Adjective

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Adjective

  1. 1. Supervisor : Pham Thu Huong Presenters : Nguyen Thi Cuc (509701011) Dang Thi Diu (509701016) Class : 509701A1 ADJECTIVES
  2. 2. I . Definition II . Position III. Syntactic function of adj OUTLINE IV. Postpositive V. Head of noun phrase . VI. Verbless adjective clause VII.Syntactic subclassification of adj. VIII.Semantic sub-classification of Adj
  3. 3. <ul><li>Adjective is the part of speech that modifies a noun or a pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex1: A black bird is flying in the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>(the adj “ Black “ describes the noun “ bird” ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. Before a noun : young man, beautiful girl.. </li></ul><ul><li>2. After the verb : BE , BECOME, SEEM, STAY, LOOK,… </li></ul><ul><li>Ex :-Your ideas are interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>-Books are becoming expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>-She looks happy . </li></ul><ul><li>-The weather wills stay dry. </li></ul><ul><li>3. With some verbs after the object: </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: My sister keeps her room tidy. </li></ul><ul><li>4 . The+ adj </li></ul><ul><li>the young, the rich , the poor </li></ul><ul><li>5. After a noun (certain phrases): </li></ul><ul><li>the people present/knight errant……… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Syntactic function of adjective Attributive Predicative
  6. 6. <ul><li>Adjectives are attributives when they premodify nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Appearing between the determiner and the head of the noun phrase : </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: She has read an i nteresting story. </li></ul><ul><li>What is her main argument. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Attributive a. Intensifying Adjs b. Limiter Adjs c. Denominal Adjs
  8. 8. <ul><li>Words have heightening or lowering effect on the N they modify. </li></ul><ul><li>2 subclasses : emphasizes </li></ul><ul><li>amplifiers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Emphasizers have a general heightening effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizers are attributive only. </li></ul><ul><li>- Examples include: </li></ul><ul><li>a certain winner pure fabrication </li></ul><ul><li>an outright lie a real hero </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>When they are inherent, they are central adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: a happy house </li></ul><ul><li>the house is happy </li></ul><ul><li>When they are non-inherent, they are attributive only. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: a perfect stupid </li></ul><ul><li>not “ the stupid is perfect ” </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Limiter adjectives particularize the reference of the noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>The chief reason the principal cause </li></ul><ul><li>The only occasion the particular place </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these have homonyms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>“ a certain person” ( a limiter “a particular person”) </li></ul><ul><li>“ a certain winner” (an intensifier” a sure name”) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Some examples of amplifiers that are attributive only: </li></ul><ul><li>A close friend A very end </li></ul><ul><li>His entire salary A strong opponent </li></ul><ul><li>Utter folly A great supporter </li></ul><ul><li>Several intensifiers have homonyms that are central adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: those are real flowers </li></ul><ul><li>those flowers are real ( “not artificial”) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Some adjective derived from Ns are attributive only. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: c riminal law ~ ( law concerning crime) </li></ul><ul><li>medical school ~(a school for students of medicine) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Subject complement Object complement Predicative :
  15. 15. Subject complement Object complement <ul><li>They can be complement to a subject which is a finite clause or non-finite clause. </li></ul>- They expresses the result of the process denoted by the verb. - Whether she will resign is uncertain ( finite clause ) Ex : Learning English is difficult ( non-finite clause ) Ex :He pulled his belt tight ( As a result , his belt was then tight ) - He pulled the window open ( As a result ,the window was then open )
  16. 16. <ul><li>Postposition is obligatory for a few adjectives, which have a different sense when they occur attributively or predicatively . </li></ul><ul><li>The most common are probably’ elect ‘ ('soon to take office') and ‘ proper ‘ ('as strictly defined'), as in: Ex : the president elect </li></ul><ul><li>the City of London proper. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>It’s commonly found together with superlative, attributive adj </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: the best hotel available . </li></ul><ul><li>If the noun phrase is generic and indefinite , coordinated Adj or Adj with a clause element added can be postposed , </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Soldier timid or cowardly don’t fight well. A man usually honest will sometimes cheat. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Adjective can often function as heads of noun phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives have personal reference </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : The extremely old need a great deal of attention. </li></ul><ul><li>We will nurse your sick and feed your hungry . </li></ul><ul><li>The young in spirit enjoy life. </li></ul><ul><li>The rich will help only the humble poor </li></ul><ul><li>The wise look to the wiser foe advice. </li></ul><ul><li>The old who resist change can expert violence. