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All independence movements of latin america
 

All independence movements of latin america

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    All independence movements of latin america All independence movements of latin america Presentation Transcript

    • Independence Movements of Latin America Mrs. Carpenter
    • Were Latin American countries happy?
      • Countries in Latin America wanted to be free from European rule!
      • So did the American colonies!
      • Latin America drew encouragement from two independence movements: the American Revolution (1770s) and the French Revolution (1789).
      • A revolution is a sudden and often violent change.
    • Causes of Latin American Independence
    • Freedom for Haiti
      • The first independence movement in Latin America was in Haiti.
      • The Haitians were tired of being ruled by white men from France.
      • Toussaint L’Ouverture, a former slave, lead the people in the Night of Fire.
      • The Night of Fire was when all white people’s property in Haiti was burned.
      • The fight for independence lasted 10 years. Becoming independent in 1804.
      • Significant because it showed that Latin Americans no longer wanted to be ruled by Europe and was the only successful slave rebellion in the history of the world.
    • Mexico’s Independence
      • The first people in Mexico who were interested in freedom from Spain were the criollos.
      • A criollo is a person with Spanish parents, but who was born in Latin America. They were usually wealthy and went to school in Europe where they learned about the independence movements in France and America.
      • They liked the idea that people of a country should govern themselves.
    • Mexico’s Independence
      • Miguel Hidalgo, a criollo priest in Dolores, Mexico began the fight for Mexico’s freedom in 1810.
      • On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo rang the church bells and shouted “recover from the hated Spaniards the land stolen from your forefathers … Long live America, and death to the bad government!”
      • This cry came to be known as the “Cry of Dolores”. That is why Mexicans celebrate their independence day on September 16 th every year.
    • Mexico’s Independence
      • Hidalgo’s revolution attracted 80,000 fighters, mostly mestizos (someone of European and Native American descent) and Native Americans, but was defeated by the Spanish government in 1811.
      • Hidalgo was put on trial for treason and executed by firing squad in July 1811.
      • Even after Hidalgo’s death, Mexican rebels kept fighting the Spanish.
    • Mexico’s Independence
      • The tides of the fight were turned when Agustin de Iturbide, a high-ranking Spanish officer, joined the rebels.
      • With Iturbide’s knowledge of the Spanish military and his help in the fight, Mexico declared its independence from Spain in 1821!
    • Brazil’s Freedom
      • Portugal’s colony of Brazil became independent without fighting a war.
      • Dom Pedro, the son of the King of Portugal, wrote a letter to his dad and told him he was declaring Brazil independent.
      • In 1822 Brazil was an independent country.
    •  
    • The Independence of Gran Colombia
      • When the people in Gran Colombia (present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama) saw the Americans fight and win independence from the British they thought they could do the same.
      • By 1822 Spain was no longer as powerful worldwide as it once was.
    • The Independence of Gran Colombia
      • The people of Gran Colombia needed a leader to guide them in their pursuit of independence.
      • S i m ó n Bol í var was that man!
      • From 1822 to 1825 Bol í var
      • liberated both the countries
      • Gran Colombia and Peru.
    • Challenges of Independence
      • Greed and corruption were constant problems following the creation of Gran Colombia.
      • Once nations received independence they had to ask “what next?”
      • The rich wanted to stay rich and the poor wanted more power.
      • What were the newly independent nations to do?
    • What problems did Latin America face in the 1800s?
      • Poverty – people were extremely poor
      • Poor remained landless – they stayed and worked the land but could never make enough $$ to buy their own land
      • Border disputes – all these countries had to decide where their borders began and ended. Who owned the land?
      • Role of the Catholic church – is the church part of the government or not? What would the role of the Church be?
      • Colonial Legacy – Tension between the rich and poor
      • Political conflict – Type of government, role of church, etc. Frequent fights over issues like this.
      • Rule of Caudillos – Made democracy and prosperity hard. They were rich. They acted like dictators.
    • The Cuban Revolution
      • Problems in Central America
        • Main Idea: In Central America, repressive governments, social conflict, and civil wars made progress difficult.
          • Most of the wealth and power in Central America and the Caribbean in the 1900s was held by few people.
          • Rebels were fighting for changes they thought would better the poor people of Latin American’s lives.
    • The Cuban Revolution
      • Before Castro
          • Cuba gained its independence from Spain in 1898.
          • In the 1900s Cuba’s wealth was controlled by American companies.
            • One of the main companies in Cuba was sugar companies.
            • The other main company in Cuba was mining companies.
          • The dictator of Cuba until 1959 was Fulgencio Battista.
          • Fidel Castro led the revolution of 1959.
      • Castro’s Government
          • Castro promised _ democracy _ but instead set up a _ communist _ state.
          • Cubans who wanted to escape Castro’s rule fled to Florida.
          • U.S. Aid
            • One event that led the U.S. to stop aiding Castro was that he joined forces with the Soviet Union.
            • Another event that led the U.S. to stop aiding Castro was that he began taking over U.S. owned businesses and property in Cuba.
    • Results of the Cuban Revolution
      • Cuba’s Relationship with the United States Declined
        • U.S. Embargo
          • An embargo is a ban on trade with another country.
          • The U.S. placed an embargo on Cuban goods in 1962.
        • As a result of the embargo, poor harvests, and bad government planning Cuba’s economy was poor.
    • What did Mexico do?
      • In 1910 the peasants of Mexico had had enough.
      • They revolted against President Porfirio Diaz who was basically a dictator of Mexico.
      • A Mexican named Medero was thrown in jail by Diaz and he lead an army against Diaz.
      • Emiliano Zapata led south Mexicans against Diaz.
      • Pancho Villa led troops in the north.
      • By 1911 Diaz fled to France.
      • Resulted in the constitution of 1917.
      • Peasants finally got their own land!
    • Guerrillas in Mexico
    • Zapatista Army of National Liberation
      • The Zapatistas are an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas , one of the poorest states in Mexico.
      • Chiapas is a land rich with oil, natural gas, and coffee, yet most of the resources go north to fuel other Mexican states.
    • Zapatista Army of National Liberation
      • They are mostly supported by indigenous Mayas. Non-Spanish speaking farms.
      • Most of the land is controlled by wealthy latifundistas and rancheros, who work with the Mexican government for personal gain.
      • The population density is also growing.
    •  
    • Zapatista Army of National Liberation
      • They take their name from Emiliano Zapata, a proponent of the 1910 Mexican Revolution.
      • Founded in 1983
      • They went public on January 1, 1994, the day NAFTA took affect.
      • The Zapatistas want to control their area of Mexico and all the resources found there.
      • “ You are in Zapatista rebel territory. Here the people give the orders and the government obeys."
    • Main Idea:
      • The poor always want to have more money and power.
      • The rich never want to give up their riches and power.
      • Due to scarcity countries must decide how to use their limited resources to fill their unlimited desires.