Constitution of india

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Constitution of india

  1. 1. THECONSTITUTIONOFINDIA
  2. 2. THECONSTITUTIONOFINDIA(As modified up to the 1st December, 2007)GOVERNMENT OF INDIAMINISTRY OF LAW AND JUSTICE
  3. 3. PREFACEConstitution is a living document, an instrument which makes thegovernment system work. Its flexibility lies in its amendments. In this edition,the text of the Constitution of India has been brought up-to-date byincorporating therein all amendments made by Parliament up to and includingthe Constitution (Ninety-fourth Amendment) Act, 2006. The footnotes belowthe text indicate the Constitution Amendment Acts by which such amendmentshave been made.The Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir with certainexceptions and modifications as provided in article 370 and the Constitution(Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954. This Order has beenincluded in Appendix I for facility of reference. Appendix II contains are-statement of the exceptions and modifications.The text of the constitutional amendments relating to the Constitution(Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, the Constitution (Eighty-sixthAmendment) Act, 2002 and the Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act,2003, which have not yet come into force, have been provided in the text atthe appropriate places wherever or otherwise in the footnote.NEW DELHI; DR. K.N. CHATURVEDI,1stDecember 2007. Secretary to the Government of India
  4. 4. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USEDArt., arts. ........................................................... for Article, articles.Cl., cls. ........................................................... “ Clause, clauses.C.O. ........................................................... “ Constitutiion Order.Ins. ........................................................... “ Inserted.P., pp. ........................................................... “ Page, pages.Pt. ........................................................... “ Part.Rep. ........................................................... “ Repealed.Sec., ss. ........................................................... “ Section, sections.Sch. ........................................................... “ Schedule.Subs. ........................................................... “ Substituted.w.e.f. ........................................................... “ with effect from.
  5. 5. THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIACONTENTSPAGESPREAMBLE ................................................................................................................................. 1PART ITHE UNION AND ITS TERRITORYARTICLES1. Name and territory of the Union ................................................................... 22. Admission or establishment of new States ................................................ 22A. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 23. Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or namesof existing States ................................................................................................ 2-34. Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment ofthe First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental andconsequential matters ....................................................................................... 3PART IICITIZENSHIP5. Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution .......................... 46. Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to Indiafrom Pakistan ...................................................................................................... 47. Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan ............................. 58. Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residingoutside India ....................................................................................................... 59. Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to becitizens ................................................................................................................... 510. Continuance of the rights of citizenship ..................................................... 511. Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law ........................... 5PART IIIFUNDAMENTAL RIGHTSGeneral12. Definition .............................................................................................................. 613. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. ...... 6Right to Equality14. Equality before law ........................................................................................... 615. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sexor place of birth .................................................................................................. 7
  6. 6. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment .................. 7-817. Abolition of Untouchability ............................................................................ 818. Abolition of titles ............................................................................................... 8-9Right to Freedom19. Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc. ............. 9-1020. Protection in respect of conviction for offences ........................................ 1021. Protection of life and personal liberty .......................................................... 1021A. Right to education ............................................................................................. 1122. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases ........................ 11-12Right against Exploitation23. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour ..................... 1324. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. ........................ 13Right to Freedom of Religion25. Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagationof religion .............................................................................................................. 1326. Freedom to manage religious affairs ........................................................... 13-1427. Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particularreligion ................................................................................................................... 1428. Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worshipin certain educational institutions ................................................................ 14Cultural and Educational Rights29. Protection of interests of minorities ............................................................. 1430. Right of minorities to establish and administer educationalinstitutions ........................................................................................................... 14-1531. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 15Saving of Certain Laws31A. Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc. ..................... 15-1731B. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations ............................................... 1731C. Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles ................... 17-1831D. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 18Right to Constitutional Remedies32. Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part ................... 1832A. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 1833. Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part intheir application to Forces, etc....................................................................... 1934. Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is inforce in any area ................................................................................................. 1935. Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part .......................... 19-20Contents(ii)
  7. 7. PART IVDIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICYARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES36. Definition .............................................................................................................. 2137. Application of the principles contained in this Part ............................... 2138. State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of thepeople .................................................................................................................... 2139. Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State ........................ 21-2239A. Equal justice and free legal aid...................................................................... 2240. Organisation of village panchayats ............................................................. 2241. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certaincases ....................................................................................................................... 2242. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternityrelief........................................................................................................................ 2243. Living wage, etc., for workers ........................................................................ 22-2343A. Participation of workers in management of industries .......................... 2344. Uniform civil code for the citizens ................................................................ 2345. Provision for free and compulsory education for children.................... 2346. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes,Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections ............................................. 2347. Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard ofliving and to improve public health ............................................................. 2348. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry ............................... 2348A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding offorests and wild life ........................................................................................... 2449. Protection of monuments and places and objects of nationalimportance ........................................................................................................... 2450. Separation of judiciary from executive ....................................................... 2451. Promotion of international peace and security ......................................... 24PART IVAFUNDAMENTAL DUTIES51A. Fundamental duties .......................................................................................... 25PART VTHE UNIONCHAPTER I.—THE EXECUTIVEThe President and Vice-President52. The President of India ...................................................................................... 2653. Executive power of the Union ........................................................................ 2654. Election of President.......................................................................................... 2655. Manner of election of President...................................................................... 27-2856. Term of office of President .............................................................................. 2857. Eligibility for re-election ................................................................................... 2858. Qualifications for election as President....................................................... 28-2959. Conditions of President’s office ..................................................................... 29Contents (iii)
  8. 8. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES60. Oath or affirmation by the President ........................................................... 29-3061. Procedure for impeachment of the President ............................................ 3062. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President andthe term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy .................... 30-3163. The Vice-President of India ............................................................................. 3164. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council ofStates ..................................................................................................................... 3165. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functionsduring casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, ofPresident ............................................................................................................... 3166. Election of Vice-President ................................................................................ 31-3267. Term of office of Vice-President ..................................................................... 32-3368. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-Presidentand the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy ........... 3369. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President .................................................. 3370. Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies ..................... 3371. Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President orVice-President ...................................................................................................... 33-3472. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remitor commute sentences in certain cases ........................................................ 3473. Extent of executive power of the Union ...................................................... 35Council of Ministers74. Council of Ministers to aid and advise President ................................... 3575. Other provisions as to Ministers .................................................................... 36The Attorney-General for India76. Attorney-General for India .............................................................................. 36-37Conduct of Government Business77. Conduct of business of the Government of India .................................... 3778. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information tothe President, etc. ............................................................................................... 37-38CHAPTER II.—PARLIAMENTGeneral79. Constitution of Parliament ............................................................................. 3880. Composition of the Council of States .......................................................... 3881. Composition of the House of the People .................................................... 39-4082. Readjustment after each census .................................................................... 4083. Duration of Houses of Parliament ............................................................... 40-4184. Qualification for membership of Parliament ............................................ 4185. Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution ............................. 4186. Right of President to address and send messages to Houses .............. 41-4287. Special address by the President ................................................................... 4288. Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses ............ 42Contents(iv)
