FIRST AID (BASICS & CPR)-Maj Dr ID Khan
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FIRST AID (BASICS & CPR)-Maj Dr ID Khan

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FIRST AID (BASICS & CPR)-Maj Dr ID Khan FIRST AID (BASICS & CPR)-Maj Dr ID Khan Presentation Transcript

  • FIRST AID
    Major Dr Inam Danish Khan
    Medical Officer
    Nehru Institute of Mountaineering
  • BUT WHY DO I NEED TO LEARN FIRST AID
    How does it feel if you lose a loved one?
    DON’T STAND IN SHOCK
    RESPECT LIFE
    PARTICIPATE IN SAVING LIVES
  • FIRST AID
    First Aid is the initial assistance given to a casualty from the moment of the accident until availability of specialized medical care by a doctor.
  • THE HUMAN BODY
    ROCKET SCIENCE IS EASY
    IF YOU DARE THINK ABOUT HUMAN BODY
    It is a complex real life playground.
    A thousand structures with varied functions.
    A billion biomolecules and a million reactions.
    Still counting on doctors for the unexplored.
    Entropy does not increase - Open system.
    Laws of physics are applied as well as defied.
  • Robot
    Human
  • HUMAN vs robot
    See, Hear, Smell, Taste
    Walk, Eat, Drink, Speak, Breathe, Cry
    Feel touch, temperature, pain, vibration
    Feel good or bad if you talk about it in third person
    Emote (Show fear, anger, sadness, happiness, love)
    Study to become wise, Give a lecture
    Make friends
    Have recollections of its past or plan its future
    Apply logic and reason situations to decide
    Think
    Memorize
    Reproduce
    Grow
    Can a Robot?
  • HUMAN vs robot
  • ORGAN SYSTEMS
  • CIRCULATORY system
  • RESPIRATORY system
  • NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • DIGESTIVE system
  • PROLOGUE
    First Aid : Definition, types and duties
    Disasters and Triage
    Vital signs of life : Pulse, Temp, BP, Resp
    Life Support : Artificial Respiration & CPR
    Casualty Evacuation
  • FIRST AID
    AIM
    Preserve life
    Prevent worsening of condition
    Promote recovery
    CARDINAL RULES
    Ladies to be examined in attendance
    Never label a person “Malingerer”
    3. Benefit of doubt goes to the patient
  • TYPES OF FIRST AID
    Basic First Aid
    Wilderness/ Outdoor First Aid
    Mountain/ High Altitude First Aid
    Military/ Battlefield First Aid
    Aquatic/ Marine First Aid
    Hyperbaric/ Diving First Aid
  • Duties of first aider
    Assess condition quickly
    Check your safety
    Call for help
    Protect others from danger
    Prioritise – Do triage
    Give prompt first aid
    Arrange casualty evacuation
    Remain with the patient till attended by doctor and help him afterwards
  • DISASTER
    A disaster is present when need exceeds resources!
    MASS CASUALTY INCIDENT
    MAN-MADE
    Fires
    Firearms
    Air, Water
    Rail, Road
    Industrial
    Explosions
    Building collapse
    Atomic bombs
    Terrorist Attacks
    NATURAL
    Earthquakes/landslides
    Avalanche
    Volcanoes
    Tornado/Hurricanes
    Floods
    Fires
    Tsunami
    Meteors
  • TRIAGE
    Triage is the dynamic process of prioritizing casualties for treatment and evacuation of the wounded within the limitations of the situation and resources
  • TRIAGE
    PRIORITIES
    1. You - Get out of danger
    2. Life – Check ABC, stop bleeding
    3. Disability - Limb/Eye sight
    APPROACH
    People walking to you – Least priority (Priority 3)
    People who can move but can’t walk – Priority 2
    No action – Cry for help (Priority 1)
  • VITAL SIGNS OF LIFE
    Breathing 12-20 breaths/min
    Pulse 60-100 beats/min
    Bld pressure 100/60 - < 140/90 mm Hg
    4. Temperature 370C 98.6 F
    5. Capillary return 2-3 seconds
    6. Cyanosis
  • BREATHING
    Don’t tell the patient
    Observe chest movements
    abdominal movements
    Put your ears to nose
    Normally 12-20/min
    Can increase in mountains
  • PULSE
    CAROTID PULSE
  • PULSE
  • BLOOD PRESSURE
  • TEMPERATURE
    Below tongue
    Axilla in kids
    370C 98.6 F
    Pulse increases with
    increasing temperature
  • CAPILLARY RETURN
    Assess blood supply in limbs
    Check at fingers and toes of both sides
    Normal capillary return 2-3 secs
  • CYANOSIS
    Bluish discoloration of body
    Reduced oxygen in blood
    First seen in nail beds, ear lobes, lips
    If tongue goes blue – life threatening
    Never smoke at higher altitudes
  • LIFE SUPPORT
    A – AIRWAY & NECK FRACTURE
    B – BREATHING & CYANOSIS
    C – CIRCULATION & BLEEDING CONTROL
    D – DYSFUNCTION OF NERVOUS SYSTEM
    E – EXPOSURE & EVACUATION
  • LIFE SUPPORT
    A – Talk with patient --- Head tilt and chin lift
    B – Check rate of breathing and cyanosis
    C – Check pulse, BP and capillary return
    Bleeding – Pressure, elevate, bandage
    D – Eye/Speech/Body Movements
    A- Alert
    V- Response to Voice
    P- Response to Pain
    U- Unresponsive
  • ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION
    Required when patient is not breathing
    Exhale air in a patients chest
    Mouth to Mouth
    Mouth to Nose
  • CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION
    Revive the cardio-respiratory system
  • CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION
    Chest Thump
    Give 15 chest compressions
    Give 2 mouth to mouth breaths
    15:2 ratio to be followed
    Continue for 15/45 mins
  • CASUALTY EVACUATION
    PRINCIPLES OF EVACUATION
    Evacuate only if fit for evacuation
    Foresee peak evacuation period and be prepared
    Priority for more seriously ill
    Due care during evacuation
    CAS EVAC
    Evacuation done by non medical people
    MED EVAC
    Specialised evacuation by trained medical personnel
  • SINGLE PERSON HELP
    SUPPORT CARRY
    SADDLEBACK CARRY
    ARMS CARRY
  • SINGLE PERSON HELP
    FIREMAN’S LIFT
    PACKSTRAP CARRY
  • TWO PERSON HELP
    TWO MAN SUPPORT CARRY
    TWO MAN ARMS CARRY
  • TWO PERSON HELP
    FOUR HAND SEAT CARRY
    FORE & AFT LIFT CARRY
  • IMPROVISED STRETCHERS
    GUNNY BAG
    BLANKET
    BELTS
  • IMPROVISED STRETCHERS
    GROUND SHEET
    SHIRTS
    ROPE
  • AIR AMBULANCE
  • Questions
  • Thank you