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# U5 kickstart

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Framework for completing Unit 5

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### U5 kickstart

1. 1. Unit 5 OCR Nationals – LEVEL 3<br />Kick Start<br />
2. 2. OK, you asked for it<br />Remember there are NO Model Assignments for the Option Units, so I am winging it. For this Unit, however, I am also relying a little on the new textbook from PG, so we’ll see how that goes.<br />
3. 3. Scenario<br />A local restaurant owner would like to expand their business. To qualify for small business support they have to show that they are managing their finances well right now.<br />Time for drastic action – design a spreadsheet that covers income and expenses, and allows some level of modelling for additional financial planning<br />
4. 4. AO1: Design spreadsheets to meet the needs of an organisation<br />You need to get the pen and paper out for this one! Design AT LEAST 2 linked spreadsheets for the organisation, sketches to include:<br />Purpose<br />Audience<br />Layout & formatting<br />Design sheets in form appearance/customised toolbars & buttons<br />Calculations required<br />Data entry messages<br />Data validation and other appropriate messages<br />
5. 5. AO1 Hints<br />Be very clear in your mind about the user for this one: it helps if you can picture them!<br />Think about:<br />Keep the worksheets simple in size & number so they are easier to work with & understand<br />Avoid blank rows/columns if you can help it: many higher end functions will just stop if there’s a blank cell in the way.<br />Sort data into appropriate orders so that functions work more effectively<br />Keep names in two cells – one for first, one for last: it’s easier later.<br />Oh – there’s more, but I’ve run out of space here...<br />
6. 6. AO1 Hints<br />Sheets with the appearance of a form:<br />Excel 07 has the Template Wizard, so those of you with that can play and have fun.<br />The more pedestrian 03 version will need macros: we’ve met them before, for U3.<br />Calculations required<br />Follow protocols: formulae only refer to cells ABOVE them<br />If a formula requires LOTS of raw data, move it to a separate worksheet and link the data to the sheet holding the formula.<br />Formulae should be as simple as possible<br />REMEMBER there are over 300 different functions in Excel – this is your chance to play with your new toys...<br />
7. 7. AO1 Hints<br />Data Entry Messages<br />Data Validation – settings, as you know already<br />Valid and invalid data<br />Input Messages<br />Error Alert<br />
9. 9. AO1 grade guides<br />For Merit:<br />Spreadsheet designs are clear on the content<br />Most calculations are appropriate<br />Some data entry messages are identified<br />Note the level of detail for this!<br />For Distinction:<br />Customisation elements are clear<br />All calculations are clearly defined and appropriate<br />All data validation and error messages required are defined<br />
10. 10. AO2: Produce spreadsheets according to the design<br />Linked spreadsheets<br />Relative, absolute, mixed cell references<br />Named cells and cell ranges<br />Cell formats<br />Functions<br />Macros<br />Customised Toolbars/menus<br />
11. 11. AO2 Hints<br />Linked spreadsheets<br />Well you did this for U3, so this should be OK, yes?<br />Named cells and ranges.<br />It’s easier to locate and work with a cell if it is called ‘total’ rather than ‘DE4’ or whatever. Choose the cell, then where the cell reference is shown, highlight and type in the name of the cell – NO SPACES!<br />You can do the sameto a group of cells, too,whoooo!<br />
12. 12. AO2 Hints<br />Cell formats<br />Include conditional formatting, just like for U3<br />Date and time as appropriate (NOW function)<br />Also consider:<br />Text alignment<br />Font formatting – bold/italic/underline/colour...<br />Use the STYLE function to create a consistent view<br />Cell colours and shading, borders.<br />Cell merging!<br />
13. 13. AO2 Hints<br />Functions to meet requirements:<br />Here’s a summary, but there ARE 300 of them so I’m just picking my top, ummm, 4, or 11...<br />References: <br />HYPERLINKS<br />LOOKUPS<br />MATCH<br />Mathematical:<br />COUNTIF (and all its subsidiaries!)<br />SUM<br />CEILING/FLOOR<br />Statistics:<br />AVERAGE/MAX/MIN...<br />RANK<br />COUNT<br />Logic:<br />AND/IF/FALSE/NOT/OR...<br />Note also we have the wonders of NESTED FUNCTIONS (!)<br />
14. 14. AO2 Hints<br />Nested functions<br />You can do as I do in my marksheet for you guys: bung in more than one function at a time. This is a more effective way to complete a task in one neat package, and it is a LOT easier if you are using named cells/ranges. You can squish up to 7 levels in each – but here’s one of the more straightforward of mine, identifying whether you’ve gained P,M or D:<br />
15. 15. AO2 Hints<br />Data Validation<br />Well you’ve done this a bazillion times so I won’t treat you like fools. <br />Try to be more imaginative in this than you were in U3, OK? You can calculate what is allowed based on the content of another cell, or use a formula to calculate the value, and this could again make your product more powerful.<br />
16. 16. AO2 Hints<br />Macros<br />We’ve already played with these on U3, but here you get to play with the Big Boys...<br />You can set styles for font<br />You can set formulae and functions using macros<br />You can set actions (like graphing)<br />Customising the menu/toolbars – more overleaf on this one because this is more fun (but don’t tell the Network guys, because I don’t know what they’ll let us do..!)<br />
