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Week 8 Presentation Angela Wade
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Week 8 Presentation Angela Wade

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Digital Research and Publishing

Digital Research and Publishing

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  • 1. Tuesday 5.00pm Angela Wade
  • 2. By Geoffrey Bowker, 2005
  • 3. This is where it came from: •Winner, 2007 Ludwig Fleck Prize given by the Society for Social Studies of Science (4S). •Awarded quot;Best Information Science Book 2006quot; by the American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T).
  • 4. How many times did you consult the dictionary?
  • 5. And it was mostly to do with plants ... which are supposed to be peaceful ... My brain hurts ... a lot ...
  • 6. The Mahabharata – what was once there is no longer 1. - dealing with the past - the nature of existence and death Boulter - how and what data is stored (fossil plants) 2. - asserts all will be the same - present day tools will recreate the past perfectly, uniformly Douglas – how humans adapt to a new represented system 3. - there’s a politics and reality to colonisation - entities become more and less real, a manageable form, when categorised
  • 7. A large volume of information stored in a computer and organised in categories to facilitate retrieval. Macquarie Dictionary
  • 8. Perhaps the most powerful technology in our control of the world and each other over the past two hundred years has been the development of the database.
  • 9. Databases are not a product of the computer revolution; if anything the computer revolution is a product of the drive to database.
  • 10. •Need standards when building infrastructures. •Each layer needs own set. •Statistics started - people became more like their categories.
  • 11. Do you think they became more like the categories they were put in or did the categories become smaller and more in-depth, therefore making them fit the category?
  • 12. •Best standards don’t always win. •Positive externalities. •Many infrastructure models exist. •Interoperability the key. •Doomed research – info lost.
  • 13. •No storage medium is permanent so requires continued maintenance. •And reliable metadata from different technologies. •More info you provide, more work have to do.
  • 14. Control of knowledge 1. - who has the right to speak on behalf of a group? - flattening of knowledge hierarchies a powerful social force 2. Privacy - possible to generate and search large databases - some believe privacy days are over Patterns of ownership 3. - privatisation of knowledge – who owns it? - sometimes forget the role of traditional knowledge
  • 15. •Reusable. •Drive for an imperial archive. •Protocols – what’s put in and what’s left out just as important. •How to deal with old data – need to preserve original in good form.
  • 16. •Narrowing of knowledge gap. •Breakdown of digital divide. •Faster research and publishing cycles. •Holding onto old ways.
  • 17. •Importance of the human memory as storage device. •Classifications needed for greater flexibility. •First databases hierarchical – dependent on what ordered entered. •We now have more flexible databases.
  • 18. •Derrida in Archive Fear – developing new computer technologies creates new traces and new archives meaning a new past.
  • 19. Does the nature of the technology used either directly or analogically produce changes in our representation and understanding of the past?
  • 20. •Now have the technology to build a useful archive. •The nature of record keeping – development can be sparked equally by social forces or scientific developments. •Thus technology does not have logical preference in driving science and society, which do not drive the technology.
  • 21. By Lev Manovich 2000
  • 22. •Apart from the shocking grammatical errors ‘After the expression its correlate – database.’ ‘... easy to add new elements to the end of list as it is to insert them anywhere in it.’ ‘... offers a collections of video or audio programs ...’ ‘Texts need to written ... and audio need to be recorded.’ ‘... is assumed to be constitute “interactive narrative.”’ this article was interesting.
  • 23. What is the relationship between database and narrative?
  • 24. •Database is defined as a structured collection of data. •Organised for fast search and retrieval by a computer. •Anything but a simple collection of items.
  • 25. •Different types of databases: - Hierarchical - Network - Relational - Object-oriented •All use different methods to organise data.
  • 26. •Collections of items where user can view, navigate, and search. •Both articles talked about the world and life as a database, archiving life.
  • 27. •Multimedia works with ‘cultural’ aspects favour database form. •Database as a form flourished on the internet. •Web offers fertile ground – three dimensional and interactive.
  • 28. •Not all new media are databases – computer games as narrative. •Is data passive, algorithm active? •Not quite true – data needs to be generated.
  • 29. •‘Storage mania’ •Reality > Media > Data > Database •Every site is a type of database •The map is now bigger than the territory
  • 30. •Database – the world as a list of items, refuse to put in an order. •Narrative – creates cause-and-effect trajectory of seemingly unordered items. •Natural enemies.
  • 31. •Databases have become the centre of the creative process in the computer age. •User of a narrative is traversing a database. •Arbitrary sequence of database records is not a narrative.
  • 32. •Database and narrative don’t have same status in computer culture. •New media objects are all databases. •A database can support narrative.
  • 33. Bartlett, Thomas (2007), ‘Archive Fever’ in The Chronicle of Higher Education (online). Volume 53, Issue 46, Page A8, 20 July 2007. Available: http://chronicle.com/free/v53/i46/46a00801.htm [Accessed 24 April 2009]. Derrida, Jacques (1995). Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Hacking, Ian (1995). Rewriting the Soul, New Jersey, Princeton University Press. MIT Press article on Memory Practices in the Sciences. Available: http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=10613 [Accessed 26 April 2009]. Wikipedia article on APIs (mentioned in Bowker). Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/API [Accessed 27 April 2009].
  • 34. Ford, Paul (2006), ‘Privacy in Cyberspace: Is it Possible?’ on National Public Radio America (online), 20 January 2006. Available: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5165536 [Accessed 18 April 2009].