit animation on the third text box. Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click Timing . In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 19.5 , and then click OK . On the slide, press and hold CTRL, and then select the three text boxes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange , point to Align , and then do the following: Click Align Selected Objects . Click Align Middle . Click Align Center . To reproduce the animation effects for the shapes on this slide, do the following: On the slide, select the rounded rectangle and the group of shapes that form the background of the slide. On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Add Animation , and then click More Emphasis Effects . In the Add Emphasis Effect dialog box, under Basic , click Grow/Shrink . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select After Previous . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Duration box, type 2 . On the Animations tab, in the Animation group, click Effect Options , and then click Horizontal . On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Add Animation , and then click More Exit Effects . In the Add Emphasis Effect dialog box, under Basic , click Fade . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Start list, select With Previous . Also on the Animations tab, in the Timing group, in the Duration box, type 1 .
  • Custom animation effects: floating bubbles (Intermediate) To reproduce the bubble shape effects on this slide, do the following: On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout , and then click Blank . On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes , and then under Basic Shapes select Oval (second option from the left). Press and hold SHIFT, and then click and drag to draw the oval shape. Select the circle (oval shape). On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, in the lower right corner, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box in the left pane, click Fill . In the Fill pane, click Gradient fill , and then do the following: Click the button next to Preset Colors , and then select Calm Water (second row, third option from the left). In the Type box, select Radial . Click the button next to Direction , and then select From Corner (first option from the left). Also in the Format Shape pane, in the left pane, click Line Color . In the Line Color pane, click Gradient Line , and then do the following: Click the button next to Preset Colors , and select Calm Water (second row, third option from the left). In the Type box, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then select Linear Down (second option from the left). Also in the Format Shape pane, in the left pane, click 3-D Format and then in the 3-D Format pane, do the following: Under Bevel , click the button next to Top , and then select Circle (first option from the left). Next to Top , in the Width box, enter 50 pt , and in the Height box, enter 50 pt . Under Surface , click the button next to Material , and then under Translucent , select Clear . Click the button next to Lighting , and then under Special , select Glow (third option from the left). In the Angle box, enter 110 °. To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following: Drag the bubble off the bottom right corner of the slide. On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click Custom Animation . In the Custom Animation task pane, click Add Effect, point to Entrance , and then click More Effects . In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Basic , select Appear , and then click OK . In the Custom Animation task pane, select the entrance animation effect, and under Modify: Appear , in the Start list, select With Previous . In the Custom Animation task pane, click Add Effect , point to Motion Path, point to Draw Custom Path , and then click Curve. Click a point below the bottom right corner of the slide, and then click several more points to draw a curve. Press ESC to end the curve. In the Custom Animation task pane, click the arrow next to the motion path animation effect, and then click Timing. In the Custom Path dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Start list, select With Previous . In the Speed box, enter 8.0 seconds , and then click OK . Select the bubble. In the Custom Animation task pane, click Add Effect, point to Emphasis , and then click More Effects . In the Add Emphasis Effect dialog box, under Basic , click Grow/Shrink , and then click OK . In the Custom Animation task pane, select the Grow/Shrink animation. Under Modify: Grow/Shrink , in the Size list, select Larger . Also in the Size list, in the Custom box, enter 150% , and then press ENTER. Click arrow next to the Grow/Shrink animation effect, and then click Timing . In the Grow/Shrink dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 6 seconds . In the Speed box, enter 0.1 seconds , and then click OK . Select the bubble. In the Custom Animation task pane, click Add Effect, point to Exit, click More Effects . In the Add Exit Effect dialog box, under Subtle , select Fade , and then click OK. In the Custom Animation task pane, with the Fade animation effect selected, under Modify: Fade , in the Start list, select With Previous . In the Custom Animation task pane, click the arrow next to the Fade animation, and then click Timing . In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 6 seconds . In the Speed list, enter 0.1 seconds , and then click OK . To duplicate the bubble on this slide, do the following: Select the bubble. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste , and then click Duplicate. Select the new bubble. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the adjustment handle to resize the shape. On the slide, right-click the motion math for the new bubble, and then click Edit Points . Select the points on the motion path and drag them to create a different motion path. Do the following to reproduce the background effects on this slide, using the water background picture from the example above: Right-click the water background on the original template, and then click Save Background . Save the file as a JPEG (.jpg) file format. Right-click the slide that you are creating, and then click Format Background . In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Picture fill in the Fill pane, and then under Insert from click File . In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the saved water picture (.jpg), and then click Insert .   Do the following to reproduce the background effects on this slide, using a different picture: Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background . In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Picture fill in the Fill pane, and then under Insert from click File . In the Insert Picture dialog box, select another picture, and then click Insert .