  9. 9. Officers of ParliamentARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES89. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States .......... 4290. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of DeputyChairman .............................................................................................................. 42-4391. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the dutiesof the office of, or to act as, Chairman ........................................................ 4392. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while aresolution for his removal from office is under consideration ............. 4393. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People ............ 4394. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speakerand Deputy Speaker ......................................................................................... 4495. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the dutiesof the office of, or to act as, Speaker ............................................................ 4496. The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while aresolution for his removal from office is under consideration ............. 44-4597. Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman andthe Speaker and Deputy Speaker .................................................................. 4598. Secretariat of Parliament ................................................................................. 45Conduct of Business99. Oath or affirmation by members .................................................................. 46100. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacanciesand quorum ......................................................................................................... 46Disqualifications of Members101. Vacation of seats ................................................................................................ 46-48102. Disqualifications for membership................................................................. 48103. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members ................... 48-49104. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmationunder article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified ................ 49Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members105. Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of themembers and committees thereof ................................................................. 49-50106. Salaries and allowances of members. .......................................................... 50Legislative Procedure107. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills .................................. 50108. Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases .............................................. 50-52109. Special procedure in respect of Money Bills .............................................. 52-53110. Definition of “Money Bills” ............................................................................ 53-54111. Assent to Bills ..................................................................................................... 54Procedure in Financial Matters112. Annual financial statement ............................................................................ 54-56113. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates ................................. 56Contents (v)
  10. 10. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES114. Appropriation Bills ........................................................................................... 56-57115. Supplementary, additional or excess grants ............................................. 57116. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants ..................... 57-58117. Special provisions as to financial Bills ........................................................ 58-59Procedure Generally118. Rules of procedure ............................................................................................. 59119. Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financialbusiness ................................................................................................................. 59-60120. Language to be used in Parliament ............................................................. 60121. Restriction on discussion in Parliament ...................................................... 60122. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament ............................ 60CHAPTER III.—LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT123. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess ofParliament ............................................................................................................ 60-61CHAPTER IV.—THE UNION JUDICIARY124. Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court ................................. 61-63125. Salaries, etc., of Judges .................................................................................... 63126. Appointment of acting Chief Justice ........................................................... 63-64127. Appointment of ad hoc judges ....................................................................... 64128. Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court .......... 64129. Supreme Court to be a court of record ....................................................... 65130. Seat of Supreme Court ..................................................................................... 65131. Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court ............................................... 65131A. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 65132. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courtsin certain cases .................................................................................................... 65-66133. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courtsin regard to Civil matters ................................................................................ 66134. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters ....... 67134A. Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court............................................. 67-68135. Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law tobe exercisable by the Supreme Court ........................................................... 68136. Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court ......................................... 68137. Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court .......................... 68138. Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court .......................... 68139. Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs ...... 68139A. Transfer of certain cases ................................................................................... 69140. Ancillary powers of Supreme Court ............................................................ 69141. Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts............... 69142. Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders asto discovery, etc. ................................................................................................. 69-70143. Power of President to consult Supreme Court ......................................... 70144. Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court ...... 70144A. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 70Contents(vi)
  11. 11. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES145. Rules of Court, etc. ............................................................................................ 71-72146. Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court ........... 72-73147. Interpretation ....................................................................................................... 73CHAPTER V.—COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA148. Comptroller and Auditor-General of India ................................................ 73-74149. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General .............. 74-75150. Form of accounts of the Union and of the States .................................... 75151. Audit reports ....................................................................................................... 75PART VITHE STATESCHAPTER I.—GENERAL152. Definition .............................................................................................................. 76CHAPTER II.—THE EXECUTIVEThe Governor153. Governors of States ........................................................................................... 76154. Executive power of State ................................................................................. 76155. Appointment of Governor ............................................................................... 76156. Term of office of Governor .............................................................................. 76-77157. Qualifications for appointment as Governor ............................................ 77158. Conditions of Governor’s office ..................................................................... 77159. Oath or affirmation by the Governor ........................................................... 77-78160. Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies .............. 78161. Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remitor commute sentences in certain cases ........................................................ 78162. Extent of executive power of State ............................................................... 78Council of Ministers163. Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor .................................... 78-79164. Other provisions as to Ministers .................................................................... 79-80The Advocate-General for the State165. Advocate-General for the State...................................................................... 80Conduct of Government Business166. Conduct of business of the Government of a State ................................. 81-81167. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information toGovernor, etc. ....................................................................................................... 81CHAPTER III.—THE STATE LEGISLATUREGeneral168. Constitution of Legislatures in States ......................................................... 81-82169. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States .......................... 82Contents (vii)
