Civilizations of latin america
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Civilizations of latin america

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    Civilizations of latin america Civilizations of latin america Presentation Transcript

    • Civilizations of Latin America
    • Latin American Civilizations
      • The three major civilizations that existed in Latin America before the arrival of the Europeans were
      Mayas Incas Aztecs
    • A.D. 300 Mayan civilization flourishes for next 600 years A.D. 500 Teotihuac á n dominates the Mayan empire A.D. 900 1075 A.D. Incas settle in Peru, and Cuzco becomes the Incan capital A.D. 1300 1479 A.D. Incas complete conquest of Peru 1325 – 1340 A.D. Aztecs establish Tenochtitl á n 1420 – 1480s A.D. Aztec empire expands to Guatemala
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    • The Aztec Civilization
      • The Aztecs lived in the Valley of Mexico in the A.D. 1100s.
      • The Valley of Mexico is in central Mexico and includes the site of present-day Mexico City.
    • Aztec Civilization
      • The Aztecs wandered the Valley of Mexico looking for a permanent home until A.D. 1325.
      • They finally settled on an island in Lake Texcoco.
      • They changed the swampy land into a magnificent city, which they called Tenochtitlán (the site of present-day Mexico City).
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    • Tenochtitlán
      • The Aztecs built floating islands by piling rich earth from the bottom of the lake onto rafts made of wood.
      • After a while, the roots of plants and trees grew down to the lake bottom, anchoring the rafts.
      • Some of these floating islands were the size of football fields.
    • Tenochtitlán
      • In the center of the city was the Great Temple.
      • Upper-class dwellings were made of stone and ordinary dwellings were made of reeds and mud.
      • Canals, laid out in a grid system, connected all parts of the city.
      • Causeways, or raised earthen roads, connected the city to the mainland.
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    • Aztecs expand their empire
      • In the 1400s, Aztec warriors began conquering the other people in the region.
      • They forced the people they conquered to pay tribute.
      • Tribute could be paid in food, cotton, gold, or slaves.
      • The Aztecs grew rich from the tribute.
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    • Aztec Accomplishments
      • Tenochtitlán was a center of learning and trade.
      • Over 1,000 medicines were made from plants.
      • Astronomers predicted eclipses and planet movement.
      • Aztec hieroglyphics similar to the Mayas.
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    • The Incas
      • About A.D. 1200, the Incas settled in Cuzco, a village in the Andes (now a city in Peru).
      • Most Incas were farmers, growing maize and other crops.
      • Through wars and conquest, the Incas won control of the Cuzco Valley.
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    • Pachacuti
      • In 1438, he became ruler of the Incas.
      • The name Pachacuti means “he who shakes the earth.”
      • He conquered the people who lived near the Pacific Ocean.
      • He demanded loyalty from the people he conquered. If disloyal, the people were forced off their land and replaced with loyal Incas.
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    • “ The Lost City”
      • Pachacuti built many cities. The most famous is the “lost city” of Machu Picchu.
      • Machu Picchu is located high in the Andes Mountains, 54 miles northwest of Cuzco.
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    • Incan Accomplishments
      • The Incans were excellent farmers, builders, and managers.
      • The capital, Cuzco, was the center of government, trade, learning, and religion.
      • In the 1500s, one of the first Spaniards to visit Cuzco described it as “large enough and handsome enough to compare to any Spanish city.”
    • Roads and Aqueducts
      • The Incas built more than 19,000 miles of roads. The roads went over some of the most mountainous land in the world.
      • The Incas built canals and aqueducts to carry water to dry areas. One stone aqueduct carried water from a mountain lake almost 500 miles to its destination.
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    • Government and Records
      • The Incas organized their government carefully.
      • The Incas did not have a written language. Incan government officials and traders recorded information on knotted strings called quipus.
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    • Religion
      • The Incas worshipped many gods.
      • The sun god, Inti, was an important god of the Incas. They believed Inti was their parent and they referred to themselves as “children of the sun.”
      • Another important Incan god was Viracocha, the creator of all people of the Andes.
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    • Quechua Descendants of the Incas
      • The Spanish conquered the Incan empire in the 1500s.
      • The Incan descendants live in present-day Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia.
      • They speak Quechua, the Incan language.