– X10 is an international and open industry standard for communication among
electronic devices used for home automation, also known as domotics. It
primarily uses power line wiring for signaling and control. A wireless radio
based protocol transport is also defined.
• Working Principles:
– Household electrical wiring is used to send digital data between X10 devices.
This digital data is encoded onto a 120 kHz carrier which is transmitted asThis digital data is encoded onto a 120 kHz carrier which is transmitted as
bursts (1ms) during the relatively quiet zero crossings of the 50 or 60 Hz AC.
One bit is transmitted at each zero crossing. Each bit is transmitted 3 times.
– X10 was developed in 1975 by
Pico Electronics of Glenrothes, Scotland
– X10 (USA) Inc. was formed in the 1985
– When the system is installed, each controlled device is configured to respond
to one of the 256 possible addresses (16 house codes × 16 unit codes); each
device reacts to commands specifically addressed to it, or possibly to several
– A message that says "select code A3", followed by "turn on", tells the unit "A3"
to turn on its device. Several units can be addressed simultaneously. For
example, "select A3", "select A15", "select A4", and finally, "turn on", causes
units A3, A4, and A15 to all turn on.
X10 Advantages and Limitations
No new wiring is required
Simple to install
100's of compatible
Time proven -- it has been
around for over 30 years
Interference and lack of
Control only up to 256
lights and appliancesaround for over 30 years
It is estimated that X10 compatible products can be found in
over 10 million American homes.
lights and appliances
INSTEON — Ultimate Reliability
– INSTEON is a dual-band mesh home area networking topology employing AC-
power lines and a radio-frequency (RF) protocol to communicate with devices.
– INSTEON was developed by SmartLabs Technology, a division of SmartLabs, Inc.
– It enables devices, such as light switches, thermostats, motion sensors, etc. to
be networked together using the power line, radio frequency (RF), or both.
– All INSTEON devices are peers. Each device can transmit, receive, and repeat
any message of the INSTEON protocol, without requiring a master controller or
routing software.routing software.
– INSTEON-enabled devices will work with legacy X10 products. INSTEON driver
chip sets simply include the capability of transmitting, receiving, and
responding to X10 power line messages in addition to INSTEON messages.
– Every INSTEON device has a unique 24 bit address, all transmissions are
encoded onto the network.
– SmartLabs offer's Developer Kits which allows communications between the
product and the INSTEON network. The interface can be an internal INSTEON
chip, a small PC board or an external plug-in adapter with I/O ports connecting
to the host product.
INSTEON Packet Timing vs. X10
All INSTEON powerline
packets contain 24 bits.
An INSTEON powerline
packet lasts 1.823
INSTEON packets are
transmitted during the zero
crossing quiet time tocrossing quiet time to
minimize the effect of
INSTEON packets begin 800
microseconds before a zero
crossing and last until 1023
microseconds after the zero
At the main electrical
junction box to the
home, the single three-
wire 220 VAC powerline
is split into a pair of
two-wire 110 VAC
powerlines, known as
powerlines, known as
Phase 1 and Phase 2.
Phase 1 wiring usually
powers half the circuits
in the home, and Phase
2 powers the other half.
How does INSTEON Compare with ZigBee, Bluetooth,
• Bluetooth - Bluetooth is designed as an ad-hoc network technology and as such
is NOT designed to be a home control networking technology.
• HomePlug - INSTEON is compatible with HomePlug but focused on different
applications. HomePlug is tuned to broadband applications while INSTEON is
focused on home control. INSTEON is a more cost-effective technology for
• ZigBee/Z-Wave - INSTEON is not limited to a single physical network technology
and does not require a network controller. It supports both RF and Powerline,
enabling a broader set of applications. INSTEON technology is also a more cost-
effective and reliable technology allowing it to be integrated into a broader
range of products.
• X10 - INSTEON is a more robust and reliable network yet, it is priced similarly
and is compatible with industry standard X10 devices.