  • Animated SmartArt chevron list (Basic) To reproduce the SmartArt on this slide, do the following: On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout , and then click Blank . On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click SmartArt . In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, in the left pane, click List . In the List pane, click Vertical Chevron List (seventh row, second option from the left), and then click OK to insert the graphic into the slide. To create a fourth chevron, select the third chevron at the bottom of the graphic, and then under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the Create Graphic group, click the arrow next to Add Shape , and select Add Shape After . To add bullets for the fourth chevron, select the fourth chevron, and then under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the Create Graphic group, click Add Bullet . To enter text, select the SmartArt graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, enter text for each level. (Note: In the example slide, the first-level text are the chevrons with “One,” “Two,” and “Three.” The second-level text are the “Supporting Text” lines.) On the slide, select the SmartArt graphic and drag the right center sizing handle to the right edge of the slide. With the SmartArt graphic still selected, on the Design Tab , in the Themes group, click Colors , and then under Built-In select Median . (Note: If this action is taken in a PowerPoint presentation containing more than one slide, the background style will be applied to all of the slides.) With the SmartArt graphic still selected, under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the SmartArt Styles group, click the More arrow, and then under 3-D select Inset (first row, second option from the left). Also under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the SmartArt Styles group, click Change Colors , and then under Colorful select Colorful Accent Colors (first option from the left). To reproduce the chevron effects on this slide, do the following: Press and hold CTRL, and select all four chevrons in the SmartArt graphic. On the Home tab, in the Font group, in the Font list select Franklin Gothic Medium Cond , and then in the Font Size box select 28 pt . On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Text Box in the left pane, and in the Text Box pane do the following: Under Text layout , in the Vertical alignment list select Bottom . Under Internal margin , do the following: In the Left box enter 0” . In the Right box enter 0” . In the Bottom box enter 0” . In the Top box enter 0.6” . To reproduce the rectangle effects on this slide, do the following: Press and hold CTRL, and the four rectangles (with bulleted text). On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following: In the Font list, select Franklin Gothic Book . In the Font Size box, enter 21 pt. In the Font Color list, under Theme Colors select White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane do the following: Click Gradient fill . In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100 %. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 45 %. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and in the Shadow pane, in the Presets list select No Shadow . Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click 3-D Format in the left pane, and in the 3-D Format pane, under Bevel , in the Top list select No Bevel . Select the first from the top rectangle with bulleted text, and then do the following: On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane do the following: Click Gradient fill . In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add or Remove until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select Stop 1 on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Orange, Accent 2 (first row, sixth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100 %. Select Stop 2 on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Orange, Accent 2 (first row, sixth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0 %. Select the second from the top rectangle with bulleted text, and then do the following: On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane do the following: Click Gradient fill . In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Olive Green, Accent 3 (first row, sixth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100 %. Select the last stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Olive Green, Accent 3 (first row, sixth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0 %. Select the third from the top rectangle with bulleted text, and then do the following: On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane do the following: Click Gradient fill . In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Gold, Accent 4 (first row, seventh option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100 %. Select the last stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Gold, Accent 4 (first row, seventh option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0 %. Select the fourth from the top rectangle with bulleted text, and then do the following: On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane do the following: Click Gradient fill . In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Green, Accent 5 (first row, 8th option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100 %. Select the last stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Green, Accent 5 (first row, 8th option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0 %. To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following: On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Animation Pane . Select the SmartArt graphic, and then on the Animations tab, in the Animation group, click the More arrow on the Effects Gallery and under Entrance , click Grow & Turn . In the Animation group, click Effect Options , and under Sequence , click One by one . In the Timing group, in the Duration list, enter 01.00 . In the Animation Pane , click the double arrow to expand the contents of the list. Press and hold CTRL, and select the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth effects (bullets’ grow & turn entrance effects), and then do the following: In the Animation group, click the More arrow on the Effects Gallery and then click More Entrance Effects . Under Basic , click Peek In , and then click OK . With the four peek in entrance effects still selected, in the Timing group, do the following: In the Start list, select With Previous . In the Duration list, select 01.00 . Select the first grow & turn entrance effect in the list, and in the Timing group, in the Start list, click With Previous . To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following: Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background . In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following: In the Type list, select Radial . Click the button next to Direction , and then click From Center (third option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 20% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left). Select the second stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left).
