Focus• Use of Rag – comparison of 3 pieces• Drone• Tala• Instrumentation• Technical playing devices• Compare and contrast (similarities as well as differences)
Rag notesNOTES C D F G B CASCENDING Sa Re Ma Pa Ni SaNOTES C Bb A G F E D CDESCENDING Sa Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa You do not need to be able to quote the notes of the rag But be aware that the notes of the scale change on the way up and down
Drone• Sound usually heard first• Stating tonic note Sa• The drone can often use 2 notes – usually tonic and dominant notes• Drone often played these days by electronic box• Traditionally played by tanpura/tambura• This instrument has no frets and only 4-6 strings.
Drone use..Anoushka Shankar (sitar) Chiranji Lal Tanwar (voice) Steve Gorn and Benji WertheimerNo tanpura/tambura so no No Tanpura/tambura Drone at start of Part 1drone part (Alap) provides notes Sa and Pa (tonic andDrone strings on the sitar dominant)(sympathetic strings) arestrummed to give added Sa and Pa in this case are Drhythmic effect called and A at concert pitchjhalla in the last part of thepiece
Tala• Rhythmic cycles in Indian music• Tals or tala• Most common 6, 7, 8, 10 or 12 or 16 beats long• The beats are grouped into units of 2, 3 or 4 beats• Clap or wave on beats – clap on strong beats, wave on weak beats• Beat one is called Sam• Beats are called matras• Each tala has a different name
Tala used in Gat when tabla playAnouhka Shankar Chiranji Lal Tanwar Steve Gorn and Benjy WertheimerJhaptal tal (10 beats) Keherwa tal (8 beats) Rupak tal (7 beats)Enters 0.58 Enters 0.50 Enters in part 2 at 0.31Tintal (16 beats) Ektal tal (12 beats)Enters 5.02 Enters in part 3 at 0.10 – this is when the sam is heard after a tihai
Instruments in Anoushka Shankar’s version Sitar Tabla
Chiranji Lal Tanwar’s versionCymbals Tabla Voice Sarangi PakhawajSarod
Benjy Wertheimer and Steve Gorn’s version BansuriEsraj Tambura Tabla
Playing Devices and Techniques• Improvisation• Meend – sliding between notes• Tan – rapid scalic flourishes on sitar/sarod or sarangi – virtuosic and used in later sections of Raga• Drone• Dialoguing between solo and tabla• Chand – triplets• Tihai – mark end of sections with 3 repeated phrases• Jhalla – striking rhythmic effect from strumming• Bols - Syncopated rhythm patterns independent of beat
DevicesMELODIC RHYTHMICImprovisation BolsMeend ChandTan Tihai Jhalla (played by a stringed instrument not drums)Dialoguing Dialoguing
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.