  12. 12. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES170. Composition of the Legislative Assemblies ............................................... 82-83171. Composition of the Legislative Councils .................................................... 83-85172. Duration of State Legislatures ....................................................................... 85173. Qualification for membership of the State Legislature .......................... 85174. Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution .......... 86175. Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House orHouses ................................................................................................................... 86176. Special address by the Governor ................................................................... 86177. Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses ............... 86-87Officers of the State Legislature178. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly .......... 87179. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speakerand Deputy Speaker ......................................................................................... 87180. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the dutiesof the office of, or to act as, Speaker ............................................................ 87-88181. The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while aresolution for his removal from office is under consideration ............. 88182. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council ...... 88183. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices ofChairman and Deputy Chairman ................................................................. 88-89184. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the dutiesof the office of, or to act as, Chairman ........................................................ 89185. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while aresolution for his removal from office is under consideration ............. 89186. Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and theChairman and Deputy Chairman ................................................................. 90187. Secretariat of State Legislature ...................................................................... 90Conduct of Business188. Oath or affirmation by members .................................................................. 90189. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacanciesand quorum ......................................................................................................... 90-91Disqualifications of Members190. Vacation of seats ................................................................................................ 91-92191. Disqualifications for membership................................................................. 92-93192. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members ................... 93193. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation underarticle 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified .......................... 93-94Powers, Privileges and Immunities of State Legislatures and their Members194. Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of themembers and committees thereof ................................................................. 94195. Salaries and allowances of members ........................................................... 94-95Contents(viii)
  13. 13. Legislative ProcedureARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES196. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills .................................. 95197. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other thanMoney Bills ........................................................................................................... 95-96198. Special procedure in respect of Money Bills .............................................. 96-97199. Definition of “Money Bills” ............................................................................ 97-98200. Assent to Bills ..................................................................................................... 98-99201. Bills reserved for consideration ...................................................................... 99Procedure in Financial Matters202. Annual financial statement ............................................................................ 99-100203. Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates ................................. 100-101204. Appropriation Bills ........................................................................................... 101205. Supplementary, additional or excess grants ............................................. 101-102206. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants ..................... 102-103207. Special provisions as to financial Bills ........................................................ 103Procedure Generally208. Rules of procedure ............................................................................................. 103-104209. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State inrelation to financial business .......................................................................... 104210. Language to be used in the Legislature ...................................................... 104-105211. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature .............................................. 105212. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature ..................... 105CHAPTER IV.—LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR213. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess ofLegislature. .......................................................................................................... 105-107CHAPTER V.—THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES214. High Courts for States ...................................................................................... 107215. High Courts to be courts of record ............................................................... 107216. Constitution of High Courts........................................................................... 107217. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court ........ 108-109218. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to HighCourts .................................................................................................................... 109219. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts ........................................ 110220. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge .......................... 110221. Salaries, etc., of Judges .................................................................................... 110222. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another .............................. 110-111223. Appointment of acting Chief Justice ........................................................... 111224. Appointment of additional and acting Judges ........................................ 111224A. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts ................... 111-112225. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts ............................................................ 112226. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs ............................................. 112-114226A. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 114227. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court............... 114-115Contents (ix)
  14. 14. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES228. Transfer of certain cases to High Court....................................................... 115228A. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 115229. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts ....................... 115-116230. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories .............. 116231. Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States ........ 116-117CHAPTER VI.—SUBORDINATE COURTS233. Appointment of district judges ..................................................................... 117233A. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by,certain district judges ....................................................................................... 117-118234. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicialservice .................................................................................................................... 118235. Control over subordinate courts .................................................................... 118236. Interpretation ....................................................................................................... 118-119237. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class orclasses of magistrates ....................................................................................... 119PART VIITHE STATES IN PART B OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE238. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 120PART VIIITHE UNION TERRITORIES239. Administration of Union territories ............................................................. 121239A. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both forcertain Union territories ................................................................................... 121239AA. Special provisions with respect to Delhi ..................................................... 121-124239AB. Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery ........................ 124-125239B. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess ofLegislature ............................................................................................................ 125-126240. Power of President to make regulations for certain Unionterritories ............................................................................................................... 126-127241. High Courts for Union territories .................................................................. 127-128242. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 128PART IXTHE PANCHAYATS243. Definitions ............................................................................................................ 129243A. Gram Sabha ......................................................................................................... 129243B. Constitution of Panchayats ............................................................................ 129-130243C. Composition of Panchayats ........................................................................... 130-131243D. Reservation of seats ........................................................................................... 131-132243E. Duration of Panchayats, etc. .......................................................................... 132-133243F. Disqualifications for membership................................................................. 133243G. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats ........................... 133-134243H. Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats .................. 134Contents(x)
  15. 15. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES243-I. Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position ..... 134-135243J. Audit of accounts of Pachayats .................................................................... 135243K. Elections to the Panchayats ............................................................................ 135-136243L. Application to Union territories ................................................................... 136243M. Part not to apply to certain areas ................................................................. 136-137243N. Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats ......................................... 137-138243-O. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters ..................................... 138PART IXATHE MUNICIPALITIES243P. Definitions ............................................................................................................ 139243Q. Constitution of Municipalities ....................................................................... 139-140243R. Composition of Municipalities ...................................................................... 140-141243S. Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc. .................. 141243T. Reservation of seats ........................................................................................... 141-142243U. Duration of Municipalities, etc. ..................................................................... 142-143243V. Disqualifications for membership................................................................. 143243W. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc. ............. 143-144243X. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities ............... 144243Y. Finance Commission ......................................................................................... 144-145243Z. Audit of accounts of Municipalities ............................................................ 145243ZA. Elections to the Municipalities ....................................................................... 145243ZB. Application to Union territories .................................................................... 145-146243ZC. Part not to apply to certain areas ................................................................. 146243ZD. Committee for district planning .................................................................... 146-147243ZE. Committee for Metropolitan planning ........................................................ 147-148243ZF. Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities .................................... 149243ZG. Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters .................................... 149PART XTHE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS244. Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas ........................... 150244A. Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas inAssam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers orboth therefor ......................................................................................................... 150-151PART XIRELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATESCHAPTER I.—LEGISLATIVE RELATIONSDistribution of Legislative Powers245. Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States ......... 152246. Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislaturesof States ................................................................................................................ 152Contents (xi)
