Stephen William Hawking , CH , CBE , FRS , FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist . He is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and quantum gravity , especially in the context of black holes . He has also achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; these include the runaway best seller A Brief History of Time , which stayed on the British Sunday Times bestsellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.  Hawking's key scientific works to date have included providing, with Roger Penrose , theorems regarding singularities in the framework of general relativity , and the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation , which is today known as Hawking radiation (or sometimes as Bekenstein -Hawking radiation).  He is a world-renowned theoretical physicist whose scientific career spans over 40 years. His books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts ,  and a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Science .  On August 12, 2009, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom , the highest civilian award in the United States .  Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge for thirty years, taking up the post in 1979 and retiring on October 1, 2009.   He is also a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and a Distinguished Research Chair at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo , Ontario .  Hawking has a neuro muscular dystrophy that is related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a condition that has progressed over the years and has left him almost completely paralyzed .
Persuasive vs. Informative All persuasive speeches are trying to persuade someone to believe in whatever the speaker is speaking about. Persuasive speakers, however, are all giving information on why they are right from credible sources. This is the reason on why all persuasive speeches are informative. One example speech from the book was the outline on the dangers of not getting enough sleep. The speaker gives very good information on
Transcript of "Presentation Skills Mid Term Review"
Mid Term Review
<ul><li>How are public speaking and everyday conversation different? </li></ul><ul><li>How are they similar? ? </li></ul>
Similarities <ul><li>Public speaking and conversation share two major goals. </li></ul><ul><li>The first goal is to inform people about things they do not know. </li></ul><ul><li>2.The second goal is to persuade people to believe something or to take a certain course of action. </li></ul><ul><li>The third goal is to entertain people and make them feel happy and good about themselves. </li></ul>
Differences <ul><li>There are key differences between public speaking and everyday conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Public speaking is more highly structured than ordinary conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Public speaking requires more formal language than ordinary conversation. </li></ul>
Ethnocentrism <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should we avoid it? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own culture or group is superior to all others. </li></ul><ul><li>Although speakers do not have to agree with the beliefs and customs of all people, they will not be successful unless they show respect for the cultures of the people they address. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The goal is to inform the audience. If they don’t understand what you are talking about you can’t inform them – You will only confuse them. You must tailor your speech to suit your audience. </li></ul>
PATHOS <ul><li>Pathos is an appeal on the emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathy </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul>
LOGOS <ul><li>Logos is an appeal to logic. </li></ul><ul><li>Logos is about proving you are right. </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul>
Initial Credibility/Ethos <ul><li>The credibility of the speaker before he begins. </li></ul>
Derived Credibility/Ethos <ul><li>The credibility of the speaker gained during the speech. </li></ul>
How to Gain Ethos/Credibilty <ul><li>Ethos can also be gained simply by stating how much you have studied your topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos can also be gained by showing that you believe what you are talking about. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos can also be gained by showing that you know what you are talking about. </li></ul>
<ul><li>He can derive/gain/get credibility by showing how much he has researched the sport and by being enthusiastic about it. </li></ul>
Getting their Attention <ul><li>you need to find an </li></ul><ul><li>Attention Grabber </li></ul><ul><li>Quote </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetorical question </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting fact/statistic </li></ul><ul><li>Humour </li></ul><ul><li>Personal story </li></ul>
<ul><li>People put every word they are going to say on their slides. Sure this means they don’t have to memorize the speech but it makes the slides crowded, wordy and boring. You will lose your audiences attention before you reach the bottom of the slide. Don’t do it. </li></ul>
<ul><li>How many main points should a speech have? </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul>
Persuasive vs. Informative <ul><li>Informative speaking is speaking with facts and presents no opinion while persuasive speaking is also speaking with facts but presents an opinion by using those facts and overall trying to convince the audience to believe in one thing instead of another. </li></ul>
Persuasive Speech <ul><li>The process of reinforcing or changing someone’s belief or behavior. </li></ul>
Monroe’s Motivation Sequence <ul><li>Attention : Hey! Listen to me, I have a PROBLEM! </li></ul><ul><li>2. Need : Let me EXPLAIN the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Satisfy : But, I have a SOLUTION! </li></ul><ul><li>4. Visualization : If we IMPLEMENT my solution, this is what will happen. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Action : Do this now </li></ul>
Step Audience response Attention: Getting attention I want to listen Need: Showing the need: describing the problem Something needs to be done Satisfaction: Satisfying the need: presenting the solution This is what to do to satisfy the need Visualization: Visualizing the results I can see myself enjoying the benefits of such an action Action: Requesting action or approval I will do this
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