  • Animated SmartArt chevron list (Basic) To reproduce the SmartArt on this slide, do the following: On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout , and then click Blank . On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click SmartArt . In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, in the left pane, click List . In the List pane, click Vertical Chevron List (seventh row, second option from the left), and then click OK to insert the graphic into the slide. To create a fourth chevron, select the third chevron at the bottom of the graphic, and then under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the Create Graphic group, click the arrow next to Add Shape , and select Add Shape After . To add bullets for the fourth chevron, select the fourth chevron, and then under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the Create Graphic group, click Add Bullet . To enter text, select the SmartArt graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, enter text for each level. (Note: In the example slide, the first-level text are the chevrons with “One,” “Two,” and “Three.” The second-level text are the “Supporting Text” lines.) On the slide, select the SmartArt graphic and drag the right center sizing handle to the right edge of the slide. With the SmartArt graphic still selected, on the Design Tab , in the Themes group, click Colors , and then under Built-In select Median . (Note: If this action is taken in a PowerPoint presentation containing more than one slide, the background style will be applied to all of the slides.) With the SmartArt graphic still selected, under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the SmartArt Styles group, click the More arrow, and then under 3-D select Inset (first row, second option from the left). Also under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the SmartArt Styles group, click Change Colors , and then under Colorful select Colorful Accent Colors (first option from the left). To reproduce the chevron effects on this slide, do the following: Press and hold CTRL, and select all four chevrons in the SmartArt graphic. On the Home tab, in the Font group, in the Font list select Franklin Gothic Medium Cond , and then in the Font Size box select 28 pt . On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Text Box in the left pane, and in the Text Box pane do the following: Under Text layout , in the Vertical alignment list select Bottom . Under Internal margin , do the following: In the Left box enter 0” . In the Right box enter 0” . In the Bottom box enter 0” . In the Top box enter 0.6” . To reproduce the rectangle effects on this slide, do the following: Press and hold CTRL, and the four rectangles (with bulleted text). On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following: In the Font list, select Franklin Gothic Book . In the Font Size box, enter 21 pt. In the Font Color list, under Theme Colors select White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane do the following: Click Gradient fill . In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100 %. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 45 %. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and in the Shadow pane, in the Presets list select No Shadow . Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click 3-D Format in the left pane, and in the 3-D Format pane, under Bevel , in the Top list select No Bevel . Select the first from the top rectangle with bulleted text, and then do the following: On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane do the following: Click Gradient fill . In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add or Remove until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select Stop 1 on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Orange, Accent 2 (first row, sixth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100 %. Select Stop 2 on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Orange, Accent 2 (first row, sixth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0 %. Select the second from the top rectangle with bulleted text, and then do the following: On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane do the following: Click Gradient fill . In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Olive Green, Accent 3 (first row, sixth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100 %. Select the last stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Olive Green, Accent 3 (first row, sixth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0 %. Select the third from the top rectangle with bulleted text, and then do the following: On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane do the following: Click Gradient fill . In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Gold, Accent 4 (first row, seventh option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100 %. Select the last stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Gold, Accent 4 (first row, seventh option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0 %. Select the fourth from the top rectangle with bulleted text, and then do the following: On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane do the following: Click Gradient fill . In the Type list, select Linear . Click the button next to Direction , and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Green, Accent 5 (first row, 8th option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100 %. Select the last stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Green, Accent 5 (first row, 8th option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0 %. To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following: On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Animation Pane . Select the SmartArt graphic, and then on the Animations tab, in the Animation group, click the More arrow on the Effects Gallery and under Entrance , click Grow & Turn . In the Animation group, click Effect Options , and under Sequence , click One by one . In the Timing group, in the Duration list, enter 01.00 . In the Animation Pane , click the double arrow to expand the contents of the list. Press and hold CTRL, and select the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth effects (bullets’ grow & turn entrance effects), and then do the following: In the Animation group, click the More arrow on the Effects Gallery and then click More Entrance Effects . Under Basic , click Peek In , and then click OK . With the four peek in entrance effects still selected, in the Timing group, do the following: In the Start list, select With Previous . In the Duration list, select 01.00 . Select the first grow & turn entrance effect in the list, and in the Timing group, in the Start list, click With Previous . To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following: Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background . In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following: In the Type list, select Radial . Click the button next to Direction , and then click From Center (third option from the left). Under Gradient stops , click Add gradient stop or Remove gradient stop until two stops appear on the slider. Customize the gradient stops as follows: Select the first stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 20% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left). Select the second stop on the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 100% . Click the button next to Color , and then under Theme Colors select Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left).