  16. 16. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES247. Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certainadditional courts ................................................................................................ 153248. Residuary powers of legislation .................................................................... 153249. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the StateList in the national interest .............................................................................. 153250. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in theState List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation .................... 154251. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249and 250 and laws made by the Legislatures of States .......................... 154252. Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent andadoption of such legislation by any other State ....................................... 154-155253. Legislation for giving effect to international agreements ....................... 155254. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws madeby the Legislatures of States........................................................................... 155255. Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to beregarded as matters of procedure only ....................................................... 156CHAPTER II.—ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONSGeneral256. Obligation of States and the Union .............................................................. 156257. Control of the Union over States in certain cases ..................................... 156-157257A. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 157258. Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases ............ 157-158258A. Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union ........................... 158259. [Repealed.] .............................................................................................................. 158260. Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India ......... 158261. Public acts, records and judicial proceedings ........................................... 158-159Disputes relating to Waters262. Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-Staterivers or river valleys ......................................................................................... 159Co-ordination between States263. Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council .................................... 159PART XIIFINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITSCHAPTER I.—FINANCEGeneral264. Interpretation ....................................................................................................... 160265. Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law .................................. 160266. Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States..... 160Contents(xii)
  17. 17. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES267. Contingency Fund .............................................................................................. 161Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States268. Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by theStates ..................................................................................................................... 161-162268A. Service tax levied by Union and collected and appropriated by theUnion and the States ......................................................................................... 162269. Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States ....... 162-163270. Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States ....... 163271. Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union ........... 164272. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 164273. Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products ....................... 164274. Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affectingtaxation in which States are interested ........................................................ 164-165275. Grants from the Union to certain States ..................................................... 165-166276. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments ..................... 167277. Savings .................................................................................................................. 167278. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 167279. Calculation of “net proceeds”, etc. ............................................................. 168280. Finance Commission ......................................................................................... 168-169281. Recommendations of the Finance Commission ........................................ 169Miscellaneous Financial Provisions282. Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues ...... 169283. Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds andmoneys credited to the public accounts ..................................................... 169-170284. Custody of suitors’ deposits and other moneys received by publicservants and courts ........................................................................................... 170285. Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation..................... 170286. Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods ... 171287. Exemption from taxes on electricity ............................................................ 171-172288. Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricityin certain cases .................................................................................................... 172289. Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation ...... 172-173290. Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions ..................... 173290A. Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds ......................................... 173-174291. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 174CHAPTER II.—BORROWING292. Borrowing by the Government of India ....................................................... 174293. Borrowing by States .......................................................................................... 174-175CHAPTER III.—PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS,LIABILITIES,OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS294. Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations incertain cases ......................................................................................................... 175Contents (xiii)
  18. 18. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES295. Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations inother cases ............................................................................................................ 175-176296. Property accruing by escheat or lapse or as bona vacantia ..................... 176297. Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf andresources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union ........... 177298. Power to carry on trade, etc............................................................................ 177299. Contracts .............................................................................................................. 177-178300. Suits and proceedings ...................................................................................... 178CHAPTER IV.—RIGHT TO PROPERTY300A. Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law ...... 178PART XIIITRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THETERRITORY OF INDIA301. Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse ........................................... 179302. Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce andintercourse ............................................................................................................ 179303. Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the Stateswith regard to trade and commerce ............................................................. 179304. Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States ......... 179-180305. Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies..... 180306. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 180307. Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles301 to 304 ............................................................................................................. 180PART XIVSERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATESCHAPTER I.—SERVICES308. Interpretation ....................................................................................................... 181309. Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Unionor a State ............................................................................................................... 181310. Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State ....................... 181-182311. Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed incivil capacities under the Union or a State ................................................ 182-183312. All-India services ............................................................................................... 183-184312A. Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service ofofficers of certain services................................................................................ 184-185313. Transitional provisions ..................................................................................... 185314. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 185CHAPTER II.—PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS315. Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States ............. 185-186316. Appointment and term of office of members ........................................... 186-187Contents(xiv)
  19. 19. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES317. Removal and suspension of a member of a Public ServiceCommission ......................................................................................................... 187-188318. Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of membersand staff of the Commission .......................................................................... 189319. Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commissionon ceasing to be such members...................................................................... 189-190320. Functions of Public Service Commissions .................................................. 190-192321. Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions .................. 192322. Expenses of Public Service Commissions ................................................... 192323. Reports of Public Service Commissions ...................................................... 192PART XIVATRIBUNALS323A. Administrative tribunals ................................................................................. 193-194323B. Tribunals for other matters ............................................................................. 194-196PART XVELECTIONS324. Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vestedin an Election Commission .............................................................................. 197-198325. No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in aspecial, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex ....................... 198326. Elections to the House of the People and to the LegislativeAssemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage .................... 198327. Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to electionsto Legislatures .................................................................................................... 199328. Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect toelections to such Legislature........................................................................... 199329. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters ..................................... 199329A. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 199PART XVISPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES330. Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribesin the House of the People ............................................................................. 200-201331. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House ofthe People ............................................................................................................. 201332. Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and ScheduledTribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States .................................... 201-203333. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the LegislativeAssemblies of the States .................................................................................. 203334. Reservation of seats and special representation to cease aftersixty years ............................................................................................................ 203335. Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to servicesand posts .............................................................................................................. 204336. Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services ......... 204Contents (xv)
