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  1. 1. Supervisor : Pham Thu Huong Presenters : Nguyen Thi Cuc (509701011) Dang Thi Diu (509701016) Class : 509701A1 ADJECTIVES
  2. 2. I . Definition II . Position III. Syntactic function of adj OUTLINE IV. Postpositive V. Head of noun phrase . VI. Verbless adjective clause VII.Syntactic subclassification of adj. VIII.Semantic sub-classification of Adj
  3. 3. <ul><li>Adjective is the part of speech that modifies a noun or a pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex1: A black bird is flying in the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>(the adj “ Black “ describes the noun “ bird” ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. Before a noun : young man, beautiful girl.. </li></ul><ul><li>2. After the verb : BE , BECOME, SEEM, STAY, LOOK,… </li></ul><ul><li>Ex :-Your ideas are interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>-Books are becoming expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>-She looks happy . </li></ul><ul><li>-The weather wills stay dry. </li></ul><ul><li>3. With some verbs after the object: </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: My sister keeps her room tidy. </li></ul><ul><li>4 . The+ adj </li></ul><ul><li>the young, the rich , the poor </li></ul><ul><li>5. After a noun (certain phrases): </li></ul><ul><li>the people present/knight errant……… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Syntactic function of adjective Attributive Predicative
  6. 6. <ul><li>Adjectives are attributives when they premodify nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Appearing between the determiner and the head of the noun phrase : </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: She has read an i nteresting story. </li></ul><ul><li>What is her main argument. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Attributive a. Intensifying Adjs b. Limiter Adjs c. Denominal Adjs
  8. 8. <ul><li>Words have heightening or lowering effect on the N they modify. </li></ul><ul><li>2 subclasses : emphasizes </li></ul><ul><li>amplifiers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Emphasizers have a general heightening effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizers are attributive only. </li></ul><ul><li>- Examples include: </li></ul><ul><li>a certain winner pure fabrication </li></ul><ul><li>an outright lie a real hero </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>When they are inherent, they are central adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: a happy house </li></ul><ul><li>the house is happy </li></ul><ul><li>When they are non-inherent, they are attributive only. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: a perfect stupid </li></ul><ul><li>not “ the stupid is perfect ” </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Limiter adjectives particularize the reference of the noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>The chief reason the principal cause </li></ul><ul><li>The only occasion the particular place </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these have homonyms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>“ a certain person” ( a limiter “a particular person”) </li></ul><ul><li>“ a certain winner” (an intensifier” a sure name”) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Some examples of amplifiers that are attributive only: </li></ul><ul><li>A close friend A very end </li></ul><ul><li>His entire salary A strong opponent </li></ul><ul><li>Utter folly A great supporter </li></ul><ul><li>Several intensifiers have homonyms that are central adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: those are real flowers </li></ul><ul><li>those flowers are real ( “not artificial”) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Some adjective derived from Ns are attributive only. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: c riminal law ~ ( law concerning crime) </li></ul><ul><li>medical school ~(a school for students of medicine) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Subject complement Object complement Predicative :
  15. 15. Subject complement Object complement <ul><li>They can be complement to a subject which is a finite clause or non-finite clause. </li></ul>- They expresses the result of the process denoted by the verb. - Whether she will resign is uncertain ( finite clause ) Ex : Learning English is difficult ( non-finite clause ) Ex :He pulled his belt tight ( As a result , his belt was then tight ) - He pulled the window open ( As a result ,the window was then open )
  16. 16. <ul><li>Postposition is obligatory for a few adjectives, which have a different sense when they occur attributively or predicatively . </li></ul><ul><li>The most common are probably’ elect ‘ ('soon to take office') and ‘ proper ‘ ('as strictly defined'), as in: Ex : the president elect </li></ul><ul><li>the City of London proper. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>It’s commonly found together with superlative, attributive adj </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: the best hotel available . </li></ul><ul><li>If the noun phrase is generic and indefinite , coordinated Adj or Adj with a clause element added can be postposed , </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Soldier timid or cowardly don’t fight well. A man usually honest will sometimes cheat. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Adjective can often function as heads of noun phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives have personal reference </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : The extremely old need a great deal of attention. </li></ul><ul><li>We will nurse your sick and feed your hungry . </li></ul><ul><li>The young in spirit enjoy life. </li></ul><ul><li>The rich will help only the humble poor </li></ul><ul><li>The wise look to the wiser foe advice. </li></ul><ul><li>The old who resist change can expert violence. