is both a traditional domestic skill and is
important industrially. Food is stored by almost
every human society and by many animals.
In any HACCP-based or conventional system,
proper storage is another line of defense from
microbial growth and contamination. While
storage is necessary, the quality of most food
does not improve over time, and incorrect storage
practices have the potential to cause serious and
costly problems. There is a direct relationship
between cost control, food safety, and the need to
maintain good storage practices.
Storage principlesDespite the wide variety of products found in a foodservice facility, a
few general principles can be successfully applied to most
storage situations. The rules that follow cover storage of all types
1. Follow the first rule First In, First Out (FIFO). Sticking to this
principle means that goods should be used in the order in which
they are delivered.
2. Keep potentially hazardous foods out of the temperature danger
zone, which is 40 to 140 F (4.4 to 60 C)⁰ ⁰ ⁰ ⁰
3. Storage food only in areas designed for storage.
4. Keep all goods in clean, undamaged wrappers or packages.
5. Keep storage areas clean and dry.
6. Keep vehicles for transporting food within the establishment
Storing of food has several main
Storage of harvested and processed plant and animal food products
for distribution to consumers
Enabling a better balanced diet throughout the year
Reducing kitchen waste by preserving unused or uneaten food for
Preserving pantry food, such as spices or dry ingredients like rice and
flour, for eventual use in cooking
Preparedness for catastrophes,
emergencies and periods of
food scarcity or famine
Protection from animals or
Dry Food Storage
Pertains to those foods not
likely to support bacterial growth
in their normal state.
These foods include:
Sugar and salt
Cereals, rice, and otheer grains
Dried beans and peas
Breads and crackers
Oils and shortenings
Canned and bottled
• Store dry foods in a cool,
dry place, off the floor,
away from the wall, and
not under a sewer line.
• Keep all continers tightly
closed to proteect from
inseects, rodents and
dust. Dry foods can be
contaminated, even if
they don't need
Important temperatures in sanitation
and food protection
Food Handling and Preparation
We face 2 major sanitation problems when
handling and preparing food. The first is
CROSS CONTAMINATION, which is the
transfer of bacteria to food from another food or
from equipmnt or work surfaces.
The second problem is that, while we are working
on it, food is usually at a temperature between
41ºF and 140ºF, or in the food danger zone.the
lag phase of bacteria growth help us a little but,
to be safe, we must keep foods out of the
danger zone whenever possible.
Cleaning and Sanitizing Equipment
• Cleaning- means removing visible
• Sanitizing- means killing disease-
• Two ways of killing bacteria are by:
heat and by: chemicals.
*Procedure for manual dishwashing:
1.Scrape and Rinse.
5. Drain and Air Dry.
The steps in washing dishes by machine are the same aas in the
hand method, except that themachine does the washing, rinsing,
*Procedure for Mechanical Dishwahing:
1. Scrape and Rinse
2. Rack dishes so that dishwasher spray will strike all surfaces.
3. Run machine for a full cycle.
4. Sanitizing Temperatures:
- 180ºF for machines that sanitize by heat
- 140ºF for machines that sanitize by chemical disinfectant.
5. Air dry and inspect dishes. Do not touch food contact surfaces.
Rodent and Insect Control
Rats, mice, flies and cockroaches can spread
disease by contaminating food and food contact
surfaces. Any sign of rodent or insect infestation
is usually considered a serious violation of
*There arefour basic methods of pest control.
• Build them out.
• Eliminate harborage and breeding places.
• Eliminate food supplies
Ensures good-food handling
1. Do not breathe or blow into a bag,, lick your fingers or put the end of a piping
bag near your mouth.
2. Do not use newspapers or other secondhand wrapping.
3. Paper serviettes and other single-use articles must be destroyed after they
have been used once.
4. Keep all food on display wrapped or protected from guest's breath.
5. Keep cooked food apart from raw food.
6. Avoid handling cooked food - use clean serving spoon and tongs. Disposable
gloves should be used for assembling cold dishes.
7. No food that has been served to a customer may be used again.
8. Watch for sigs of rodents and insect infestation. If either is found, take action
to eradicate them imediately.
9. Follow these basic steps in cleaning dishes, utensils and equipment:
• -Soften baked-on food residue by pre-soaking.
• -Wash utensils in clean hot water, using a suitable detergent and brushes.
• -Rinse in very hot water.