  20. 20. ARTICLES ........................................................................................................... PAGES337. Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefitof Anglo-Indian Community ......................................................................... 204-205338. National Commission for Scheduled Castes ............................................. 205-207338A. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes .............................................. 207-209339. Control of the Union over the Administration of Scheduled Areasand the welfare of Scheduled Tribes ............................................................ 209-210340. Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions ofbackward classes ............................................................................................... 210341. Scheduled Castes ............................................................................................... 210-211342. Scheduled Tribes ................................................................................................ 211PART XVIIOFFICIAL LANGUAGECHAPTER I.—LANGUAGE OF THE UNION343. Official language of the Union ....................................................................... 212344. Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language ....... 212-214CHAPTER II.—REGIONAL LANGUAGES345. Official language or languages of a State .................................................. 214346. Official language for communication between one State andanother or between a State and the Union.................................................. 214347. Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of thepopulation of a State ........................................................................................ 214CHAPTER III.—LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC.348. Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the HighCourts and for Acts, Bills, etc. ....................................................................... 214-215349. Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating tolanguage ............................................................................................................... 216CHAPTER IV.—SPECIAL DIRECTIVES350. Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances ................. 216350A. Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage ................ 216350B. Special Officer for linguistic minorities ....................................................... 216351. Directive for development of the Hindi language .................................... 216-217PART XVIIIEMERGENCY PROVISIONS352. Proclamation of Emergency ............................................................................ 218-220353. Effect of Proclamation of Emergency .......................................................... 221354. Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while aProclamation of Emergency is in operation ............................................... 221-222355. Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggressionand internal disturbance. ................................................................................. 222356. Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States .......... 222-225Contents(xvi)
  21. 21. ARTICLES .................................................................................................................. PAGES357. Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued underarticle 356 ............................................................................................................. 225-226358. Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies. ................ 226-227359. Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part IIIduring emergencies ............................................................................................ 227-228359A. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 228360. Provisions as to financial emergency ........................................................... 228-230PART XIXMISCELLANEOUS361. Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs.................... 231-232361A. Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and StateLegislatures .......................................................................................................... 232361B. Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post ...... 232-233362. [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 233363. Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties,agreements, etc. .................................................................................................. 233363A. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privypurses to be abolished ...................................................................................... 234364. Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes ........................... 234365. Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions givenby the Union ......................................................................................................... 235366. Definitions ............................................................................................................ 235-239367. Interpretation ....................................................................................................... 239PART XXAMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION368. Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor..... 240-241PART XXITEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS369. Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certainmatters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List ........ 242370. Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir .... 243-244371. Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat .... 244-245371A. Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland ....................... 245-249371B. Special provision with respect to the State of Assam ............................ 250371C. Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur ......................... 250371D. Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh ........ 251-255371E. Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh ...................... 255371F. Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim .......................... 255-259371G. Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram ........................ 259371H. Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh..... 259-260Contents (xvii)
  22. 22. ARTICLES .................................................................................................................. PAGES371-I. Special provision with respect to the State of Goa ................................. 260372. Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation ................. 260-262372A. Power of the President to adapt laws ......................................................... 262373. Power of President to make order in respect of persons underpreventive detention in certain cases ............................................................ 262-263374. Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pendingin the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council ........................... 263-264375. Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to theprovisions of the Constitution ....................................................................... 264376. Provisions as to Judges of High Courts ...................................................... 264-265377. Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India ................ 265378. Provisions as to Public Service Commissions ........................................... 265378A. Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh LegislativeAssembly .............................................................................................................. 266379-391. [Repealed.] ............................................................................................................ 266392. Power of the President to remove difficulties ........................................... 266PART XXIISHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVETEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS393. Short title .............................................................................................................. 267394. Commencement .................................................................................................. 267394A. Authoritative text in the Hindi language ................................................... 267-268395. Repeals .................................................................................................................. 268SCHEDULESFIRST SCHEDULEI. The States ............................................................................................................. 269-274II. The Union territories .......................................................................................... 274-275SECOND SCHEDULEPart A—Provisions as to the President and the Governors of States .................. 276Part B— [Repealed.].............................................................................................................. 276Part C—Provisions as to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Houseof the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of theCouncil of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of theLegislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairmanof the Legislative Council of a State ............................................................ 277Part D—Provisions as to the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the HighCourts. ................................................................................................................... 277-280Part E— Provisions as to the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India ........ 281THIRD SCHEDULE— Forms of Oaths or Affirmations........................................... 282-284Contents(xviii)
  23. 23. ARTICLES .................................................................................................................. PAGESFOURTH SCHEDULE—Allocation of seats in the Council of States ................... 285-286FIFTH SCHEDULE—Provisions as to the Administration and Control ofScheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes .............................. 287Part A—General ................................................................................................................ 287Part B—Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and ScheduledTribes .................................................................................................................. 287-289Part C— Scheduled Areas ............................................................................................. 289-290Part D—Amendment of the Schedule ........................................................................ 290SIXTH SCHEDULE—Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in theStates of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram ............. 291-314SEVENTH SCHEDULE—List I —Union List ........................................................................................................ 315-321List II—State List .......................................................................................................... 321-326List III—Concurrent List ............................................................................................ 326-329EIGHTH SCHEDULE—Languages .................................................................................. 330NINTH SCHEDULE—Validation of certain Acts and Regulations ........................ 331-348TENTH SCHEDULE—Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection ......... 349-353ELEVENTH SCHEDULE—Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats ..... 354-355TWELFTH SCHEDULE—Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities,etc. .......................................................................................... 356APPENDIXAPPENDIX I—The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order,1954 ......................................................................................................... 357-374APPENDIX II—Re-statement, with reference to the present text of theConstitution, of the exceptions and modifications subject towhich the Constitution applies to the State of Jammu andKashmir .................................................................................................. 375-396INDEX ........................................................................................................................................ 397-443Contents (xix)
  24. 24. THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAWE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnlyresolved to constitute India into a 1[SOVEREIGNSOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC] andto secure to all its citizens:JUSTICE, social, economic and political;LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith andworship;EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;and to promote among them allFRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individualand the 2[unity and integrity of the Nation];IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT,ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THISCONSTITUTION.1Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 2, for “SOVEREIGNDEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC” (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).2Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for “unity of the Nation” (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).Preamble.
