Encyclopedia organization management, Terms and Definitions

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768 terms and definitions on Organization Management.

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Encyclopedia organization management, Terms and Definitions

  1. 1. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. ManagementA to Z Keyword Definition Topic Organization Performance appraisal that uses the input of superiors, subordinates, peers, and clients or customers of the appraised 0-9 Management 360 degree feedback individual. Organization A Management Absenteeism Failure to report to work. Organization Acceptance theory of The theory that the managers authority depends on the subordinates acceptance of the managers right to give and expect A Management authority compliance with directives. Organization A Management Accommodating A conflict management style in which one cooperates with the other party while not asserting ones own interest. Organization Accommodating A style that involves trying to resolve conflict by giving in to the desires of others, sometimes without raising conflicting A Management style points/issues at all. Organization A process in which a group of people come together, more or less regularly, to help each other learn from experience. A Management Action learning Participants typically come from different organizations or situations, and each of them is involved in different activities. Page 1 of 110
  2. 2. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization A process usually associated with training, linking improvements or actions with what has been learned. Action planning A Management Action planning establishes a course of actions chosen to realize the application of what was learned or decided. A participatory, democratic process concerned with developing practical knowledge in the pursuit of worthwhile human Organization purposes, grounded in a participatory worldview, which is currently still emerging. It seeks to bring together action and A Management Action research reflection, theory and practice, in participation with others, in the pursuit of practical solutions to issues of pressing concern to people, and more generally the flourishing of individual persons and their communities. Organization A Management Active listening A technique for improving the accuracy of information reception by paying close attention to the sender. Organization A Management Actor-observer effect The propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actors behavior differently. Organization A Management Adaptive capacities The capacities needed for an organization to learn and change in response to changing circumstances. Organization A Management Additive tasks Tasks in which group performance is dependent upon the sum of the performance of individual group members. Organization This structure is typically found in young organizations in highly technical fields. Within it, decision making is spread throughout A Management Adhocracy the organization, power resides with the experts, horizontal and vertical specialization exist, and there is little formalization. Page 2 of 110
  3. 3. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Administrative A Management hierarchy The system of reporting relationships in the organization, from the lowest to the highest managerial levels. Organization Administrative A set of decision making principles that recognize that a completely rational analysis of information and choice options is often A Management model not feasible in realistic decision-making. Organization Advanced information The generation, aggregation, storage, modification and speedy transmission of information made possible by the advent of A Management technology computers and related devices. Organization Adversarial A Management intervention Involves a manager listening to both parties present evidence to support their cases and then making a decision. Organization Small groups of employees (10-20) that meet a few hours a week to suggest solutions to problems in their work (e.g., quality A Management Advisory teams circle). Organization A Management Affect A persons feeling toward something. Organization A Management Affective commitment Commitment based on identification and involvement with an organization. Page 3 of 110
  4. 4. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization A Management Age norms Widely accepted expectations in society about appropriate behavior for a person at a given age. Organization A Management Agreeableness A persons ability to get along with others. Organization A Management All-channel network In this type of network, all members communicate with all other members. Organization A style characteristic of someone who approaches decisions in a highly rational way and who is capable of tolerating A Management Analytic style uncertainty/ambiguity. Organization A Management Anchoring effect The inadequate adjustment of subsequent estimates from an initial estimate that serves as an anchor. Organization A Management Applied research Conducted to solve particular problems or answer specific questions. Organization A Management Apprentice A junior person, sometimes called a protégé, who has a mentor Page 4 of 110
  5. 5. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization The process through which a minority group learns the ways of the dominant group. In organizations favouring assimilation, A Management Assimilation people from diverse backgrounds are expected to change to fit the existing organizational culture. Organization A Management Attitude A fairly stable emotional tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people. Organization A Management Attribution The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain peoples behavior. Suggests that we observe behaviour and then attribute causes to it. Also, suggests that employees observe their own Organization A Management Attribution theory behaviour, determine whether it is a response to external or internal factors, and shape their future motivated behaviour accordingly. Organization A Management Attribution. The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain peoples behavior. Organization The process whereby perceivers (the audience) subtlely pulls/draws behavior from others (also known as the Pygmalion A Management Audience extraction effect). Organization This terms refers to our tendency as social observers to selectively look for and process certain pieces of information about A Management Audience selectivity people to form impressions Page 5 of 110
  6. 6. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization A Management Authoritarianism The belief that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems such as organizations. Organization A Management Authority Power that has been legitimized within a particular social context. Organization A Management Autonomy The freedom to schedule ones own work activities and decide work procedures. Organization Avoidance (negative The opportunity to avoid or escape from an unpleasant circumstance after exhibiting behaviour. Occurs when the interacting A Management reinforcement) parties goals are incompatible and the interaction between groups is relatively unimportant to the attainment of the goals. Organization A conflict management style characterized by low assertiveness of ones own interests and low cooperation with the other A Management Avoiding party. Organization When faced with conflict, a person who uses this style often try to ignore conflict all together rather than trying to directly A Management Avoiding style resolve it. Organization A conflict management style characterized by low assertiveness of ones own interests and low cooperation with the other A Management Avoiding. party. Page 6 of 110