  • Efektiviteti i nderhyrjes se hershme te femijet me Sindromen Down

    1. 1. Efektiviteti i ndërhyrjes së hershme te fëmijët me Sindromën Down Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
    2. 2. Tabela e përmbajtjes Abstrakti1 Objektivat dhe hipoteza2 Metodologjia3 Konkluzione dhe Rekomandime4 Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
    3. 3. Abstrakti Sindroma Down është një çrregullim kromozomik, e cila prek të gjitha fushat e zhvillimit. Për këtë arsye është e domosdoshme që, fëmijët e prekur nga Sindroma Down t’u nënshtrohen që në hershmëri ndërhyrjeve terapeutike, me qëllim që të arrihet një progres i konsiderueshëm në zhvillimin e tyre. Qëllimi i këtij kërkimi është i fokusuar në studimin e problemeve të zhvillimit tek fëmijët me Sindromën Down, në efektivitetin e ndërhyrjes së hershme dhe rolin e prindërve në zhvillimin progresiv të tyre. Në këtë studim, ndërhyrja e hershme i referohet gjetjes së programeve të ndihmës për t’u ndërmarrë te fëmijët me Sindromën Down deri në moshën shkollore ose afërsisht 6 vitet e para të jetës. Për realizimin e këtij studimi janë përdorur si instrumenta matës 6 studime rasti të fëmijëve me sindromën down, që variojnë nga mosha 2-13 vjec dhe një pyetësor me pyetje të mbyllura dhe të hapura, i aplikuar me prindërit e këtyre fëmijëve në rrethin e Elbasan-it. Gjetjet e këtij studimi tregojnë se, ndërhyrja e hershme dhe pjesëmarrja aktive e bashkëpunuese e prindërve ndikojnë në zhvillimin pozitiv të fëmijëve me Sindromën Down. Në përfundim të këtij kërkimi janë dhënë rekomandimet përkatëse për prindërit, specialistët dhe politikëbërësit. Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
    4. 4. Qëllimi Kjo temë synon të studiojë më nga afër dhe konkretisht problemet e zhvillimit te fëmijët me SD, efektet që shkakton ndërhyrja e hershme dhe ndikimin e prindërve te fëmijët me SD në zhvillimin pozitiv të tyre. Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
    5. 5. Objektivat dhe hipoteza e kërkimit • Objektivat e studimit: • Të eksplorohen shkaqet dhe faktorët që shkaktojnë SD. • Të eksplorohen problemet e zhvillimit te fëmijët me SD. • Të eksplorohet ndikimi i ndërhyrjes së hershme te fëmijët me SD. • Të krahasohet niveli i zhvillimit midis fëmijëve me SD që i janë nënshtruar ndërhyrjes së hershme dhe atyre që nuk kanë ndërhyrje të hershme. • Të zbulohet niveli i informimit të prindërve të fëmijëve me SD rreth këtij çrregullimi gjenetik. • Të zbulohet niveli i interesimit, përkujdesjes dhe mbështetjes që prindërit i kushtojnë fëmijëve të tyre me SD. • Të jepen rekomandime për ndërhyrje efektive që ndikojnë në zhvillimin pozitiv të fëmijëve me SD. • Hipoteza: Ndërhyrja e hershme te fëmijët me SD ndikon pozitivisht në zhvillimin e tyre fizik, kognitiv, social, dhe gjuhësor. Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
    6. 6. Metodologjia  Studimi është realizuar në qytetin e Elbasanit, në shkollën speciale “Zëra Jete”  Target grupi i studimit janë fëmijët e diagnostikuar me Sindromën Down Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi 6 Femije me SD 3 FMN +3FPN 4 femije 2 femije Shkolla ne terren speciale KAMPIONIMI 12 Prinderit e femijeve me SD 6 6 Nena Baballare
    7. 7. Metodologjia Add Your TextAdd Your TextAdd Your TextAdd Your Text Add Your Title here Text1Text1Text1Text1 INSTRUMENTAT MATESINSTRUMENTAT MATESINSTRUMENTAT MATESINSTRUMENTAT MATES STUDIM RASTI INTERVISTAINTERNETIPYETESORVEZHGIME