Z-Wave — Wireless Solution
– Z-Wave is a proprietary wireless communications protocol
designed for home automation, specifically to remote control
applications in residential and light commercial environments.
– The technology uses a low-power RF radio embedded or
retrofitted into home electronics devices and systems, such as
lighting, home access control, entertainment systems and
– The Z-Wave Alliance is an international consortium of 160
independent manufacturers that provide interoperable Z-Waveindependent manufacturers that provide interoperable Z-Wave
– Bandwidth: 9,600 bit/s or 40 kbit/s, fully interoperable
– Range: Approximately 30 meters assuming "open air" conditions,
with reduced range indoors depending on building materials.
– Frequency band: uses the sub-1GHz ISM band
– Z-Wave's ability to command multiple devices as a unified event
makes it well suited for home audio and video applications.
No AC, No Wire
Z-Wave Chip and Applications
• Z-Wave is available as Z-Wave Single Chip
solutions by Sigma Designs (Zensys).
• Protocol stack is embedded in the chips.
• Flash memory and blueprints of the PCB
circuitry are available to the
manufacturer/OEM for their applications.
Compatibility is very GOOD!
Sub-1GHz Frequency Coverage by Z-Wave
Frequency differs from country to country.
It is less crowded compared to 2.4GHz band.
ZigBee — low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh network
– ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication
protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE
802.15.4 standard for personal area networks that was finalized in
– Applications include wireless light switches, electrical meters with
in-home-displays, and other consumer and industrial equipment
that requires short-range wireless transfer of data at relatively low
– ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive– ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive
than other WPANs, such as Bluetooth.
– ZigBee is targeted at radio-frequency (2.4 GHz) applications that
require a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking.
– The defined rate of 250 kbps is best suited for periodic or
intermittent data or a single signal transmission from a sensor or
– The wireless IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee RF4CE standard is replacing
infrared applications such as remote controls.
No AC, No Wire
ZigBee uses standard networking terms for data transmission, as defined by IEEE.
• Data Request (transmit data)
• Data Confirm (acknowledgment of a data request)
• Data Indication (receive data)
ZigBee Data Requests
ZigBee Endpoints Example
IEEE 802.15.4 Channel
• Channel numbers 0 through 10 are defined
by the sub-1 GHz 802.15.4 radios, but
ZigBee doesn't run on the sub-1 GHz radios.
• ZigBee uses 2.4 GHz, WiFi, cordless
phones, and microwave ovens also exit in
ZigBee nodes can only send data requests to other nodes on the same network. A single ZigBee
network is called a Personal Area Network (PAN).
ZigBee PANs are formed by ZigBee Coordinators (ZCs). Only ZCs may form a PAN. The other ZigBee
node types, ZigBee Routers (ZRs) and ZigBee End-Devices (ZEDs) may join a network, but do not form
ZigBee does not typically change channels. It is defined by the Application Profile. A ZigBee device
must scan all channels, and join the network on one channel. If the profile is a private profile, it may
choose to limit the device to one or any set of the 16 available channels.
ZigBee Applications - Profiles
• Public profiles are designed for products
from one manufacturer (X) to work, right
out-of-the-box, with products from
another manufacturer (Y).
• Manufacturer-specific profiles (MSPs)
allow the OEM to define any set of clusters,
endpoints, and devices.
• ZigBee places no restrictions on data type
as long as data rate remain reasonable.
iPod Controller Concept
• Skip Forward
• Skip Backward
• Volume Up
• Volume Down
How do ZigBee Compares with Z-Wave, X10 and
INSTEON: Moderately priced, highly reliable Dual-mesh RF & Powerline
technology. However, INSTEON was mainly designed for 110V/60Hz AC power.
X10: Inexpensive but lacks the robustness, flexibility and reliability required by
ZigBee & Z-Wave: Single-band (RF-only) wireless networks that require a network
controller. Z-Wave is proprietary while ZigBee is open standard.