  25. 25. PART ITHE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY1. (1) India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.1[(2) The States and the territories thereof shall be asspecified in the First Schedule.](3) The territory of India shall comprise—(a) the territories of the States;2[(b) the Union territories specified in the FirstSchedule; and](c) such other territories as may be acquired.2. Parliament may by law admit into the Union, orestablish, new States on such terms and conditions as itthinks fit.32A. [Sikkim to be associated with the Union.] Rep. by theConstitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, s. 5 (w.e.f.26-4-1975).3. Parliament may by law—(a) form a new State by separation of territoryfrom any State or by uniting two or more States orparts of States or by uniting any territory to a part ofany State;(b) increase the area of any State;(c) diminish the area of any State;(d) alter the boundaries of any State;(e) alter the name of any State:4[Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall beintroduced in either House of Parliament except on therecommendation of the President and unless, where theproposal contained in the Bill affects the area, boundariesName and territoryof the Union.Admission orestablishment ofnew States.Formation of newStates andalteration of areas,boundaries ornames of existingStates.1Subs. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 2, for cl. (2).2Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for sub-clause (b).3Article 2A was ins. by the Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974, s. 2 (w.e.f.1-3-1975).4Subs. by the Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955, s. 2, for the proviso.2
  26. 26. or name of any of the States 1***, the Bill has been referredby the President to the Legislature of that State forexpressing its views thereon within such period as maybe specified in the reference or within such further periodas the President may allow and the period so specified orallowed has expired.]2[Explanation I.—In this article, in clauses (a) to (e),"State includes a Union territory, but in the proviso,"State does not include a Union territory.Explanation II.—The power conferred on Parliamentby clause (a) includes the power to form a new State orUnion territory by uniting a part of any State or Unionterritory to any other State or Union territory.]4. (1) Any law referred to in article 2 or article 3 shallcontain such provisions for the amendment of the FirstSchedule and the Fourth Schedule as may be necessaryto give effect to the provisions of the law and may alsocontain such supplemental, incidental and consequentialprovisions (including provisions as to representation inParliament and in the Legislature or Legislatures of theState or States affected by such law) as Parliament maydeem necessary.(2) No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to bean amendment of this Constitution for the purposes ofarticle 368.THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA(Part I.—The Union and its territory.—Arts. 3-4.)Laws made underarticles 2 and 3 toprovide for theamendment of theFirst and theFourth Schedulesand supplemental,incidental andconsequentialmatters.1The words and letters “specified in Part A or Part B of the First Schedule” omitted bythe Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.2Ins. by the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966, s. 2.3
  27. 27. PART IICITIZENSHIP5. At the commencement of this Constitution, everyperson who has his domicile in the territory of Indiaand—(a) who was born in the territory of India; or(b) either of whose parents was born in the territoryof India; or(c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territoryof India for not less than five years immediatelypreceding such commencement,shall be a citizen of India.6. Notwithstanding anything in article 5, a personwho has migrated to the territory of India from theterritory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to bea citizen of India at the commencement of thisConstitution if—(a) he or either of his parents or any of hisgrandparents was born in India as defined in theGovernment of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted);and(b) (i) in the case where such person has somigrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948, hehas been ordinarily resident in the territory of Indiasince the date of his migration, or(ii) in the case where such person has so migratedon or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he hasbeen registered as a citizen of India by an officerappointed in that behalf by the Government of theDominion of India on an application made by himtherefor to such officer before the commencement ofthis Constitution in the form and manner prescribedby that Government:Provided that no person shall be so registered unlesshe has been resident in the territory of India for at leastsix months immediately preceding the date of hisapplication.Citizenship at thecommencement ofthe Constitution.Rights ofcitizenship ofcertain personswho have migratedto India fromPakistan.4
  28. 28. 7. Notwithstanding anything in articles 5 and 6, aperson who has after the first day of March, 1947,migrated from the territory of India to the territory nowincluded in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizenof India:Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to aperson who, after having so migrated to the territory nowincluded in Pakistan, has returned to the territory of Indiaunder a permit for resettlement or permanent return issuedby or under the authority of any law and every suchperson shall for the purposes of clause (b) of article 6 bedeemed to have migrated to the territory of India after thenineteenth day of July, 1948.8. Notwithstanding anything in article 5, any personwho or either of whose parents or any of whosegrandparents was born in India as defined in theGovernment of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted),and who is ordinarily residing in any country outsideIndia as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen ofIndia if he has been registered as a citizen of India by thediplomatic or consular representative of India in thecountry where he is for the time being residing on anapplication made by him therefor to such diplomatic orconsular representative, whether before or after thecommencement of this Constitution, in the form andmanner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion ofIndia or the Government of India.9. No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue ofarticle 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtueof article 6 or article 8, if he has voluntarily acquired thecitizenship of any foreign State.10. Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizenof India under any of the foregoing provisions of thisPart shall, subject to the provisions of any law that maybe made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen.11. Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Partshall derogate from the power of Parliament to makeany provision with respect to the acquisition andtermination of citizenship and all other matters relatingto citizenship.THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA(Part II.—Citizenship.—Arts. 7—11.)Rights ofcitizenship ofcertain persons ofIndian originresiding outsideIndia.5Rights ofcitizenship ofcertain migrants toPakistan.Persons voluntarilyacquiringcitizenship of aforeign State not tobe citizens.Continuance of therights ofcitizenship.Parliament toregulate the rightof citizenship bylaw.
  29. 29. PART IIIFUNDAMENTAL RIGHTSGeneral12. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,“the State’’ includes the Government and Parliament ofIndia and the Government and the Legislature of each ofthe States and all local or other authorities within theterritory of India or under the control of the Governmentof India.13. (1) All laws in force in the territory of Indiaimmediately before the commencement of this Constitution,in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of thisPart, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.(2) The State shall not make any law which takes awayor abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any lawmade in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent ofthe contravention, be void.(3) In this article, unless the context otherwiserequires,—(a) “law” includes any Ordinance, order, bye-law,rule, regulation, notification, custom or usage havingin the territory of India the force of law;(b) “laws in force” includes laws passed or made bya Legislature or other competent authority in theterritory of India before the commencement of thisConstitution and not previously repealed,notwithstanding that any such law or any part thereofmay not be then in operation either at all or inparticular areas.1[(4) Nothing in this article shall apply to anyamendment of this Constitution made under article 368.]Right to Equality14. The State shall not deny to any person equalitybefore the law or the equal protection of the laws within theterritory of India.Definition.Laws inconsistentwith or inderogation of thefundamental rights.6Equality beforelaw.1Ins. by the Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971, s. 2.