    8. 8. Pyetesori me prinderit  20 pyetje te mbyllura dhe te hapura i aplikuar te prinderit e femijeve me SD.  Pyetjet e pyetësorit janë të ndara në disa sektorë:  Pyetjet e pyetësorit janë të ndara në disa sektorë:  Pyetje që vjelin informacione demografike (gjinia, mosha, niveli arsimor, profesioni, gjendja civile) të prindërve.  Pyetje që masin njohuritë e prindërve rreth SD.  Pyetje që marin informacion rreth trajtimit dhe nevojave të fëmijëve.  Pyetje që masin nivelin e përkujdesjes/mbështetjes që ofrojnë prindërit. Cështjet etike Cështjet etike të anonimatit dhe konfidencialitetit të të dhënave i janë bërë të qarta mësuesve dhe prindërve, që në fillim, përpara plotësimit të pyetësorit (verbalisht dhe të shkruar). Aplikimi i pyetësorit dhe studimet e rasteve janë bërë me aprovimin e drejtoreshës së shkollës dhe të prindërve. Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
    9. 9. Krahasimi i arritjeve FMN me FNP Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi Krahasimi i arritjeve 3FMN Rezultate te larta ne aspektin kognitiv. Social-emocional Motorik Rezultate jo shume te kenaqshme linguistike 3FPN Rezultate te kenaqshme ne aspektin motorik,deri diku ne ate social Rezultate te dobta ne aspektet kognitiv e linguistik Nga analiza e studimit te rasteve rezultoi:
    10. 10. Konkluzione Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
    11. 11. Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
    12. 12. Rekomandime • REKOMANDIME PER PRINDERIT • REKOMANDIME PER SPECIALISTET • REKOMANDIME PER POLITIKEBERESIT
    13. 13. Rekomandime për prindërit • Të pranojnë faktin se kanë një fëmijë me SD dhe të kuptojnë se ajo nuk është një sëmundje por një crregullim gjenetik. • Të kërkojnë sa më shumë informacione rreth SD, mënyrat e trajtimit të fëmijëve me SD, ekzaminimet dhe trajtimet e nevojshme etj, duke shfrytëzuar literaturat, kompjuterin, trajnimet etj • Të sigurojnë mbështetjen e duhur fëmijëve të tyre, duke u ofruar dashuri, përkrahje, përkujdesje, duke bashkëpunuar me të. • Të dërgojnë sa më herët të jetë e mundur (mundësisht pas muajt të 6 të lindjes), fëmijët e tyre tek specialistët për të bërë ekzaminime dhe trajtime të hershme, me qëllim zhvillimin pozitiv të fëmijëve në të gjitha aspektet zhvillimore. • Të marrin pjesë në trajnimet e ndryshme që, organizojnë specialistët rreth temave që kanë lidhje me SD, që të sigurojnë sa më shumë njohuri dhe teknika që ata mund të përdorin në marëdhënien me fëmijët e tyre. • Të përdorin sa më shumë lavdërimet dhe shpërblimet për sjelljet positive apo arritjet e fëmijëve, sidomos në prani të fëmijës, dhe të përdorin injorimin për sjelljet e papërshtatshme të tij (jo bërtitje, dënime apo mërzitje). • Të përdorin sa më shumë ushtrime për të nxitur të folurine fëmijës duke përdorur shpesh herë bisedat ose diskutimet me fëmijën, duke realizuar pyetje të thjeshta, duke lexuar përralla, libra me figura, duke përsëritur disa herë fjalët e reja etj. Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
    14. 14. Pyetje? Anida Ago & Olaserda Laloshi
    15. 15. Bibliografia 1. Abbeduto L, Seltzer MM, Shattuck P, Krauss MW, Orsmond G, Murphy MM. (2004); Psychological well-being and coping in mothers of youths with autism, Down syndrome, or fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation. 109:237-254. 2. Ahmann, E. (2006). Supporting fathers‘ involvement in children‘s health care. Pediatric Nursing, 32, 88-90.American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mentaldisorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washin gton, DC: American Psychiatric Association 3.Turku. A, “ Hyrje në edukimin special”, shtëp.bot “BOTART”, Tiranë 2012 48.Vasta Ross, Haith Marshall. M, Miller Scott.A, “Psikologjia e fëmijës”(shkenca moderne), përkth. Hoxha. F, shtëp.bot “ UEGEN”, Tiranë 2007. 4."What Can We Do about Dysfluency, Stammering, Getting Stuck?"[PDF] by Leela Baksi from the Down's Syndrome Association newsletter. 5.Zekaj.XH, Kuri.V, “2424 Aforizma për edukimin”, shtëp.bot “KRISTAL”, Bandura A. (1989).Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived selfefficacy. Developmental Psychology.; 25:729-735.. 