  7. 7. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization B Management Basic research Discovering new knowledge rather than solving specific problems. Organization A decision making who is very attuned to how decisions affect employees and the work environment; tends to be more B Management Behavioral style deliberate and slower in style. Organization This approach to leadership tries to identify behaviours that differentiate effective leaders from nonleaders. It uses guidelines, B Management Behavioural approach suboptimizing, and satisficing in making decisions. Organization A systematic process for examining the products, services, and work processes of firms that are recognized as illustrating the B Management Benchmarking best practices for organizational improvement. Organization An important form of indirect compensation. big five personality traits A set of personality traits that are especially relevant to B Management Benefits organizations. Organization Alternating periods of stability and transition, with predictable themes that are based in psychological and biological factors and B Management Biosocial life stages patterns of social expectations. Organization B Management Body language Nonverbal communication by means of a senders bodily motions, facial expressions, or physical location. Page 7 of 110
  8. 8. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization B Management Boundary roles Positions in which organizational members are required to interact with members of other organizations or with the public. Organization B Management Bounded rationality A decision strategy that relies on limited information and that reflects time constraints and political considerations. Organization An attempt to increase the number of creative solution alternatives to problems by focusing on idea generation rather than B Management Brainstorming evaluation. Organization Breakthrough B Management culture A corporate value system which recognizes that normal business rules and pressures dont apply to innovative thinking. Organization Max Webers ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized B Management Bureaucracy power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence. Organization B Management Burnout Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment among those who work with people. Organization C Management Capacity The ability of individuals and organizations to perform effectively, efficiently, and in a sustainable manner. Page 8 of 110
  9. 9. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. An ongoing process by which individuals, groups, organizations, and societies increase their abilities to perform core functions, Organization Capacity C Management development solve problems, define and achieve objectives, and understand and deal with their development needs in a broad context and sustainable manner. Organization An evolving sequence of work activities and positions that individuals experience over time as well as the associated attitudes, C Management Career knowledge, and competencies that develop throughout ones life. Organization An evolving sequence of work activities and positions that individuals experience over time as well as the associated attitudes, C Management Career knowledge, and competencies that develop throughout ones life. Organization Career advisors and These people can help others find and analyze career information, but the ultimate career decision must be made by the C Management counsellors individual. Organization C Management Career management The process of implementing organizational career planning. Organization C Management Career orientation The fairly stable pattern of preferred occupational activities, talents, values, and attitudes. Organization C Management Career pathing The identification of a certain sequence of jobs in a career that represent a progression through the organization. Page 9 of 110
  10. 10. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization A system in which individuals evaluate their abilities and interests, consider alternative career opportunities, establish career C Management Career planning goals, and plan practical development activities. Organization C Management Career skills portfolio The sum total of ones occupational skills, abilities, and knowledge. Organization C Management Career stages General patterns of developmental issues, key tasks, and changes in work role activities. The detailed investigation of one or more organizations, or groups within organizations, with a view to providing an analysis of Organization C Management Case study the context and processes involved in the phenomenon under study. The phenomenon is not isolated from its context (as in laboratory research for example) but is examined in relation to its context. Organization C Management Central tendency The tendency to assign most ratees to middle-range job performance categories. Organization C Management Central traits Personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver. Organization C Management Centralization The extent to which decision making power is localized in a particular part of an organization. Page 10 of 110
  11. 11. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization In this type of a network, each member communicates with the person above and below but not with the individuals on each C Management Chain network end. Organization C Management Chain of command Lines of authority and formal reporting relationship. Organization C Management Change The implementation of a program or plan to move an organization and/or its members to a more satisfactory state. Organization C Management Change The implementation of a program or plan to move an organization and/or its members to a more satisfactory state. Organization C Management Change agents Experts in the application of behavioral science knowledge to organizational diagnosis and change. Organization Change-oriented Leadership behavior focused on making significant change happen (e.g., communicating an inspiring vision, gaining C Management behavior subordinate commitment for change). Organization C Management Channel noise A disturbance in communication that is primarily a function of the medium. Page 11 of 110
  12. 12. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization The ability to command strong loyalty and devotion from followers and thus have the potential for strong influence among C Management Charisma them. A form of leadership in which the leader is viewed as having extraordinary abilities, being larger than life, and inspiring Organization Charismatic C Management leadership tremendous effort. Often the result of a complex interplay between leader characteristics, subordinate perceptions, and situational pressures. Organization C Management Churning When firms fire many people and hire many people at the same time. Organization C Management Circle network In this type of network, each member communicates with the people on both sides but with no one else. The most common legal system in the world, practiced in over 70 countries (e.g.,Germany, Japan, Turkey, etc.). Referred to as Organization C Management Civil law code law since it is based on an elaborate list of rules about actions and misdeeds, but considerable consistency in adjudication. Organization C Management Classical conditioning A simple form of learning that links a conditioned response with an unconditioned stimulus. Organization Classical organization C Management theory Focused on how organizations can be structured most effectively to meet their goals. Page 12 of 110