  30. 30. 15. (1) The State shall not discriminate against anycitizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, placeof birth or any of them.(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race,caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to anydisability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to—(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels andplaces of public entertainment; or(b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roadsand places of public resort maintained wholly orpartly out of State funds or dedicated to the use ofthe general public.(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State frommaking any special provision for women and children.1[(4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of article 29shall prevent the State from making any special provisionfor the advancement of any socially and educationallybackward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castesand the Scheduled Tribes.]2[(5) Nothing in this article or in sub-clause (g) ofclause (1) of article 19 shall prevent the State from makingany special provision, by law, for the advancement ofany socially and educationally backward classes ofcitizens or for the Scheduled Castes or the ScheduledTribes in so far as such special provisions relate to theiradmission to educational institutions including privateeducational institutions, whether aided or unaided bythe State, other than the minority educational institutionsreferred to in clause (1) of article 30.]16. (1) There shall be equality of opportunity for allcitizens in matters relating to employment or appointmentto any office under the State.(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race,caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any ofthem, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respectof, any employment or office under the State.(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliamentfrom making any law prescribing, in regard to a class orclasses of employment or appointment to an officeTHE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 15-16.)Prohibition ofdiscrimination ongrounds ofreligion, race,caste, sex or placeof birth.7Equality ofopportunity inmatters of publicemployment.1Added by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951, s. 2.2Ins. by the Constitution (Ninety-third Amendment) Act, 2005, s. 2 (w.e.f. 20-1-2006).
  31. 31. 1[under the Government of, or any local or other authoritywithin, a State or Union territory, any requirement as toresidence within that State or Union territory] prior tosuch employment or appointment.(4) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State frommaking any provision for the reservation of appointmentsor posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which,in the opinion of the State, is not adequately representedin the services under the State.2[(4A) Nothing in this article shall prevent the Statefrom making any provision for reservation 3[in mattersof promotion, with consequential seniority, to any class]or classes of posts in the services under the State in favourof the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which,in the opinion of the State, are not adequately representedin the services under the State.]4[(4B) Nothing in this article shall prevent the Statefrom considering any unfilled vacancies of a year whichare reserved for being filled up in that year in accordancewith any provision for reservation made under clause (4)or clause (4A) as a separate class of vacancies to be filledup in any succeeding year or years and such class ofvacancies shall not be considered together with thevacancies of the year in which they are being filled up fordetermining the ceiling of fifty per cent. reservation ontotal number of vacancies of that year.](5) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation ofany law which provides that the incumbent of an officein connection with the affairs of any religious ordenominational institution or any member of thegoverning body thereof shall be a person professing aparticular religion or belonging to a particulardenomination.17. “Untouchability” is abolished and its practice inany form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disabilityarising out of “Untouchability” shall be an offencepunishable in accordance with law.18. (1) No title, not being a military or academicdistinction, shall be conferred by the State.(2) No citizen of India shall accept any title from anyforeign State.THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 16—18.)81Subs. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch., for “underany State specified in the First Schedule or any local or other authority within its territory, anyrequirement as to residence within that State”.2Ins. by the Constitution (Seventy-seventh Amendment) Act, 1995, s. 2.3Subs. by the Constitution (Eighty-fifth Amendment) Act, 2001, s. 2, for certain words(w.e.f. 17-6-1995).4Ins. by the Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment) Act, 2000, s. 2 (w.e.f. 9-6-2000).Abolition ofUntouchability.Abolition of titles.
  32. 32. THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 18-19.)9(3) No person who is not a citizen of India shall,while he holds any office of profit or trust under theState, accept without the consent of the President anytitle from any foreign State.(4) No person holding any office of profit or trustunder the State shall, without the consent of the President,accept any present, emolument, or office of any kindfrom or under any foreign State.Right to Freedom19. (1) All citizens shall have the right—(a) to freedom of speech and expression;(b) to assemble peaceably and without arms;(c) to form associations or unions;(d) to move freely throughout the territory of India;(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territoryof India; 1[and]2* * * * *(g) to practise any profession, or to carry on anyoccupation, trade or business.3[(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affectthe operation of any existing law, or prevent the Statefrom making any law, in so far as such law imposesreasonable restrictions on the exercise of the rightconferred by the said sub-clause in the interests of 4[thesovereignty and integrity of India,] the security of theState, friendly relations with foreign States, public order,decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court,defamation or incitement to an offence.](3) Nothing in sub-clause (b) of the said clause shallaffect the operation of any existing law in so far as itimposes, or prevent the State from making any lawimposing, in the interests of 4[the sovereignty and integrityof India or] public order, reasonable restrictions on theexercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause.(4) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of the said clause shallaffect the operation of any existing law in so far as itimposes, or prevent the State from making any lawimposing, in the interests of 4[the sovereignty andProtection ofcertain rightsregarding freedomof speech, etc.1Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 2 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).2Sub-clause (f) omitted by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).3Subs. by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951, s. 3, for cl. (2) (with retrospectiveeffect).4Ins. by the Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963, s. 2.
  33. 33. integrity of India or] public order or morality, reasonablerestrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by thesaid sub-clause.(5) Nothing in 1[sub-clauses (d) and (e)] of the saidclause shall affect the operation of any existing law in sofar as it imposes, or prevent the State from making anylaw imposing, reasonable restrictions on the exercise ofany of the rights conferred by the said sub-clauses eitherin the interests of the general public or for the protectionof the interests of any Scheduled Tribe.(6) Nothing in sub-clause (g) of the said clause shallaffect the operation of any existing law in so far as itimposes, or prevent the State from making any lawimposing, in the interests of the general public, reasonablerestrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by thesaid sub-clause, and, in particular, 2[nothing in the saidsub-clause shall affect the operation of any existing lawin so far as it relates to, or prevent the State from makingany law relating to,—(i) the professional or technical qualificationsnecessary for practising any profession or carrying onany occupation, trade or business, or(ii) the carrying on by the State, or by a corporationowned or controlled by the State, of any trade,business, industry or service, whether to theexclusion, complete or partial, of citizens orotherwise].20. (1) No person shall be convicted of any offenceexcept for violation of a law in force at the time of thecommission of the Act charged as an offence, nor besubjected to a penalty greater than that which might havebeen inflicted under the law in force at the time of thecommission of the offence.(2) No person shall be prosecuted and punished forthe same offence more than once.(3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelledto be a witness against himself.21. No person shall be deprived of his life or personalliberty except according to procedure established by law.THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 19—21.)101Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 2, for ”sub-clauses(d), (e) and (f)” (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).2Subs. by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951, s. 3, for certain words.Protection inrespect ofconviction foroffences.Protection of lifeand personalliberty.