• -Air dry.
• -Dismantle equipment and wash the parts in a sink, wipe down fixed parts with
a clean cloth.
• -Put away food before starting to clean floors and walls.
10. Schedules tht summarises the law relating to cleanliness and food handling must
be displayed where they maybbe easily read by employees.
*For good food handling
-Keep it clean
-Keep it covered
-Keep it hot
-Keep it cold
-but don't keep it long.
the four guidelines to keep food
Clean—Wash hands and surfaces often.
Cook—Cook to proper temperatures, checking
with a food thermometer.
The safe storage of food for home use should strictly adhere
to guidelines set out by reliable sources, such as the United
States Department of Agriculture. These guidelines have
been thoroughly researched by scientists to determine the
best methods for reducing the real threat of from unsafe food
storage. It is also important to maintain proper kitchen
hygiene, to reduce risks of bacteria or virus growth and food
poisoning. The common food poisoning illnesses
include , , , , and . There are many other organisms that can
also cause food poisoning.
There are also safety guidelines available for the correct
methods of of food. For example, there are specific boiling
times that apply depending upon whether pressure canning
or waterbath canning is being used in the process. These
safety guidelines are intended to reduce the growth of mold
and bacteria and the threat of potentially-fatal food poisoning.
Freezer temperature should be maintained at 0°F and below. Food should never be
thawed at room temperature, this increases the risk of bacteria and virus growth and
the risk of food poisoning. Once thawed, food should be used and never refrozen.
Frozen food should be thawed using the following methods:
-In cold water (place food in watertight, plastic bag; change water every 30 minutes)
-In the refrigerator
Throw out foods that have been warmer than 40 °F for more than 2 hours. If there is
any doubt at all about the length of time the food has been defrosted at room
temperature, it should be thrown out. Freezing does not destroy microbes present in
food. Freezing at 0 °F does inactivate microbes (bacteria, yeasts and molds).
However, once food has been thawed, these microbes can again become active.
Microbes in thawed food can multiply to levels that can lead to foodborne illness.
Thawed food should be handled according to the same guidelines as perishable
Food frozen at 0°F and below is preserved indefinitely. However, the quality of the food
will deteriorate if it is frozen over a lengthy period. The United States Department of
Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service publishes a chart showing the
suggested freezer storage time for common foods.
Freezers and thawing food
It is important to note that safe food storage using refrigeration
requires adhering to temperature guidelines:
For safety, it is important to verify the temperature of the
refrigerator. Refrigerators should be set to maintain a
temperature of 40 °F or below. Some refrigerators have built-in
thermometers to measure their internal temperature. For those
refrigerators without this feature, keep an appliance
thermometer in the refrigerator to monitor the temperature.
This can be critical in the event of a power outage. When the
power goes back on, if the refrigerator is still 40 °F, the food is
safe. Foods held at temperatures above 40 °F for more than 2
hours should not be consumed. Appliance thermometers are
specifically designed to provide accuracy at cold temperatures.
Be sure refrigerator/freezer doors are closed tightly at all times.
Don’t open refrigerator/freezer doors more often than
necessary and close them as soon as possible.
Storing oils and fats
Oils and fats can begin to go rancid quickly when not stored
safely. Rancid cooking oils and fats do not often smell rancid
until well after they have spoiled. Oxygen, light and heat all
contribute to cooking oils becoming rancid. The higher the
level of polyunsaturated fat that an oil contains, the faster it
spoils. The percentage of polyunsaturated fat in some common
cooking oils is: safflower (74%); sunflower (66%); corn (60%);
soybean (37%); peanut (32%); canola (29%); olive (8%).
To help prevent oils from going rancid, they should be
refrigerated once opened. Opened, refrigerated cooking oils
should be used within a few weeks, when some types begin to
go rancid. Unopened oils can have a storage life of up to one
year, but some types have a shorter shelf-life even when
unopened (such as sesame and flaxseed).
Food rotation is important to preserve freshness. When
food is rotated, the food that has been in storage the
longest is used first. As food is used, new food is
added to the to replace it; the essential rationale is to
use the oldest food as soon as possible so that
nothing is in storage too long and becomes unsafe to
eat. Labelling food with paper labels on the storage
container, marking the date that the container is
placed in storage, can make this practise simpler. The
best way to rotate food storage is to prepare with
stored food on a daily basis.
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