  13. 13. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization An early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labor, intensive coordination, and centralized C Management Classical viewpoint decision making. Organization C Management Coercive power Power derived from the use of punishment and threat. Organization C Management Cognition The knowledge a person presumes to have about something. Organization C Management Cognitive biases Tendencies to acquire and process information in an error-prone way. Organization C Management Cognitive dissonance A feeling of tension experienced when certain cognitions are contradictory or inconsistent with each other. Organization C Management Collaborating A conflict management style that maximizes both assertiveness and cooperation. Organization A style that ranks high on both assertiveness and cooperation; often called a win-win approach because efforts are made to C Management Collaborating style see the best options for both parties to conflict. Page 13 of 110
  14. 14. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization C Management Collective knowledge Collective knowledge is an outcome of organizational or institutional learning. Organization C Management Collectivism The extent to which people emphasize the good of the group or society; compare with individualism. Organization C Management Command group A relatively permanent, formal group with functional reporting relationships. Organization C Management Commitment A pledge or obligation to carry out some action or policy or to give support to a policy or person. Organization Also a popular legal system around the world (e.g., U.S., U.K, etc.). In contrast to civil laws reliance on elaborate codes, C Management Common law common law uses precedent or the balance of prior rulings to resolve disputes. Organization C Management Communication The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver. Communication and Organization A stage of group development in which members discuss their feelings more openly and agree on group goals and individual C Management decision-making roles in the group. stage Page 14 of 110
  15. 15. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Communication C Management fidelity The degree of correspondence between the message intended by the source and the message understood by the receiver. Organization C Management Compensation Applying ones skills in a particular area to make up for failure in another area. Organization Compensation The total array of money (wages, salary, commission), incentives, benefits, perquisites, and awards provided to an employee C Management package by an organization. Organization C Management Competing A conflict management style that maximizes assertiveness and minimizes cooperation. Organization C Management Competition Occurs when goals are incompatible and the interactions between groups are important to meeting goals. Organization C Management Competitive strategy An outline of how a business intends to compete with other firms in the same industry. Organization C Management Complexity The extent to which an organization divides labor vertically, horizontally, and geographically. Page 15 of 110
  16. 16. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization C Management Compliance Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment. Organization Compressed C Management schedule A set of work schedules that use non-traditional methods of completing a 40 hour work week (e.g., 4-40; 4 days of 10-hr work). Organization Compressed An alternative work schedule in which employees work fewer than the normal five days a week but still put in a normal number C Management workweek of hours per week. Organization C Management Compromise A conflict management style that combines intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation. Organization C Management Compromising style A person using this style approaches conflict as a give-and-take situation giving up something to get something else. Organization C Management Conceptual skills The manager uses conceptual skills to think in the abstract. Organization C Management Conceptual style A decision maker who can easily see the big picture and is not necessarily mired in the fine details. Page 16 of 110
  17. 17. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization C Management Configuration An organizations shape. It reflects the division of labour and the means of coordinating the divided tasks. Organization C Management Confirmation bias The tendency to seek out information that conforms to ones own definition of or solution to a problem. Organization C Management Conflict Disagreement among parties. It has both positive and negative characteristics. Organization A very personal approach to decision making. It deals with the personal conflicts people experience in particularly difficult C Management Conflict model decision situations. Organization C Management Conflict resolution Occurs when a manager resolves conflict that has become harmful or serious. Organization C Management Conflict stimulation A strategy of increasing conflict in order to motivate change. Organization C Management Congruence A condition in which a persons words, thoughts, feelings, and actions all contain the same message. Page 17 of 110
  18. 18. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Related to the representativeness heuristic in that instead of decreasing our probability judgements for detailed, conjunctive C Management Conjunction fallacy predictions, we actually often believe they are more likely to occur than simple/single events themselves. Organization C Management Conjunctive tasks Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member. Organization C Management Conscientiousness The number of goals on which a person focuses. Organization C Management Consensus cues Attribution cues that reflect how a persons behavior compares with that of others. Organization C Management Conservative shift The tendency for groups to make less risky decisions than the average risk initially advocated by their individual members. Organization C Management Consideration The extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern for subordinates. Organization Consideration C Management behaviour Involves being concerned with subordinates feelings and respecting subordinates ideas. Page 18 of 110
  19. 19. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization C Management Consistency cues Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in some behavior over time. Organization Content theories of C Management motivation Theories that identify the needs that arouse or energize employee behavior. The effect of the background under which a message often takes on more and richer meaning. Context is especially important Organization C Management Context in cross-cultural interactions because some cultures are said to be high context (the culture provides many understood ways to interpret messages) or low context (the words themselves explicitly carry a lot of the message). Organization Contingency An approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage, and that an appropriate management C Management approach style depends on the demands of the situation. Organization Contingency C Management perspective Suggests that in most organizations, situations and outcomes are contingent on, or influenced by, other variables. Organization C Management Contingency plans Alternative actions to take if the primary source of action is unexpectedly disrupted or rendered inappropriate. Organization Fred Fiedlers theory that states that the association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent upon C Management Contingency theory how favorable the situation is for exerting influence. Page 19 of 110
