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The monera
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The monera


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  • 1. The Monera Introduction: The Kingdom of monera include all prokaryotic organisms Prokaryotic organisms have their genetic materials that are not surrounded by nuclear envelope Their genetic material is DNA appeared as more dense component in their cytoplasm All bacterial species and Cyanobacteria are included in this Kingdom (monera)
  • 2. Prokaryotic organisms All prokaryotes are unicellular organisms These prokaryotes include: – Primitive Archeabacteria and photosynthetic cyanobacteria (a small group) – True bacteria (all bacterial species excluding the above) (Most of bacterial species belong to this group)
  • 3. Size, shape, and arrangement Size – – – – – Varies depends on species Ranging between 0.5 – 2.0 micron (Generally) Some may exceed those range (spirally bacteria) Group of cyanobacteria may reach 60 micron This size make them to have very high ratio of surface area : cell volume Shape – There are 3 main shapes of bacterial species (Rod, spherical, and spiral) – These main shape often produce morphological variation
  • 4. Arrangement of the cell – Some are found to have distinctive morphology – This happen for the bacterial cells that undergo cell division that is not followed by separation between them – Cell division may occur in one plane or more – This type or mode of reproduction usually occur in the spherical bacterial species – Some arrangement occur as a result: Diplococci Sarcina Streptococci Staphylococci – Rarely happen in other bacterial morphology
  • 5. Various morphology of bacterial species
  • 6. The structure of prokaryotes Mainly consists of the following components: – Plasma membrane Surrounding the cytoplasm This membrane is surrounded by cell wall Some species have outer membrane – Internal cytoplasm We can find organelles, such as ribosomes, nucleoid, granules, and vesicles – External structure May vary and depends on species Can be in the form of capsules, flagella, and pilli.
  • 7. The cell wall This is a semi rigid part that is located outside of the plasma membrane The main functions are: – To maintain the characteristic shape of the cell – To protect the cells from lyses when exposed to hypotonic solutions This cell wall can be degraded by lysozymes It has pores, but does not play any role to transport materials in or out of the cell
  • 8. The components of cell wall Peptidoglycan is the main component of the bacterial cell wall The main components of the peptidoglycan: – N-Acetyl glucosamine – N-muramic acid – Theicoic acids – These are covalently bound
  • 9. Outer membrane Normally found in Gram negative bacteria This is a bilayer structure (similar to plasma membrane) The function: to control transport of substance in and out of the cell (not very significant) The outer surface of this structure has antigen and receptors (some specific to viral protein) Bacterial endotoxins are located in this outer membrane
  • 10. Other external structures Flagella – This structure enables some species to actively move (motile) – One species may have one, two, or more flagella – Based on the location on the cell, bacterial cells can be grouped into: Monottrichous (one flagellum on one pole) Amphitrichous (one flagellum on each pole) Lophotrichous (more than 2 flagella on one pole) Peritrichous (Flagella on all surface of the cell) Pilli – Flagella-like structure – Two types of pilli (attachment and conjugation pilli)
  • 11. Arrangement of flagella on the bacterial cells a. b. c. d. Monotrichous Amphitrichous Lophotrichous Peritrichous
  • 12. Capsule – – – – – – Located outside of the cell wall It consists of complex molecule of polysaccharide It protect the internal part of the cell from desication Only certain bacterial species posses this structure Capsule will improve pathogenity of a species Example Bacillus anthraxis (produce this structure when it infects its host) – When a bacterial cell lose this structure it will lose its ability to infect its host. Slime layer
  • 13. Internal structures Plasmid – Circular extra chromosomal (self replication) – It has genes encoding Antibiotic resistance Ribosome – The site of protein synthesis – They are composed of protein and RNA Endospores – They are formed under stressful conditions Nucleoid (Nuclear region)
  • 14. Reproduction modes Asexual – Common mode – Binary fission Sexual – Conjugation
  • 15. Recombination Variation occur as new foreign DNA enter the bacterial cells This can happen in three ways: – Transformation Free foreign DNA enters the bacterial cell – Transduction Foreign DNA enters the bacterial cells mediated by viruses as vectors – Conjugation Transfer of genetic materials through pilli conjugation
  • 16. Grouping bacterial species based on modes of obtaining food Autotrophic bacteria – Photoautotroph Pigmented bacteria – Chemoautotroph Examples: Nitrosomonas sp. (convert ammonia to HNO2, Nitrobacter, Nitrosococcus Heterotrophic bacteria – Most bacteria belong to this group
  • 17. Based on the O2 requirement Aerobic – Need O2 in their metabolism – Example: Nitrosomonas Anaerobic – Does not need O2 – O2 can be toxic for them – Examples; Clostridium botulinum, C. tetani, Lactic Acid Bacteria (facultative)
  • 18. Role of bacteria Advantage Disadvantage Study the worksheet for this!!!!