17. 17. AO2 Hints<br />Menus/toolbars<br />Now this may well do our heads in, because I don’t as yet know what settings will stick, and what won’t. We’ll just have to play it by ear. What a surprise..!<br />Let’s start with some definitions:<br />MENUS are lists of commands: e.g. File menu. The 07+ versions of MS products are short on menus, but you’ll see them in 03.<br />TOOLBARS hold the buttons instead of lists of words: 07+ is hot on toolbars.<br />
18. 18. AO2 Hints<br />Customising<br />Well, you could change the lists on a menu? Bit simplistic, but can be essential if you’re sick of going through several stages to get to the same ‘format’ menu element, or whatever.<br />OR, change the buttons on the toolbar: there’s a standardised option to do that on all the MS products, or you could write your own macro and stuff it on a button and be even more impressive!<br />
19. 19. AO2 grade guides<br />For Pass – and therefore all the others:<br />Produce the darn spreadsheets<br />They should look similar to the designs<br />Including use of:<br />Cell referencing (absolute/relative)<br />Named cells and ranges<br />Different cell formats<br />Functions<br />Macros<br />Some attempt to customise menus/toolbars<br />
20. 20. AO2 grade guides<br />For Merit:<br />Spreadsheet is close to designs<br />Including additional use of:<br />Multi stage functions<br />Data validation<br />Cell references across sheets<br />Customised a menu or toolbar<br />Note the level of detail for this!<br />For Distinction:<br />Design and spreadsheet are as one.<br />Including additional use of:<br />Nested functions<br />Customised error messages<br />Customised a menu and toolbar<br />
21. 21. AO3: use spreadsheet to process numerical data and present required information<br />So there’s a surprise – it has to DO something.<br />How?<br />Use PivotTables?<br />A PivotTable sorts and summarises data, combining and comparing large amounts of data – and then creates a new table which you can sort and rotate – and it’s relatively easy to create using the Wizard! <br />Using the ‘what-if’ element in 07, you could use Goal Seek when you know the result that you need, but not how to get there. So for example, you need a 50p profit – so what’s the price to the client???<br />
22. 22. AO3: use spreadsheet to process numerical data and present required information<br />You could also use Solver (Tools – Solver and set the parameters)<br />You could use the advanced filtering options<br />Presenting the results:<br />Cell formatting to make it easy to read?<br />Cell width and height/merge&centre<br />Graphs & Charts<br />HARD COPY (yeah – what you see you gotta be able to print: headers/footers/titles/cells & row titles)<br />Report Manager!<br />
23. 23. AO3 grade guides<br />For Pass – and therefore all the others:<br />Data processing is appropriate for requirements<br />Print spreadsheets showing <br />all data<br />Fit on the page(s)<br />Cell contents visible<br />Headers/footers<br />Graph/charts<br />PivotTables<br />Filtered results<br />Macros<br />
24. 24. AO3 grade guides<br />For Merit:<br />Good use of functions/formulae<br />Printouts are clear and easy to understand<br />For Distinction:<br />Results of analysis are easy to understand: not just the ‘before’ but also the ‘after’!<br />
25. 25. AO4: Produce user documentation and technical information<br />Well you’ve just done this for U4 so here goes:<br />Ideally your user guide should cover the vast majority of the processes, including screenshots and explanations so that a fairly clued-up user could use the spreadsheet without you<br />Your technical guide should cover ALL details of numerical processing methods, screenshots of macros, data validation, details of software and hardware required.<br />
26. 26. AO4 grade guides<br />For Pass – and therefore all the others:<br />User guide covers some of the processes so a relatively clued-up user could get on with your product<br />Tech guide identifies <br />Numerical processing methods used<br />Macros<br />Data validation<br />
27. 27. AO4 grade guides<br />For Merit:<br />User Guide includes text & screenshots covering some of the processes so a relatively clued-up user could make decent use of the spreadsheet<br />Tech Guide gives details of<br />Numerical processing methods used<br />Macros<br />Data validation<br />For Distinction:<br />User Guide does the lot using text & screenshots<br />Tech Guide covers additional info on hardware and software, and any other resources required<br />
28. 28. AO5: Test the spreadsheet<br />Usual stuff – test it using the full range of valid and invalid data, check for all messages – and make ALL necessary changes so it’s wonderful. Oh, and it works.<br />
29. 29. AO5 grade guides<br />For Pass – and therefore all the others:<br />Simple test plan covers that the spreadsheet does what it should from the spec.<br />For Merit<br />Evidence provided that the plan adequately tests the functionality of the spreadsheet (i.e. how well does it do what it should?)<br />Make some changes to make it work as it should.<br />For Distinction<br />A detailed plan testing ALL aspects of the spreadsheet, showing valid & invalid input, expected input, and any error messages<br />Make all changes so it works as it should<br />
30. 30. AO6: Evaluate the spreadsheet<br />To what extent does it do as you said it would? And, no, just like all the others, you cannot just type, ‘I done it good!’<br />You also need to suggest improvements and refinements, and the greater the detail the better the grade...<br />
31. 31. AO6 grade guides<br />For Pass – and therefore all the others:<br />A brief and not always accurate evaluation in relation to user needs. (I done it right)<br />For Merit<br />A detailed and accurate evaluation showing how well it meets user needs.<br />A detailed description of improvements for the user.<br />For Distinction<br />A comprehensive evaluation of how well it does the do.<br />Detailed improvements and recommended refinements<br />