  20. 20. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Continuance C Management commitment Commitment based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving an organization. Organization Continuous C Management improvement A perspective that suggests performance should constantly be en-hanced. Organization Continuous C Management reinforcement With this type of reinforcement, behaviour is rewarded every time it occurs. Organization Previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewers perception of a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of C Management Contrast effects differences between applicants. Organization C Management Contributions An individuals contributions to an organization include such things as effort, skills, ability, time, and loyalty. Organization Control and A stage of group development in which the group is mature and members work together and are flexible, adaptive, and self- C Management organization stage correcting. Organization C Management Control group A group of research subjects who have not been exposed to the experimental treatment. Page 20 of 110
  21. 21. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization The process of monitoring and correcting the actions of the organization and its members to keep them directed toward their C Management Controlling goals. Organization C Management Coordination A process of facilitating timing, communication, and feedback among work tasks. Organization The whole collection of beliefs, values, and behaviors of a firm that send messages to those within and outside the company C Management Corporate culture about how business is done. Organization Corporate wellness Long-term programs that also act to increase and promote employee health and reduce stress (fitness facilities, health C Management programs classes, etc.). Organization Correlational Research that attempts to measure variables precisely and examine relationships among these variables without introducing C Management research change into the research setting. Organization C Management Cosmopolite Links the organization to the external environment and may also be the opinion leader in the group. Organization C Management Creativity The production of novel but potentially useful ideas. Page 21 of 110
  22. 22. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Cross-functional Work groups that bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or C Management teams service. Organization C Management Cultural context The cultural information that surrounds a communication episode. Organization C Management Cultural values The values employees need to have and act on for the organization to act on strategic values. Organization Customer C Management departmentation Relatively self-contained units deliver an organizations products or services to specific customer groups. Organization Customer-based Similar in some respects to product-based structures, this type of structure uses customer groups or segments as an C Management structure organizing principle. Organization D Management Debasement A series of socialization experiences designed to humble people and remove some self-confidence. Organization D Management Decision making The process of developing commitment to some course of action. Page 22 of 110
  23. 23. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization D Management Decision rule A statement that tells a decision maker which alternative to choose based on the characteristics of the decision situation. Organization Decision-choice Rational models that shift the focus away from the information sources to the actual options in trying to reach a systematic D Management models decision. Organization D Management Decoding The process by which the receiver of the message interprets the messages meaning. Organization D Management Defense mechanisms Psychological attempts to reduce the anxiety associated with stress. Organization Making no changes in present activities and avoiding any further contact associated with issues because there appears to be D Management Defensive avoidance no hope of finding a better solution. Organization D Management Deficiency needs A category in Maslows hierarchy of needs. It includes physiological, security, and belongingness needs. Organization Typically refers to a context in which a manager hands over the responsibility and decision control for various tasks or jobs to D Management Delegation others, usually subordinates. Page 23 of 110
  24. 24. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization D Management Delphi technique A method of pooling a large number of expert judgments through a series of increasingly refined questionnaires. Organization D Management Departmentalization The manner in whichdivided tasks are combined and allocated to work groups. Organization D Management Dependent variable In an experiment, the variable that is expected to vary as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable. Organization D Management Devils advocate A person appointed to identify and challenge the weakness of a proposed plan of strategy. Organization D Management Diagnosis The systematic collection of information relevant to impending organizational change. Organization The manager uses diagnostic skills to understand cause-and-effect relationships and to recognize the optimal solutions to D Management Diagnostic skills problems. Organization D Management Differentiation The tendency for managers in separate departments to differ in terms of goals, time spans, and interpersonal styles. Page 24 of 110
  25. 25. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization D Management Diffusion The process by which innovations move through an organization. Organization Diffusion of D Management responsibility The ability of group members to share the burden of the negative consequences of a poor decision. Organization D Management Diffusion. The process by which innovations move through an organization. Gathering information about things that can be observed. For example, by visiting an organization, one can directly collect Organization D Management Direct observation information on the physical surroundings. By observing meetings, one can observe who shows up, how people interact, and what decisions are taken. Organization Direct use of The instrumental use of evaluation results by decision-makers as the basis for a decision. Direct use occurs when information D Management evaluation results or findings are applied directly to change an action or alter a decision. Organization A decision making style characterized by a person who, while analytic, doesnt enjoy juggling lots of data they make a decision D Management Directive style and move on. Organization A theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are D Management Discrepancy theory perceived to be obtained. Page 25 of 110
  26. 26. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization D Management Disjunctive tasks Tasks in which group performance is dependent upon the performance of the best group member. Organization D Management Displacement Directing feelings of anger at a safe target rather than expressing them where they might be punished. Organization Dispositional D Management attributions Explanations for behavior based on an actors personality or intellect. Organization D Management Distinctiveness cues Attribution cues that reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behavior across a variety of situations. Organization D Management Distress The unpleasant stress that accompanies negative events. Organization D Management Distributive fairness Fairness that occurs when people receive what they think they deserve from their jobs. Organization Distributive D Management negotiation Win-lose negotiation in which a fixed amount of assets is divided between parties. Page 26 of 110