ZigBee for Home Utility Management
• Zigbee provides communication and data exchange
between the utility and home area networks
• Data can be accessed via the Internet
ZigBee for Further Improvement
ZigBee was started in 2003 based on IEEE 802.15.4 features, adding ad hoc
networking, service discovery and application protocol profiles.
ZigBee is a protocol specification from an industry special interest group
called the ZigBee Alliance. Leading provider is Control4.
ZigBee has been successful for multi-vendor ad hoc applications such as
ZigBee has several down-sides, including reliance on a single wireless link
technology, tight coupling with application profiles, along with Internet
integration and scalability limitations.
Zigbee product falls short when comparing to INSTEON, X10, and Z-WaveZigbee product falls short when comparing to INSTEON, X10, and Z-Wave
in home automation and DYI market.
In 2009 the ZigBee Alliance announced that ZigBee will start to integrate
IETF standards such as 6LoWPAN and ROLL into its future specifications.
ZigBee Building Automation
ZigBee Health Care
ZigBee Home Automation
ZigBee Retail Services
ZigBee Smart Energy
ZigBee Telecom Services
6LoWPAN – The Internet of Things Technology
– 6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area
– 6LoWPAN is the name of a working group in the Internet area of the IETF.
– It has defined encapsulation and header compression mechanisms that
allow IPv6 packets to be sent to and received from over IEEE 802.15.4
based wireless networks.
– It originated from the idea that "IP could and should be applied even to
the smallest devices and that low-power devices with limited processing
capabilities should be able to participate in the Internet of Things.”capabilities should be able to participate in the Internet of Things.”
– The vision behind the Internet of Things is that embedded devices, also
called smart objects, are universally becoming IP enabled, and an integral
part of the Internet.
Google’s android light bulb
6LoWPAN – Issues from IPv6 to IEEE802.15.4
– Adapting the packet sizes of the two networks
IPv6 requires MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) to be at least 1280 Bytes.
IEEE802.15.4's standard packet size is 127 octets.
– Address resolution
IPv6: 128 bit IP addresses in a hierarchical manner
IEEE 802.15.4: IEEE 64 bit extended addresses or 16 bit addresses that are unique within
a PAN. There is also a PAN-ID for a group of collocated IEEE802.15.4 devices.
– Differing device designs and focus
IEEE802.15.4: cost, power consumption, code-size optimization , installationIEEE802.15.4: cost, power consumption, code-size optimization , installation
IP: networking, high speed, algorithms, interoperability
– Addressing management mechanisms
The management of addresses for devices that communicate across the two dissimilar
domains of IPv6 and IEEE802.15.4 is cumbersome, if not exhaustingly complex.
– Device and service discovery
Since IP-enabled devices may require the formation of ad hoc networks, the current state
of neighboring devices and the services hosted by such devices will need to be known.
IPv6 neighbor discovery extensions is an internet draft proposed as a contribution in this
6LoWPAN Related Standards and Alliances
Note: In 2008 a new IETF working group was formed, Routing over Low-power
and Lossy Networks (ROLL)
6LoWPAN vs. ZigBee
– The weakness of 6LoWPAN is that they do NOT yet have a real market for the
protocol at the moment.
– The main problem lies in the fact that they don't have any standards in place to
govern device interoperability of each wireless sensor node.
– Zigbee has the device interoperability specification and testing infrastructure in
– ZigBee has access to two potentially large markets that are gateways into the
consumer home, i.e., wireless sensor (smart meters) and remote control.
– 6LoWPAN has access to a huge amount of infrastructure, a large pool of protocol– 6LoWPAN has access to a huge amount of infrastructure, a large pool of protocol
developers, and TCP/IP which is the universal language of communications all
over the world.
– Big companies such as Cisco, Microsoft, Google, and Intel may jump in support
6LoWPAN. This would be on top of companies like Sony, Samsung, Panasonic,
and Philips that came along with RF4CE.