6 Barusch, A. S. and W. M. Spaid. (1989.) Gender Differences in Caregiving: Why Do Wives Report Greater Burden?‖ The Gerontologist 29:667–76. 7. Bazyk, S, (1989), Changes in attitudes and beliefs regarding parent participation and home programs: An update, American journal of Occupational 8. Beckman, P. J. (1991). Comparison of mothers‘ and fathers‘ perceptions of the effect of young children with and without disabilities. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 95, 585- 595. 9. Beckman, P.J. and Beckman Boyes, G. (eds) (1993) Deciphering the System: A Guide for Families of Young Children with Disabilities. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Baron-Cohen S,Tager-Flusberg H, Cohen D, Editors. 1993, Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK: 181-203. Baron-Cohen S. Development Psychopathol1989; 1:185-9. 10. Bailey, D., & Simeonsson, R. (1988). Assessing needs of families with handicapped infants Journal of Special Education, 22, 117–127. 15. Bailey, D.B.J., Blasco, P.M. and Simeonson, R.J. (1992) ‗Needs Expressed by Mothers and Fathers of Young Children with Disabilities‘, American Journal on Mental. 11. Baker B. L., McIntyre L. L., Blacher J., Crnic J., Edelbrock C., & Low L. (2003) Pre-school children with and without developmental delay: Behavior problems and parenting stress over time. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 217-230. 12. Ballard, K. (1994) Disability, Family, Whanau and Society. Palmeston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press. Chapman, R.S. (1997) Language development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Revieës, 3, 307-312. 13.David Werner. Disable village children- A guide for community health ëorkers, Rehabilitation Workers and families. Bibliografia 1. Abbeduto L, Seltzer MM, Shattuck P, Krauss MW, Orsmond G, Murphy MM. (2004); Psychological well-being and coping in mothers of youths with autism, Down syndrome, or fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation. 109:237-254. 2. Ahmann, E. (2006). Supporting fathers‘ involvement in children‘s health care. Pediatric Nursing, 32, 88-90.American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mentaldisorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washin gton, DC: American Psychiatric Association 3.Turku. A, “ Hyrje në edukimin special”, shtëp.bot “BOTART”, Tiranë 2012 48.Vasta Ross, Haith Marshall. M, Miller Scott.A, “Psikologjia e fëmijës”(shkenca moderne), përkth. Hoxha. F, shtëp.bot “ UEGEN”, Tiranë 2007. 4."What Can We Do about Dysfluency, Stammering, Getting Stuck?"[PDF] by Leela Baksi from the Down's Syndrome Association newsletter. 5.Zekaj.XH, Kuri.V, “2424 Aforizma për edukimin”, shtëp.bot “KRISTAL”, Bandura A. (1989).Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived selfefficacy. Developmental Psychology.; 25:729-735.. 6 Barusch, A. S. and W. M. Spaid. (1989.) Gender Differences in Caregiving: Why Do Wives Report Greater Burden?‖ The Gerontologist 29:667–76. 7. Bazyk, S, (1989), Changes in attitudes and beliefs regarding parent participation and home programs: An update, American journal of Occupational 8. Beckman, P. J. (1991). Comparison of mothers‘ and fathers‘ perceptions of the effect of young children with and without disabilities. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 95, 585- 595. 9. Beckman, P.J. and Beckman Boyes, G. (eds) (1993) Deciphering the System: A Guide for Families of Young Children with Disabilities. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Baron-Cohen S,Tager-Flusberg H, Cohen D, Editors. 1993, Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK: 181-203. Baron-Cohen S. Development Psychopathol1989; 1:185-9. 10. Bailey, D., & Simeonsson, R. (1988). Assessing needs of families with handicapped infants. Journal of Special Education, 22, 117–127. 