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FIRST AID (BASICS & CPR)-Maj Dr ID Khan
 

FIRST AID (BASICS & CPR)-Maj Dr ID Khan

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    FIRST AID (BASICS & CPR)-Maj Dr ID Khan FIRST AID (BASICS & CPR)-Maj Dr ID Khan Presentation Transcript

    • FIRST AID
      Major Dr Inam Danish Khan
      Medical Officer
      Nehru Institute of Mountaineering
    • BUT WHY DO I NEED TO LEARN FIRST AID
      How does it feel if you lose a loved one?
      DON’T STAND IN SHOCK
      RESPECT LIFE
      PARTICIPATE IN SAVING LIVES
    • FIRST AID
      First Aid is the initial assistance given to a casualty from the moment of the accident until availability of specialized medical care by a doctor.
    • THE HUMAN BODY
      ROCKET SCIENCE IS EASY
      IF YOU DARE THINK ABOUT HUMAN BODY
      It is a complex real life playground.
      A thousand structures with varied functions.
      A billion biomolecules and a million reactions.
      Still counting on doctors for the unexplored.
      Entropy does not increase - Open system.
      Laws of physics are applied as well as defied.
    • Robot
      Human
    • HUMAN vs robot
      See, Hear, Smell, Taste
      Walk, Eat, Drink, Speak, Breathe, Cry
      Feel touch, temperature, pain, vibration
      Feel good or bad if you talk about it in third person
      Emote (Show fear, anger, sadness, happiness, love)
      Study to become wise, Give a lecture
      Make friends
      Have recollections of its past or plan its future
      Apply logic and reason situations to decide
      Think
      Memorize
      Reproduce
      Grow
      Can a Robot?
    • HUMAN vs robot
    • ORGAN SYSTEMS
    • CIRCULATORY system
    • RESPIRATORY system
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • DIGESTIVE system
    • PROLOGUE
      First Aid : Definition, types and duties
      Disasters and Triage
      Vital signs of life : Pulse, Temp, BP, Resp
      Life Support : Artificial Respiration & CPR
      Casualty Evacuation
    • FIRST AID
      AIM
      Preserve life
      Prevent worsening of condition
      Promote recovery
      CARDINAL RULES
      Ladies to be examined in attendance
      Never label a person “Malingerer”
      3. Benefit of doubt goes to the patient
    • TYPES OF FIRST AID
      Basic First Aid
      Wilderness/ Outdoor First Aid
      Mountain/ High Altitude First Aid
      Military/ Battlefield First Aid
      Aquatic/ Marine First Aid
      Hyperbaric/ Diving First Aid
    • Duties of first aider
      Assess condition quickly
      Check your safety
      Call for help
      Protect others from danger
      Prioritise – Do triage
      Give prompt first aid
      Arrange casualty evacuation
      Remain with the patient till attended by doctor and help him afterwards
    • DISASTER
      A disaster is present when need exceeds resources!
      MASS CASUALTY INCIDENT
      MAN-MADE
      Fires
      Firearms
      Air, Water
      Rail, Road
      Industrial
      Explosions
      Building collapse
      Atomic bombs
      Terrorist Attacks
      NATURAL
      Earthquakes/landslides
      Avalanche
      Volcanoes
      Tornado/Hurricanes
      Floods
      Fires
      Tsunami
      Meteors
    • TRIAGE
      Triage is the dynamic process of prioritizing casualties for treatment and evacuation of the wounded within the limitations of the situation and resources
    • TRIAGE
      PRIORITIES
      1. You - Get out of danger
      2. Life – Check ABC, stop bleeding
      3. Disability - Limb/Eye sight
      APPROACH
      People walking to you – Least priority (Priority 3)
      People who can move but can’t walk – Priority 2
      No action – Cry for help (Priority 1)
    • VITAL SIGNS OF LIFE
      Breathing 12-20 breaths/min
      Pulse 60-100 beats/min
      Bld pressure 100/60 - < 140/90 mm Hg
      4. Temperature 370C 98.6 F
      5. Capillary return 2-3 seconds
      6. Cyanosis
    • BREATHING
      Don’t tell the patient
      Observe chest movements
      abdominal movements
      Put your ears to nose
      Normally 12-20/min
      Can increase in mountains
    • PULSE
      CAROTID PULSE
    • PULSE
    • BLOOD PRESSURE
    • TEMPERATURE
      Below tongue
      Axilla in kids
      370C 98.6 F
      Pulse increases with
      increasing temperature
    • CAPILLARY RETURN
      Assess blood supply in limbs
      Check at fingers and toes of both sides
      Normal capillary return 2-3 secs
    • CYANOSIS
      Bluish discoloration of body
      Reduced oxygen in blood
      First seen in nail beds, ear lobes, lips
      If tongue goes blue – life threatening
      Never smoke at higher altitudes
    • LIFE SUPPORT
      A – AIRWAY & NECK FRACTURE
      B – BREATHING & CYANOSIS
      C – CIRCULATION & BLEEDING CONTROL
      D – DYSFUNCTION OF NERVOUS SYSTEM
      E – EXPOSURE & EVACUATION
    • LIFE SUPPORT
      A – Talk with patient --- Head tilt and chin lift
      B – Check rate of breathing and cyanosis
      C – Check pulse, BP and capillary return
      Bleeding – Pressure, elevate, bandage
      D – Eye/Speech/Body Movements
      A- Alert
      V- Response to Voice
      P- Response to Pain
      U- Unresponsive
    • ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION
      Required when patient is not breathing
      Exhale air in a patients chest
      Mouth to Mouth
      Mouth to Nose
    • CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION
      Revive the cardio-respiratory system
    • CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION
      Chest Thump
      Give 15 chest compressions
      Give 2 mouth to mouth breaths
      15:2 ratio to be followed
      Continue for 15/45 mins
    • CASUALTY EVACUATION
      PRINCIPLES OF EVACUATION
      Evacuate only if fit for evacuation
      Foresee peak evacuation period and be prepared
      Priority for more seriously ill
      Due care during evacuation
      CAS EVAC
      Evacuation done by non medical people
      MED EVAC
      Specialised evacuation by trained medical personnel
    • SINGLE PERSON HELP
      SUPPORT CARRY
      SADDLEBACK CARRY
      ARMS CARRY
    • SINGLE PERSON HELP
      FIREMAN’S LIFT
      PACKSTRAP CARRY
    • TWO PERSON HELP
      TWO MAN SUPPORT CARRY
      TWO MAN ARMS CARRY
    • TWO PERSON HELP
      FOUR HAND SEAT CARRY
      FORE & AFT LIFT CARRY
    • IMPROVISED STRETCHERS
      GUNNY BAG
      BLANKET
      BELTS
    • IMPROVISED STRETCHERS
      GROUND SHEET
      SHIRTS
      ROPE
    • AIR AMBULANCE
    • Questions
    • Thank you