Power Line Communications (PLC) for Home
– X10 and INSTEON are PLC technologies for
home control (narrowband) using the
electrical power wiring within a home for
– HomePlug is PLC technology used to
interconnect home computers and
peripherals, and home entertainment devices
that have an Ethernet port. It allows devices
to share video and data without the
inconvenience of running dedicated networkinconvenience of running dedicated network
– IEEE 1901 includes HomePlug AV as a baseline
technology, so any IEEE 1901 products are
fully interoperable with HomePlug AV,
HomePlug Green PHY or the forthcoming
HomePlug AV2 specification.
– Other standards specifications for power line
home networking include the Universal
Powerline Association, the HD-PLC Alliance
and the ITU-T’s G.hn and HomePNA
– HomePlug is the family name for various power line communications
specifications that support networking over existing home electrical wiring,
targeting broadband applications such as in-home distribution of low data
rate IPTV, gaming, and Internet content.
– The first HomePlug specification, HomePlug 1.0, was released in June 2001.
– HomePlug AV specification, which was released in 2005, increased physical
layer (PHY) peak data rates from 14 to 200 Mbit/s.
– HomePlug AV2, finalized in Jan. 2012, offers Gigabit speed at the physical– HomePlug AV2, finalized in Jan. 2012, offers Gigabit speed at the physical
layer and 600Mbs+ at the MAC layer. with products expected to ship in
– The HomePlug Green PHY (10Mbps) specification was released in June 2010
and targets Smart Energy and Smart Grid applications
– There are 4 chip vendors that are shipping interoperable HomePlug AV
chipsets with IEEE 1901 support (Broadcom, Qualcomm Atheros, Sigma
Designs, and SPiDCOM)
– Major HomePlug AV product vendors are ATRIE Technology P Limited, Cisco,
devolo, ZyXEL, D-Link, Logitech, NETGEAR and Western Digital.
HomePlug node shipments will surpass 30 million units by 2014.
HomePlug Product by Logitech
Logitech HD Powerline 200 Adapter
Max speed is 200M, $69.99 online
The video monitoring system uses electrical
wiring and outlets and existing Internet
connection - without the hardwired approach of
some traditional security companies.
HomePlug Product by D-Link
• Integrate WiFi (802.11n) and PLC
• Up to 200 Mbps through PowerLine
• Easily connect and secure Home Network
with push button security
• Extend your existing wireless network
coverage for Your Entire Home or Office
• Plug & Play Installation
• QoS Support to Prioritize Internet Traffic
• Connect Computers, Game Consoles, or
DHP-W306AV POWERLINE AV WIRELESS N EXTENDER
• Turns power outlet into a network connection.
• Extends wireless network to the corners of home without the
need for network cables.
• No extra drilling and extra wiring required!
• $99.99 online
• Connect Computers, Game Consoles, or
Media Players to the Web
• Supports secure wireless encryption using
WPA or WPA2
• Fast Ethernet Ports for Wired Network
• IEEE 802.3
• IEEE 802.3u
• IEEE 802.11b
• IEEE 802.11g
• IEEE 802.11n
• HomePlug AV
HomePlug Product by Loop
Loop-G1701: Exceeds max speed of HomePlug AV 200M.
Smart Home Opportunities and Challenges
– Home smart energy
– Health care
– Home security
– Integrated Platforms to Emerge:
– User-friendly system, product, and interfaces via seamless integration of
technologies, e.g., control (INSTEON, ZigBee) and high-speed video (WiFi, HomePlug)
– Common technology platforms supporting different equipment interfaces and
– Home automation
– Telecom Services
– Home entertainment
– Integration of mobile devices, embedded devices, application software, and Internet
– New business models with full combination between technologies and human
– Security and reliability
– protocol standardization
– Easy to install and use
– Customer education
Summary: Smart Home Technologies
1. X10 How it gets started
2. INSTEON Choice for electrical appliance
3. Z-Wave Proprietary wireless
4. ZigBee4. ZigBee Open standard wireless
5. 6LoWPAN Future
6. HomePlug High speed PLC
7. WiFi High speed wireless
No Boundary, No Limitation
Unmanned Drones flying high to focus on a target
Director, America Tech-Center
Loop Telecom International