Rapid population growth in LEDCsTowns and cities in LEDCs are growing rapidly,and an increasing proportion of people are living in cities. LEDCs are going through a period of urban growth and urbanisation.Your case study will either be Rio de Janeiro or Sao Paulo
Cities in LEDCs are growing due to: - A high birth rate - A low death rate - Migration to the cities
Migration to the citiesThe population growth in LEDCs isaffecting both rural and urban areas.The population of cities is growingproportionally faster than that in therural areas Push and Pull factors…..
Migration to cities….Push Factors Pull FactorsA poor chance of getting a job Better paid factory workDifficulty of getting sufficient land for Better and more varied food suppliesany kind of successful farming Better housing with electricity andNear starvation as crops fail piped water, sewerage etcIncreasing soil erosion as a result of Better medical care – chance of betterover grazing schooling etcBasic lack of services – medical, More entertainments and a ‘better’educational, water, sanitation, lifestyletransport etcNatural disasters such as drought orflooding
The effects of rapid growth• Increased air pollution from industries and traffic• A severe shortage of land and very high land prices – especially anywhere that is near to the city• A severe lack of housing – development of favelas on the outskirts of the city.• Lack of employment – most people living favelas are employed in the ‘informal sector’
Solutions to the problem… Low cost housing Self-help schemes New town - Barra schemesUsing cheap but In this scheme the Barra is a purpose builtpermanent building eventual cost of the town just outside of Riomaterials, temporary housing is made even de Janeiro built to relievestructures are replaced cheaper by encouraging pressure on the city.by sturdy permanent locals to undertake most Many of the residents ofhouses. These are of the work themselves. Rio have moved there toconnected to electricity The local authority escape the traffic,and sewerage facilities. simply provide the pollution and crampedThe local authority will materials and may conditions. This is onlystart the process off and provide the ground work available to those whothen the tenants finish off for the drainage and can afford the rent orthe building and pay a sewage systems cost of buying in the citylow rent to live in them – – it doesn’t help peoplenot everyone can afford living in the favelas.this.