  27. 27. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization A set of training and information dissemination programs that help employees recognize the value of differences among D Management Diversity programs people. Organization D Management Division of labour The extent to which the organizations work is divided into different jobs to be done by different people. This structure is typical of old, very large organizations. Within it, the organization is divided according to the different markets Organization D Management Divisionalized form served. Horizontal and vertical specialization exists between divisions and headquarters. Decision making is divided between divisions and headquarters, and outputs are standardized. Organization Firms who largely do business in their home country, although they may export some of their products or services across D Management Domestic firm borders. Organization D Management Downsizing The intentional reduction of workforce size with the goal of improving organizational efficiency or effectiveness. Organization D Management Downsizing. The intentional reduction of workforce size with the goal of improving organizational efficiency or effectiveness. Organization Downward D Management communication Information that flows from the top of the organization toward the bottom. Page 27 of 110
  28. 28. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization D Management Dual-structure theory This theory identifies moti-vation factors, which affect satisfaction, as well as hygiene factors, which affect dissatisfaction. Organization E Management Effect dependence Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment. Organization Effective E Management communication The right people receive the right information in a timely manner. Organization E Management Effectiveness The extent to which desired objectives are achieved. The extent to which an organization achieves its mission and objectives. Organization The extent to which results are achieved with minimum use of resources. The degree to which an organization generates its E Management Efficiency products and services using a minimum of inputs. Organization Effort-to-performance E Management expectancy A persons perception of the probability that effort will lead to performance. Organization Electronic E Management brainstorming The use of computer-mediated technology to improve traditional brainstorming practices. Page 28 of 110
  29. 29. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization E Management Electronic groups Decision-making groups whose members are linked electronically rather than face-to-face. Organization Employee assistance Programs offered by companies to help employees deal with job stress and with personal problems that may have developed E Management program (EAP) from the stress or other sources (alcohol/substance abuse help, counseling for psychological symptoms, etc.). Organization Anonymous questionnaire that enables employees to state their candid opinions and attitudes about an organization and its E Management Employee survey practices. Organization Employee-centred E Management leader behaviour Involves at-tempting to build effective work groups with high performance goals. Organization E Management Empowerment Giving people the authority, opportunity, and motivation to take initiative and solve organizational problems. Organization E Management Encoding The process by which the message is translated from an idea or thought into transmittable symbols. Organization Entry stage E Management (exploration stage) Characterized by self-examination, role tryouts, and occupational exploration. Page 29 of 110
  30. 30. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Environmental E Management uncertainty A condition that exists when the external environment is vague, difficult to diagnose, and unpredictable. Organization E Management Equity The belief that we are being treated fairly in relation to others. Organization A process theory that job satisfaction and motivation stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the E Management Equity theory outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group. Organization A three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the E Management ERG theory hierarchy. Organization Escalation of E Management commitment The tendency to invest additional resources in an apparently failing course of action. Organization Establishment stage E Management (setting-down stage) In this stage, the individual gets more recognition for improved performance. Organization E Management Ethics Systematic thinking about the moral consequences of decisions. Page 30 of 110
  31. 31. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization E Management Eustress The pleasurable stress that accompanies positive events. Systematic investigation of the worth, value, merit, or quality of an object. Assessment of the operation or the outcomes of a Organization E Management Evaluation program or policy, compared to a set of explicit or implicit standards, as a means of contributing to its improvement. The criteria for evaluation may include relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, and sustainability. An organizational culture that values evaluation and seeks solutions to problems, trying out tentative solutions, and weighing Organization E Evaluation culture the results and consequences of actions within an endless cycle of supposition–action–evidence–revision that characterizes Management good science and good management. Organization E Management Evaluation questions Questions formulated to help focus an evaluation on key topics or issues. Organization E Management Exemplification An impression management tactic that involves self-sacrifice. Organization Exit (withdrawal) E Management stage Pattern of decreasing performance in a career as individuals prepare to move on or retire. Organization E Management Expectancy The probability that a particular first-level outcome can be achieved. Page 31 of 110
  32. 32. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization A process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their E Management Expectancy theory actions on the job. Organization Experimental Research which changes or manipulates a variable under controlled conditions and examines the consequences of this E Management research manipulation for some other variable. Organization E Management Expert power Power derived from having special information or expertise that is valued by an organization. Organization A source of power to the extent that people around a manager view him or her as an expert; someone whose knowledge and E Management Expertise skills can help them do their jobs. Organization E Management External attribution Attributing the cause of work behavior to some reason that is external to the person (e.g., bad luck, unfair circumstances, etc.). Organization E Management External career The objective sequence of positions that comprise ones career. Organization E Management External environment Events and conditions surrounding an organization that influence its activities. Page 32 of 110
  33. 33. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. The environment in which an organization operates. Includes such things as the administrative and legal systems that govern Organization External operating E Management environment the organization, as well as the political, economic, technological, social, and cultural context in which the organization operates. Organization E Management Extinction The gradual dissipation of behavior following the termination of reinforcement. Organization E Management Extrinsic motivation Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others. Organization The quality of being comfortable with relationships; the opposite extreme, introversion, is characterized by more social E Management Extroversion discomfort. Organization Family-supportive A series of programs (e.g., on-site day care) adopted by companies that can help employees deal with work-family conflict and F Management policies stress. Organization Fearlessness A type of culture that can form in firms whose business involves considerable risk and rapid feedback. Attracts and rewards F Management culture people willing to take chances and decisive. Organization F Management Feedback. Information about the effectiveness of ones work performance. Page 33 of 110
