Key words• Health – A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing• Morbidity – Illness and disease• Mortality – The death of people• Attack rate – Number of cases of a disease diagnosed in an area, divided by the total pop, over the period of an epidemic• Infant mortality – deaths of children under the age of 1 per 1000 births per year• Case mortality – number of those dying from a disease divided by the number of those diagnosed with it• Crude death rate – The number of deaths per 1000 people in 1 year• Disease – bodily disorder preventing good health• Pandemic – epidemic spreads over large area• Epidemic – quickly spreading disease affecting a lot of people• Endemic – infectious disease always in an area
Impacts of diseaseDemographic Economic o Increased mortality oLoss of productive labour o Increased infant mortality oInsurance and benefits oReduced per capita o Reduced life expectancy growth o Migration oHealthcare costSocial Environmental o Disruption of families oNeglect oIncreased risk of disease o Disturbances in communities o Extended independence o Path to poverty
Global patterns• Infectious disease more common in developing countries• Non-communicable disease is more common in developed countries• Differences within and between countries Health in world affairs• Health geography can contribute to global and national plans, including: – Advising on planning for healthcare staffing in southern Africa devastated by HIV/Aids – Analysing global correlations between income and welfare – Monitoring the affects of climate change on the emergence of new institutions disease – Investigating the optimum pattern of healthcare provision in primary health care trusts
• Patterns drug using communities and later on Pattern 1 – Homosexual, bisexual and of HIV the general population -1970’s (W. Europe, Australia, Latin America)• Pattern 2 – Heterosexual contact and mother to baby transitions – 0.5 million in 2005. In Africa more women than men (60:40)• Patten 3 – Late 1980’s disease spread by travellers and blood imported for transfusions• 2006 – 39million with HIV/Aids Domino effect of HIV/Aids - Africa• Adult of working age health worsens because of HIV• Drop in amount of crops produced• Poverty levels rise – poor diet and living conditions• Children taken out of school to work on farms• Parents die because of HIVs low life expectancy• Increase in orphans• Orphans do low paid farm work
Effects of HIV/Aids Management • Try to find vaccineHealth • Prolong life through drugs• Low life expectancy • Drug cocktails $10,000 per• Health deterioration yearLifestyle • Generic $300 per year• Increase orphans • Hazard risk mapping• Prejudice (jobs/social) • Predict course and future• HIV strikes everyone from all outbreaks walks of life • Screening donated bloodEconomic • Charity – victims and family • Terrence Higgins trust• Orphans – low paid jobs • Education and advertising• No school for children- have • Needle exchange to work • School education• More income and effort into • Condoms in LEDCS medicine • Raise awareness to vulnerable groups
Pharmaceuticals – Brand Vs Generic• Generic are cheaper – NHS could save £85million by using generic cholesterol drugs• Branded drug companies put large amounts of money into research and development into new and existing drugs – need to get this back through sales• Switching from brand to generic can have side affects – Epilepsy medicine seizures return• Placebo affect- “Branded work better” Tobacco industry - Effects• Greater cause of death than any disease – WHO• 5million deaths per year• Five times more likely to have a heart attack• In men 22 times more likely to have heart attack• Smoking during pregnancy – miscarriage, low birth weight, damaged child development
Global ObesityCause• Global shift in diet towards unhealthier foods• Decrease in physical activity – low energy work, more transport, urbanisationEffect• Cancer• Airlines recalculate passenger capacity• Diabetes – global epidemic• Cardiovascular disease – worlds number one killer -17million per year• USA triple width coffins• Move from saturated to unsaturated fats• Increase physical activity• Increase fruit, veg and whole grain• Life expectancy of obese smokers drops by 14 yearsResponse• Food industry – reduce fat, salt and sugar of processed food• Food industry – reduce portion size• Food industry – advertise healthy foods, limit unhealthy
HEALTH CARE Main Characteristics Example APPROACHES Type Health care •Personal consumption Bangladesh •Doctors are solo entrepreneurs Emergent •Private ownership (direct payments) •Minimal state role •Development of local health workers Pluralistic •Consumer product USA •Doctors are solo entrepreneurs (with pro. Associations) •Private and public ownership •Minimal state role (indirect) Insurance/ •Guaranteed consumer product Francesocial security •Doctors are solo entrepreneurs (with pro. Associations) •Private and public ownership •States role evident but indirect NHS •State supported UK •Doctors are solo entrepreneurs (with pro. Associations) •Public owned •States role direct Socialised •State provided public service China •Doctors state employed •Facilities public owned •Indirect service payments
UK and Regional health care Mortality (death) Morbidity (disease) •Women in NE and NW live 2 years less •Scotland lease healthy •Men 2 and a half years less •Men who said ‘not good’ to health in NW •Blackpool worst for alcohol related doubled deaths– Next forth worst in NW •Cancer higher in north, Breast in southUK •Coasts (Devon) highest risk of heart rel •London ‘mixed bag’ •Rural areas healthier – SW and SE •West Midlands- 5y/o worst teeth (NW half their rate) •LE = increased since 1995 •Adult obesity lower than averageNature Varying L’pool – L’pool +itive •Death-heart disease and cancer decre •Male LE = 73.4 •Smoking higher than average -tive •Female LE = 78.1 (lowest in UK for •Binge drinking higher than average women) •Death from cancer higher than average •Health care centres in accessible places e.g. City centre – transport linksof NHS health •Less in the north and south of Liverpool as there are less people L’ Since its launch in 1948, NHS has grown becoming the worlds largest publically funded health service it is also one of the most efficient and most comprehensive
UK and Regional health careRestricting Liverpool Primary care trust (PCT) factors Age Gender Religion Wealth EnvironmentalTransport Women Issues with Richer tend to be more healthy Rural areas restricts only being treated Can afford to go private dont have elderly hospitals by males good access to Education health care Issues Blood Better educated, tend to have with transfusions better jobs and more wealth being and modern treated by medicine can Also more aware of health a male also be an issue issues •Brings people together services offered by GPs, community nurses, practicePCT in trying the PCTActivates of Aims of nurses and health matters across the city and improve the health of Liverpool residents •Obesity campaign to improve •Groups heath •Year of health and wellbeing •Seasonal flu vaccines
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