15. Bailey, D.B.J., Blasco, P.M. and Simeonson, R.J. (1992) ‗Needs Expressed by Mothers and Fathers of Young Children with Disabilities‘, American Journal on Mental. 11. Baker B. L., McIntyre L. L., Blacher J., Crnic J., Edelbrock C., & Low L. (2003) Pre-school children with and without developmental delay: Behavior problems and parenting stress over time. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 217-230. 12. Ballard, K. (1994) Disability, Family, Whanau and Society. Palmeston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press. Chapman, R.S. (1997) Language development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Revieës, 3, 307-312. 13.David Werner. Disable village children- A guide for community health ëorkers, Rehabilitation Workers and families. Efektiviteti i nderhyrjes se hershme te femijet me Sindromen Down Bibliografia 1. Abbeduto L, Seltzer MM, Shattuck P, Krauss MW, Orsmond G, Murphy MM. (2004); Psychological well-being and coping in mothers of youths with autism, Down syndrome, or fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation. 109:237-254. 2. Ahmann, E. (2006). Supporting fathers‘ involvement in children‘s health care. Pediatric Nursing, 32, 88-90.American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mentaldisorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washin gton, DC: American Psychiatric Association 3.Turku. A, “ Hyrje në edukimin special”, shtëp.bot “BOTART”, Tiranë 2012 48.Vasta Ross, Haith Marshall. M, Miller Scott.A, “Psikologjia e fëmijës”(shkenca moderne), përkth. Hoxha. F, shtëp.bot “ UEGEN”, Tiranë 2007. 4."What Can We Do about Dysfluency, Stammering, Getting Stuck?"[PDF] by Leela Baksi from the Down's Syndrome Association newsletter. 5.Zekaj.XH, Kuri.V, “2424 Aforizma për edukimin”, shtëp.bot “KRISTAL”, Bandura A. (1989).Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived selfefficacy. Developmental Psychology.; 25:729-735.. 6 Barusch, A. S. and W. M. Spaid. (1989.) Gender Differences in Caregiving: Why Do Wives Report Greater Burden?‖ The Gerontologist 29:667–76. 7. Bazyk, S, (1989), Changes in attitudes and beliefs regarding parent participation and home programs: An update, American journal of Occupational 8. Beckman, P. J. (1991). Comparison of mothers‘ and fathers‘ perceptions of the effect of young children with and without disabilities. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 95, 585- 595. 9. Beckman, P.J. and Beckman Boyes, G. (eds) (1993) Deciphering the System: A Guide for Families of Young Children with Disabilities. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Baron-Cohen S,Tager-Flusberg H, Cohen D, Editors. 1993, Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK: 181-203. Baron-Cohen S. Development Psychopathol1989; 1:185-9. 10. Bailey, D., & Simeonsson, R. (1988). Assessing needs of families with handicapped infants. Journal of Special Education, 22, 117–127. 15. Bailey, D.B.J., Blasco, P.M. and Simeonson, R.J. (1992) ‗Needs Expressed by Mothers and Fathers of Young Children with Disabilities‘, American Journal on Mental. 11. Baker B. L., McIntyre L. L., Blacher J., Crnic J., Edelbrock C., & Low L. (2003) Pre-school children with and without developmental delay: Behavior problems and parenting stress over time. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 217-230. 12. Ballard, K. (1994) Disability, Family, Whanau and Society. Palmeston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press. Chapman, R.S. (1997) Language development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Revieës, 3, 307-312. 13.David Werner. Disable village children- A guide for community health ëorkers, Rehabilitation Workers and families.
    16. 16. Faleminderit !

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