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Some adjective can function as Noun –phrase heads when they have abstract reference. </li></ul><ul><li>+ These take singular concord </li></ul><ul><li>+A few are modifiable by adverbs – include : </li></ul><ul><li>in particular ,superlatives </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : -The oldest ( the oldest man ) died last night. </li></ul><ul><li>- She ventures into the unknown . </li></ul><ul><li>- The very best ( the best thing) is coming. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>-An adjective ( alone or as head of an adjective phrase ) can function as a verbless clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : ( By then ) happy , she sang a song. </li></ul><ul><li>She, (by then ) happy , sang a song. </li></ul><ul><li>She sang a song , (by then) happy . </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>+ The implied subject is usually the subject of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The boy is talking with his girl friend , who is my friend. </li></ul><ul><li>+ If clause contains Additional clause constituent, its implied subject can be other than the subject of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : Long and untidy , his hair played in the breeze. </li></ul><ul><li>+ The implied Subject of the adj clause can be the whole of the superordinate clause : </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Strange ,it was he who initiated divorce proceeding. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Verbless adjective clause Contingent adjective clause Exclamatory adjective sentence
  23. 24. <ul><li>They expresses the circumstance or condition under what is said in the superordinate clause applies . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : Confident , they make active students. </li></ul><ul><li>(= When) </li></ul><ul><li>The implied subject of the contingent adjective clause is normally the subject of the superordinate clause, but it can be the objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : She can drink it warm . </li></ul><ul><li>He must sing it when happy , </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>An adj as head of an adj phrase or as its sole realization can be exclamation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex:- How beautiful of you! </li></ul><ul><li>- Great ! </li></ul><ul><li>- Wonderful 1 </li></ul>EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE SENTENCE
  25. 26. <ul><li>Adjective can be subclassified they according to whether they can function: </li></ul><ul><li>Both attribute and predicative </li></ul><ul><li>Attributive only </li></ul><ul><li>Predicative only </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>These ere the majority and constitute the central adj: </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: An beautiful girl </li></ul><ul><li>The girl is beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>2.Attributive only </li></ul><ul><li>Function: do not characterize the referent of noun directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: “my old dog” (“ old” refer to time) </li></ul><ul><li>“ my dog is old” (“old” refer to age) </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Adj that are restricted to predicative position are most like verb and adverb </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to refer to a condition rather than to characterize. (most common referring to heath or lack of heath) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: faint ( nhot nhat, bat tinh), ill, well, unwell </li></ul><ul><li>A larger group comprises adj that can or must take complementation </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: afraid (that, of, about) </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious ( that, of) </li></ul><ul><li>Fond (of) </li></ul><ul><li>Loath (to) </li></ul>
  28. 29. Semantic sub-classification 1. Stative/Dynamic 2. Gradable/ Non-gradable 3. Inherent/ Non-inherent
  29. 30. <ul><li>1 .1- Stative. </li></ul><ul><li>Denote a state or condition, which may generally be considered lasting . </li></ul><ul><li>EX: big, red, small … </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t be used in an imperative . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Be big/red/small </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t be used in possesses constructions . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: He is being big. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Denote attributes which are under the control of the one who possesses them </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: brave </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in an imperative . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Be brave! </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in progressive constructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: We’re being very patient with you </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>- Describe qualities that can vary in intensity or grade. </li></ul><ul><li>( hot, very hot, hotter) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used with intensifiers </li></ul><ul><li>(a little, extremely, fairly, very…) </li></ul><ul><li>- Have comparative and superlative forms </li></ul><ul><li>(big, bigger , the biggest) </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Non-gradable adjs are used alone. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: The dog was dead. </li></ul><ul><li>All dynamic adjs are gradable. </li></ul><ul><li>Most stative adjs (tall, old) are gradable, some are non-gradable (technical adjs: atomic, hydrochloric </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Most adjective are inherent. </li></ul><ul><li>Adj that characterize the referent of the N directly are termed INHERENT , those that do not are termed NON-INHERENT . </li></ul><ul><li>EX: + A new student = A new friend (INHERENT) </li></ul><ul><li>+ An old friend (NON-INHERENT) </li></ul>
  34. 35. The order of adjectives Determiners Observation Size and shape Age At, the , two Beautiful, interesting,… wealthy, large, round Young, old , new, ancient,…
  35. 36. The order of adjectives Color Origin Material Qualifier Red, black, pink….. France, American, Canadian,…. woolen, metallic, wooden ,…. Rocking chair, hunting cabin,…