  34. 34. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization F Management Field experiment Similar to a laboratory experiment, but conducted in a real organization. Organization F Management Field survey Typically relies on questionnaire distributed to a sample of people selected from a larger population. Organization F Management Filtering The tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission. Organization F Management Financial resources The funding available to the organization to carry out its activities. Organization Fixed interval A partial reinforcement schedule in which some fixed time period occurs between a reinforced response and the availability of F Management schedule the next reinforcement. Organization A partial reinforcement schedule in which some fixed number of responses must be made between a reinforced response and F Management Fixed ratio schedule. the availability of the next reinforcement. Organization Fixed-interval F Management reinforcement Provides reinforce-ment on a fixed time schedule. Page 34 of 110
  35. 35. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Fixed-ratio F Management reinforcement Provides reinforcement after a fixed number of behaviours. Organization F Management Flat organization An organization with relatively few levels in its hierarchy of authority. Organization Flexible reward F Management system Allows employees to choose the combination of benefits that best suit their needs. Organization Flexible work F Management schedules (flextime) These schedules give employees more personal control over the hours they work each day. Organization F Management Flex-time An alternative work schedule in which arrival and quitting times are flexible. Organization Follower-centered F Management leadership Approaches that try to understand leadership by focusing on followers needs and how they respond to leaders. Organization F Management Force The effort directed toward a first-level outcome. Page 35 of 110
  36. 36. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization The exact opposite of an accomodating style - a person who is very willing to use their power and authority to settle an F Management Forcing style argument. Organization F Management Formal work groups Groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Organization F Management Formalization The extent to which work roles are highly defined by an organization. Organization F Management Framing Aspects of the presentation of information about a problem that are assumed by decision makers. Organization The tendency for a decision maker to be swayed by whether a decision is pitched as a positive (e.g., gain) or negative (e.g., F Management Framing loss). Organization F Management Friendship group A group that is relatively permanent and informal and draws its benefits from the social relationships among its members. Organization Functional F Management departmentation Employees with closely related skills and responsibilities are assigned to the same department. Page 36 of 110
  37. 37. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization F Management Functional structure A type of structure in which units and departments are organized based on the activity or function that they perform. Organization Fundamental F Management attribution error The tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behavior at the expense of situational explanations. Organization G Management Gainsharing A group pay incentive plan based on productivity or performance improvements over which the workforce has some control. Organization G Management Gatekeepers People who span organizational boundaries to import new information, translate it for local use, and disseminate it. Organization General adaptation G Management syndrome (GAS) Identifies three stages of response to a stressor: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. Organization This environment includes the broad set of dimensions and factors within which the organization operates, including political- G Management General environment legal, sociocultural, technological, economic, and international factors. Organization Geographic G Management departmentation Relatively self-contained units deliver an organizations products or services in a specific geographic territory. Page 37 of 110
  38. 38. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Geographic-based G Management structure A type of structure in which product lines, services, and/or functions are organized by location. Organization A term that refers to the many barriers that can exist to thwart a womans rise to the top of an organization; one that provides a G Management Glass ceiling view of the top, but a ceiling on how far a woman can go. Organization Firms are considered global if they produce high-quality products that can be sold anywhere across globe, are international in G Management Global firm their thinking, and expatriates from around the globe comprise their managerial pool. Organization G Management Goal acceptance The extent to which a person accepts a goal as his or her own. Organization G Management Goal commitment The extent to which a person is personally interested in reaching a goal. Organization G Management Goal compatibility The extent to which the goals of more than one person or group can be achieved at the same time. Organization G Management Goal difficulty The extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort. Page 38 of 110
  39. 39. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization A motivational technique that uses specific, challenging, and acceptable goals and provides feedback to enhance G Management Goal setting performance. Organization G Management Goal specificity The clarity and precision of a goal. Organization G Management Goal theory A theory which argues that establishing future performance targets can help motivate employees. Organization G Management Goals The highest-level objective of an organization, project, or program. Organization G Management Grapevine An organizations informal communication network. Organization G Management Group Two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by the other person. Organization G Management Group cohesiveness The degree to which a group is especially attractive to its members. Page 39 of 110
  40. 40. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization G Management Group composition The degree of similarity or difference among group members in factors important to the groups work. Organization G Management Group interview A technique that uses a (small) number of informants to collect perceptions and opinions. Organization Group performance The performance factors are composition, size, norms, and cohesiveness. They affect the success of the group in fulfilling its G Management factors goals. Organization G Management Group polarization The tendency for a groups average post-discussion attitudes to be more extreme then its average pre-discussion attitudes. Organization G Management Group size The number of members of the group; it affects the number of resources available to perform the task. Organization The capacity for group pressure to damage the mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment of decision-making G Management Group think groups. Organization Refers to a situation in which pressures for cohesion and togetherness are so strong as to produce narrowly considered and G Management Groupthink bad decisions; this can be especially true via conformity pressures in groups. Page 40 of 110