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Some adjective can function as Noun –phrase heads when they have abstract reference. </li></ul><ul><li>+ These take singular concord </li></ul><ul><li>+A few are modifiable by adverbs – include : </li></ul><ul><li>in particular ,superlatives </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : -The oldest ( the oldest man ) died last night. </li></ul><ul><li>- She ventures into the unknown . </li></ul><ul><li>- The very best ( the best thing) is coming. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>-An adjective ( alone or as head of an adjective phrase ) can function as a verbless clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : ( By then ) happy , she sang a song. </li></ul><ul><li>She, (by then ) happy , sang a song. </li></ul><ul><li>She sang a song , (by then) happy . </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>+ The implied subject is usually the subject of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The boy is talking with his girl friend , who is my friend. </li></ul><ul><li>+ If clause contains Additional clause constituent, its implied subject can be other than the subject of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : Long and untidy , his hair played in the breeze. </li></ul><ul><li>+ The implied Subject of the adj clause can be the whole of the superordinate clause : </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Strange ,it was he who initiated divorce proceeding. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Verbless adjective clause Contingent adjective clause Exclamatory adjective sentence
  23. 24. <ul><li>They expresses the circumstance or condition under what is said in the superordinate clause applies . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : Confident , they make active students. </li></ul><ul><li>(= When) </li></ul><ul><li>The implied subject of the contingent adjective clause is normally the subject of the superordinate clause, but it can be the objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : She can drink it warm . </li></ul><ul><li>He must sing it when happy , </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>An adj as head of an adj phrase or as its sole realization can be exclamation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex:- How beautiful of you! </li></ul><ul><li>- Great ! </li></ul><ul><li>- Wonderful 1 </li></ul>EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE SENTENCE
  25. 26. <ul><li>Adjective can be subclassified they according to whether they can function: </li></ul><ul><li>Both attribute and predicative </li></ul><ul><li>Attributive only </li></ul><ul><li>Predicative only </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>These ere the majority and constitute the central adj: </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: An beautiful girl </li></ul><ul><li>The girl is beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>2.Attributive only </li></ul><ul><li>Function: do not characterize the referent of noun directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: “my old dog” (“ old” refer to time) </li></ul><ul><li>“ my dog is old” (“old” refer to age) </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Adj that are restricted to predicative position are most like verb and adverb </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to refer to a condition rather than to characterize. (most common referring to heath or lack of heath) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: faint ( nhot nhat, bat tinh), ill, well, unwell </li></ul><ul><li>A larger group comprises adj that can or must take complementation </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: afraid (that, of, about) </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious ( that, of) </li></ul><ul><li>Fond (of) </li></ul><ul><li>Loath (to) </li></ul>
  28. 29. Semantic sub-classification 1. Stative/Dynamic 2. Gradable/ Non-gradable 3. Inherent/ Non-inherent
  29. 30. <ul><li>1 .1- Stative. </li></ul><ul><li>Denote a state or condition, which may generally be considered lasting . </li></ul><ul><li>EX: big, red, small … </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t be used in an imperative . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Be big/red/small </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t be used in possesses constructions . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: He is being big. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Denote attributes which are under the control of the one who possesses them </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: brave </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in an imperative . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Be brave! </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in progressive constructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: We’re being very patient with you </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>- Describe qualities that can vary in intensity or grade. </li></ul><ul><li>( hot, very hot, hotter) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used with intensifiers </li></ul><ul><li>(a little, extremely, fairly, very…) </li></ul><ul><li>- Have comparative and superlative forms </li></ul><ul><li>(big, bigger , the biggest) </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Non-gradable adjs are used alone. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: The dog was dead. </li></ul><ul><li>All dynamic adjs are gradable. </li></ul><ul><li>Most stative adjs (tall, old) are gradable, some are non-gradable (technical adjs: atomic, hydrochloric </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Most adjective are inherent. </li></ul><ul><li>Adj that characterize the referent of the N directly are termed INHERENT , those that do not are termed NON-INHERENT . </li></ul><ul><li>EX: + A new student = A new friend (INHERENT) </li></ul><ul><li>+ An old friend (NON-INHERENT) </li></ul>
  34. 35. The order of adjectives Determiners Observation Size and shape Age At, the , two Beautiful, interesting,… wealthy, large, round Young, old , new, ancient,…
  35. 36. The order of adjectives Color Origin Material Qualifier Red, black, pink….. France, American, Canadian,…. woolen, metallic, wooden ,…. Rocking chair, hunting cabin,…
  36. 37. THANK YOU FOR YOUR LISTENING THANK YOU FOR YOUR LISTENING

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