Motivation.an

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Motivation.an

  1. 1. MOTIVATION<br />
  2. 2. WORK MOTIVATION<br /><ul><li>is the set of internal and external forces that cause an employee to choose a course of action and engage in certain behaviors</li></li></ul><li>Three Elements of Work Motivation<br />Direction and Focus of the Behavior<br />Level of effort provided<br />Persistence of the behavior<br />
  3. 3. A MODEL OF MOTIVATION<br />
  4. 4. Environment<br />Needs and Drives<br />
  5. 5. Human Needs<br />Primary Needs <br /> - Basic Physical needs<br />Secondary Needs - Social and Psychological needs<br />
  6. 6. Human Needs<br />Primary Needs <br /> - Basic Physical needs<br />Secondary Needs - Social and Psychological needs<br />
  7. 7. Human Needs<br />Primary Needs <br /> - Basic Physical needs<br />Secondary Needs<br /> - Social and Psychological needs<br />
  8. 8. Motivational Drives<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  9. 9. Affiliation
  10. 10. Power</li></li></ul><li>Motivational Drives<br />A drive to accomplish objectives and get ahead<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  11. 11. Affiliation
  12. 12. Power</li></li></ul><li>Motivational Drives<br />A drive to relate people effectively.<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  13. 13. Affiliation
  14. 14. Power</li></li></ul><li>Motivational Drives<br />A drive to influence people and situations.<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  15. 15. Affiliation
  16. 16. Power</li></li></ul><li>Motivational Drives<br />Institutional power<br />Personalized Power<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  17. 17. Affiliation
  18. 18. Power</li></li></ul><li>Environment<br />Needs and Drives<br />Tension<br />
  19. 19. Opportunity<br />Environment<br />Performance<br />Needs and Drives<br />Tension<br />Effort<br />Rewards<br />Ability<br />Goals and incentives<br />
  20. 20. Three Major Rewards<br />Fair Treatment<br />Sense of Achievement<br />Camaraderie<br />
  21. 21. Three Major Rewards<br />Fair Treatment<br />Sense of Achievement<br />Camaraderie<br />
  22. 22. Three Major Rewards<br />Fair Treatment<br />Sense of Achievement<br />Camaraderie<br />
  23. 23. Three Major Rewards<br />Fair Treatment<br />Sense of Achievement<br />Camaraderie<br />
  24. 24. Opportunity<br />Environment<br />Performance<br />Needs and Drives<br />Tension<br />Effort<br />Rewards<br />Ability<br />Goals and incentives<br />Need Satisfaction<br />
  25. 25. Maslow’sHierarchyofNeeds<br />
  26. 26. SELF-<br />ACTUALIZATION<br />ESTEEM NEEDS<br />LOVE, AFFECTION, AND<br /> BELONGINGNESS NEEDS<br />SAFETY NEEDS<br />PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS<br />
  27. 27. MASLOW model<br />HERZBERG model<br />ALDERFER model<br />Work itself<br />Achievement<br />Possibility of Growth<br />Responsibility<br />Advancement<br />Recognition<br />Growth Needs<br />Self-actualization and fulfillment needs<br />Motivational Factors<br />Esteem and Status Needs<br />Relatedness needs<br />Status<br />Relations with supervisors<br />Peer relations<br />Relations with subordinates<br />Quality of Supervision<br />Company Policy and administration<br />Job security<br />Working conditions<br />Pay<br />Belonging and Social Needs<br />Safety and Security Needs<br />Maintenance factors<br />Existence Needs<br />Physiological Needs<br />
  28. 28. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION <br />by: Jacel<br />
  29. 29. Organizational Behavior Modification or OB Mod<br />-> Is the application in organizations of the principles of behavior modification. <br />
  30. 30. Law of Effect<br />-> state that a person tends to repeat behavior that is accompanied by favorable consequences (reinforcement) and tends not to repeat behavior that is accompanied by unfavorable consequences.<br />
  31. 31. “we learn best under pleasant surroundings”<br /> -learning theory-<br /> “internal needs lead to behavior”<br /> -content theory-<br /> “external consequences tend to determine behavior”<br /> -OB Mod-<br />
  32. 32. Social Learning<br />also known as vicarious learning.<br />suggest that employees do not always have to learn directly from their own experiences.<br />
  33. 33. ©2005 Prentice Hall<br />Reinforcement Approaches<br />Reinforcement Managerial <br />Approach Action Effect Example<br />Positive reinforcement<br />Provide desirable consequence<br />Increase probability of behavior being repeated<br />Highway construction supervisor receives bonus for each day a project is completed ahead of schedule.<br />Negative reinforcement<br />Remove undesirable consequence<br />Increase probability of behavior being repeated<br />Management stops raising output quotas each time workers exceed them.<br />Punishment<br />Provide undesirable consequence<br />Decrease probability of behavior being repeated<br />Habitually tardy crew member is fined the equivalent of one hour’s pay each day he is late to work.<br />Adapted from Exhibit 12.11: Reinforcement Approaches and Their Effects<br />
  34. 34. ©2005 Prentice Hall<br />Reinforcement Approaches<br />Reinforcement Managerial <br />Approach Action Effect Example<br />Extinction<br />Remove desirable consequence<br />Decrease probability of behavior being repeated<br />Group member stops making unsolicited suggestions when team leader no longer mentions them in group meetings.<br />Adapted from Exhibit 12.11: Reinforcement Approaches and Their Effects<br />
  35. 35. Schedule of Reinforcement<br />Intermittent<br />Continuous<br />Ratio<br />Interval<br />Variable<br />Fixed<br />Variable<br />Fixed<br />
  36. 36. Major Benefit of Behavior modification<br />Makes managers become more conscious motivators.<br />Encourages manager to analyze employee behavior, explore why it occurs and how often.<br />Identify specific consequences that will help change it when those consequences are applied systematically. <br />
  37. 37. THE EQUITY MODEL <br />by: julyanne<br />
  38. 38. THE EQUITY MODEL <br />-> developed on the belief that fair treatment or perception thereof, motivates people to keep such fairness maintained within the relationships of their colleagues and the organization.<br />
  39. 39. Formula…<br />One’s own outcomes = Others’ outcomes<br /> One’s own inputs Others’ inputs<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Equity Sensitivity<br />-> suggest that individuals have different preference for equity.<br />
  42. 42. Procedural Justice<br />Interpersonal Treatment<br />Clarity of Expectation<br />
  43. 43. Distributive Justice<br />Allocation of reward<br />

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