  41. 41. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization G Management Growth need strength The extent to which people desire to achieve higher-order need satisfaction by performing their jobs. Organization G Management Growth needs A category in Maslows hierarchy of needs. It includes esteem and self-actualization needs. Organization H Management Halo effect The rating of an individual on one trait or characteristic tends to color ratings on other traits or characteristics. Organization H Management Hard capacities The tangible assets and resources of an organization, such as its land, buildings, facilities, personnel, and equipment. Organization H Management Harshness The tendency to perceive the job performance of ratees as especially ineffective. Organization A favorable response by subjects in an organizational experiment that is the result of a factor other than the independent H Management Hawthorne effect variable that is formally being manipulated. Organization Conducted between 1927 and 1932, these studies led to some of the first discoveries of the importance of human behaviour in H Management Hawthorne Studies organizations. Page 41 of 110
  42. 42. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Hersey and This model of leadership identifies different combinations of leadership presumed to work best with different levels of H Management Blanchard model organizational maturity on the part of followers. Organization Herzbergs two-factor Motivation theory which argues that the factors which cause satisfaction on the job are different than those which cause H Management theory dissatisfaction. Organization Decision making shortcuts that everyone develops over time and use to deal with the myriad of daily decisions; can sometimes H Management Heuristics lead a manager astray, particularly if they are used as shortcuts. Organization H Management Hierarchy of needs Maslows hierarchy assumes human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance. Organization H Management Hindsight The tendency to review a decision-making process to find what was done right or wrong. Organization Horizontal H Management communication Information that flows between departments or functional units, usually as a means of coordinating effort. Organization Horizontal job Like vertical loading, this involves combining tasks, but unlike that technique the additional tasks are added without requiring H Management loading additional skills). Page 42 of 110
  43. 43. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization H Management Human capacities The knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the members of an organization. Organization H Management Human organization Rensis Likerts organization approach that is based on supportive relationships, participation, and overlapping work groups. Organization Human relations Took the view that the best way to improve production was to respect workers and show concern for their needs. Became H Management approach popular in the 1920s and remained influential through the 1950s. Organization Human relations A critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and H Management movement oriented toward employee needs. Organization Hybrid H Management departmentation A structure based on some mixture of functional, product, geographic, or customer departmentation. Organization H Management Hygiene factors The factors in Herzbergs theory that cause dissatisfaction (e.g., working conditions, pay, and coworker relations). Organization H Management Hypervigilance A frantic, superficial pursuit of some satisficing strategy. Page 43 of 110
  44. 44. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization H Management Hypothesis A formal statement of the expected relationship between two variables. Organization I Management Idea champions People who recognize an innovative idea and guide it to implementation. Organization Webers model that is characterized by a hierarchy of authority and a system of rules and procedures designed to create an I Management Ideal bureaucracy optimally effective system for large organizations. Organization I Management Identification Conformity to a social norm promoted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself. Organization I Management Idiosyncrasy credits Social credits earned from regular conformity to group norms that allow occasional deviance from the norms. Organization I Management Ill-structured problem A problem for which the existing and desired states are unclear and the method of getting to the desired state is unknown. Organization Any effect, whether anticipated or unanticipated, positive or negative, brought about by a development intervention. In some I Management Impact cases, ‘impact’ refers to the long-term effects of an intervention on broad development goals. Page 44 of 110
  45. 45. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization I Management Impetus Providing impetus involves the manager providing a strong incentive for the disputents to reach an agreement on their own. Organization Implementation I Management teams Groups of individuals from various functional groups who are responsible for enacting change in organizations. Organization Implicit personality I Management theories Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together. Organization Impression I Management management A direct and intentional effort by someone to enhance his or her own image in the eyes of others. Plans in which employees can earn additional compensation in return for certain types of performance. incubation A period of Organization I Management Incentive systems less-intense conscious concentration during which a creative person is able to let the knowledge and ideas acquired during preparation mature and develop. Organization I Management Independent variable The variable that is manipulated or changed in an experiment. Organization Quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple and reliable means to measure achievement, to reflect the I Management Indicator changes connected to an intervention, or to help assess the performance of a development actor. Page 45 of 110
  46. 46. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Indirect use of Conceptual use of evaluation results in decision making. Refers to an intellectual and gradual process in which the decision- I Management evaluation results maker is led to a more adequate appreciation of the problems addressed by the policy or program. Organization I Management Individual differences The personal attributes that vary from one person to another. Organization Individualistic vs. Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy. Collective cultures favor interdependence and I Management Collective loyalty to family or clan. Organization I Management Inducements The tangible or intangible rewards organizations provide individuals. Organization I Management Inequity The belief that we are being treated unfairly in relation to others. Organization I Management Influence The ability to affect the perceptions, attitudes, or behaviours of others. Organization I Management Influence tactics Tactics that are used to convert power into actual influence over others. Page 46 of 110
  47. 47. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization I Management Informal groups Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members. Organization Information I Management dependence Reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act. Organization I Management Information overload The reception of more information than is necessary to make effective decisions. Organization I Management Information richness The potential information-carrying capacity of a communication medium. Organization I Management Informational roles There are three key informational roles: the monitor, the disseminator, and the spokesperson. Organization Information- Rational models that focus on evaluating the quality and relative weight of various pieces of information that need to be I Management processing models combined together to reach a decision. Organization I Management Initiating structure The degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment. Page 47 of 110