  34. 34. *[21A. The State shall provide free and compulsoryeducation to all children of the age of six to fourteen yearsin such manner as the State may, by law, determine.]22. (1) No person who is arrested shall be detained incustody without being informed, as soon as may be, of thegrounds for such arrest nor shall he be denied the right toconsult, and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of hischoice.(2) Every person who is arrested and detained incustody shall be produced before the nearest magistratewithin a period of twenty-four hours of such arrestexcluding the time necessary for the journey from theplace of arrest to the court of the magistrate and no suchperson shall be detained in custody beyond the saidperiod without the authority of a magistrate.(3) Nothing in clauses (1) and (2) shall apply—(a) to any person who for the time being is an enemyalien; or(b) to any person who is arrested or detained underany law providing for preventive detention.**(4) No law providing for preventive detention shallauthorise the detention of a person for a longer periodthan three months unless—(a) an Advisory Board consisting of persons whoare, or have been, or are qualified to be appointedTHE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 21A-22.)11*Ins by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002, s. 2 (which is not yet in force, dateto be notified later on).**Cl. (4) shall stand substituted by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 3(which is yet not in force, date to be notified later on) as—“(4) No law providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of aperson for a longer period than two months unless an Advisory Board constituted inacordance with the recommendations of the Chief Justice of the appropriate Hight Courthas reported before the expiration of the said period of two months that there is in itsopinion sufficient cause for such detention:Provided that an Advisory Board shall consist of a Chairman and not less than twoother members, and the Chairman shall be a serving Judge of the appropriate HighCourt and the other menbers shall be serving or retired Judges of any High Court:Provided further that nothing in this clause shall authorise the detention of anyperson beyond the maximum period prescribed by any law made by Parliament undersub-clause (a) of clause (7).Explanation.—In this clause, “appropriate High Court” means,—(i) in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order of detentionmade by the Government of India or an officer or authority subordinate to that Government,the High Court for the Union territory of Delhi;(ii) in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order of detentionmade by the Government of any State (other than a Union territory), the High Court forthe State; and(iii) in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order of detentionmade by the administrator of a Union territory or an officer or authority subordinate tosuch administrator, such High Court as may be specified by or under any law made byParliament in this behalf.”Right to education.Protection againstarrest anddetention incertain cases.
  35. 35. as, Judges of a High Court has reported before theexpiration of the said period of three months that thereis in its opinion sufficient cause for such detention:Provided that nothing in this sub-clause shallauthorise the detention of any person beyond themaximum period prescribed by any law made byParliament under sub-clause (b) of clause (7); or(b) such person is detained in accordance with theprovisions of any law made by Parliament under sub-clauses (a) and (b) of clause (7).(5) When any person is detained in pursuance of anorder made under any law providing for preventivedetention, the authority making the order shall, as soonas may be, communicate to such person the grounds onwhich the order has been made and shall afford him theearliest opportunity of making a representation againstthe order.(6) Nothing in clause (5) shall require the authoritymaking any such order as is referred to in that clause todisclose facts which such authority considers to be againstthe public interest to disclose.(7) Parliament may by law prescribe—*(a) the circumstances under which, and the classor classes of cases in which, a person may be detainedfor a period longer than three months under any lawproviding for preventive detention without obtainingthe opinion of an Advisory Board in accordance withthe provisions of sub-clause (a) of clause (4);**(b) the maximum period for which any personmay in any class or classes of cases be detained underany law providing for preventive detention; and(c) the procedure to be followed by an AdvisoryBoard in an inquiry under ***[sub-clause (a) of clause(4)].THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Art. 22.)12*Sub-clause (a) shall stand omitted by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act,1978, s. 3 (which is yet not in force, date to be notified later on).**Sub-clause (b) shall stand relettered as sub-clause (a) by s. 3, ibid. (which is yet not inforce, date to be notified later on).***The words, letter and figure in brackets shall stand substituted as “clause (4)” bys. 3, ibid. (which is yet not in force, date to be notified later on).
  36. 36. Right against Exploitation23. (1) Traffic in human beings and begar and othersimilar forms of forced labour are prohibited and anycontravention of this provision shall be an offencepunishable in accordance with law.(2) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State fromimposing compulsory service for public purposes, and inimposing such service the State shall not make anydiscrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste orclass or any of them.24. No child below the age of fourteen years shall beemployed to work in any factory or mine or engaged inany other hazardous employment.Right to Freedom of Religion25. (1) Subject to public order, morality and healthand to the other provisions of this Part, all persons areequally entitled to freedom of conscience and the rightfreely to profess, practise and propagate religion.(2) Nothing in this article shall affect the operationof any existing law or prevent the State from makingany law—(a) regulating or restricting any economic, financial,political or other secular activity which may beassociated with religious practice;(b) providing for social welfare and reform or thethrowing open of Hindu religious institutions of apublic character to all classes and sections of Hindus.Explanation I.—The wearing and carrying of kirpansshall be deemed to be included in the profession of theSikh religion.Explanation II.—In sub-clause (b) of clause (2), thereference to Hindus shall be construed as including areference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina orBuddhist religion, and the reference to Hindu religiousinstitutions shall be construed accordingly.26. Subject to public order, morality and health, everyreligious denomination or any section thereof shall havethe right—(a) to establish and maintain institutions forreligious and charitable purposes;(b) to manage its own affairs in matters of religion;Prohibition ofemployment ofchildren infactories, etc.Freedom ofconscience and freeprofession, practiceand propagation ofreligion.Prohibition oftraffic in humanbeings and forcedlabour.Freedom tomanage religiousaffairs.THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 23—26.)13

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