  48. 48. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Initiating-structure I Management behaviour Involves clearly defining the leader-subordinate roles so that subordinates know what is expected of them. Organization I Management Innovation The process of developing and implementing new ideas in an organization. Organization I Management Inputs Anything that people give up, offer, or trade to their organization in exchange for outcomes. Organization Inquisitorial I Management intervention Involves a manager soliciting evidence from the disputents and then making a decision. Organization The stage in the creative process when all the scattered thoughts and ideas that were maturing during incubation come I Management Insight together to produce a breakthrough. A socially sanctioned and maintained set of established practices, norms, behaviors, or relationships (i.e. trade regulations, Organization land tenure, banking systems, and an organization’s staff rules) that persist over time in support of collectively valued I Management Institution purposes. Institutions have both formal and informal rules and enforcement mechanisms that shape the behavior of individuals and organizations in society. Organization The learning that takes place among individuals in different organizations and groups, who are working together to achieve a I Management Institutional learning common end and, in particular, to induce institutional change. Page 48 of 110
  49. 49. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization I Management Instrumentality The probability that a particular first-level outcome will be followed by a particular second-level outcome. Organization I Management Integration The process of attaining coordination across differentiated departments. Organization Integrative I Management negotiation Win-win negotiation that assumes that mutual problem solving can enlarge the assets to be divided between parties. Organization I Management Integrators Organizational members permanently assigned to facilitate coordination between departments. Organization I Management Intention A component of an attitude that guides an individuals behaviour. Organization I Management Interactionalism Suggests that individuals and situations interact continuously to determine individuals behaviour. Organization I Management Interest groups Parties or organizations other than direct competitors that have some vested interest in how an organization is managed. Page 49 of 110
  50. 50. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Interlocking I Management directorates A condition existing when one person serves on two or more boards of directors. Organization Ascribing/assigning the cause of a persons behavior at work to something about them (e.g, their effort, their innate ability, I Management Internal attribution etc.). Organization The individuals interpretation of objective work experiences know only from a persons own subjective sense of external I Management Internal career events. Factors inside an organization that make up the organization’s ‘personality’, and which influence the organization’s cohesiveness and the energy it displays pursuing its goals. Factors that make up the internal environment include: the Organization I Internal environment organization’s culture, performance-related incentive, and rewards systems, the institutional ‘climate’ in general, the history and Management traditions of the organization, leadership and management style, the existence of a generally recognized and accepted mission statement, and shared norms and values that promote teamwork in the pursuit of the organization’s goals. Organization I Management Internalization Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm. Organization Those firms who have responded to stiff competition domestically by expanding their sales abroad. They may start a I Management International firm production facility overseas and send some of their managers, who report to a global division, to that country. Organization I Management Interpersonal conflict A process that occurs when one person, group, or organizational subunit frustrates the goal attainment of another. Page 50 of 110
  51. 51. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Interpersonal I Management demands Stressors associated with group pressures, leadership, and personality conflicts. Organization I Management Interpersonal roles There are three important interpersonal roles: the figurehead, the leader, and the liaison. Organization I Management Interpersonal skills The manager uses interpersonal skills to communicate with, understand, and motivate individuals and groups. Organization I Management Interrole conflict Several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations. Organization Intersender role I Management conflict Two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations. Organization I Management Intrapreneurship An entrepreneurial activity that takes place within the context of a large organization. Organization Intrasender role I Management conflict A single role sender provides incompatible expectations to a role occupant. Page 51 of 110
  52. 52. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization I Management Intrinsic motivation Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied. Organization Problem identification and solving based on systematic education and experiences that locate problems within a network of I Management Intuition previously acquired information. Organization A code-based legal system tied to religious stipulations put forth in the Koran. While not strictly a legal system, the Koran does I Management Islamic law address business concerns such as the need to honor agreements and to us good faith in interactions. Organization Isolate (isolated I Management dyad) Tend to work alone and to interact and communicate little with others. Organization J Management Jargon Specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations or organizations. The process of systematically gathering information about specific jobs to use in devel-oping a performance measurement Organization system, to write job or position descriptions, and to develop equitable pay systems. ) job-centred leader behaviour Involves J Management Job analysis paying close attention to the work of subordinates, ex-plaining work procedures, and demonstrating a strong interest in performance. Organization Job characteristics J Management approach Focuses on the motivational attributes of jobs. Page 52 of 110
  53. 53. Encyclopedia Organization Management (768 Terms) Powered by www.drawpack.com; All rights reserved. Organization Job characteristics A model of how to put enrichment in practice, which involves -among other things - changing jobs so that they provide more J Management model feedback and autonomy to those actually doing the jobs. Organization Job characteristics Identifies three critical psychological states: experienced meaningfulness of the work, experienced responsibility for work J Management theory outcomes, and knowledge of results. Organization Job demands-job A model that asserts that jobs promote high stress when they make high demands while offering little control over work J Management control model decisions. Organization J Management Job design How organizations define and structure jobs. Organization Involves combining multiple tasks once performed by several people into one job. As with rotation, it is designed to increase J Management Job enlargement variety and reduce boredom association with job simplification. Organization J Management Job enrichment The design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation and the quality of working life. Organization Occurs when an individual makes fewer adjustments within the organization and moves to different organizations to advance J Management Job hopping his or her career. Page 53 of 110

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