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Our Goal is to provide a better understanding of Ireland’s Culture with the use of verbal communication through Irish language, Music as well as Folklore storytelling. To seek important information in Ireland’s history, and to learn the cultural values in celebrating Ireland’s holidays and wedding ceremony. Image: brittney-irishculture.blogspot.com
History of Ireland Presented by Aliesha Stephens
History of Ireland It begins in 7,500 B.C. with the first settlement of humans. For many years following the first settlement, Ireland’s population continues to grow with the arrival of farmers, Celts, Christians, Vikings, Gaels, and the English (Lambert). With every group of settlers came new ideas, religions and products. The earliest settlers brought skills and tools for hunting, gathering, fishing, and farming carrying with them items like axe heads. Prospectors and metal workers brought their tools and skills and discovered gold and bronze. (Rootsweb). The Celts contributed iron tools and weapons (Lambert). Unfortunately, like so many other nations of the world, great diversity causes great conflict. Lambert, Tim. (n.d.). A Timeline of Irish History. In . Retrieved November 1, 2010, fromhttp://www.localhistories.org./Unknown Author. (n.d.). A Timeline of Irish History. In Ancestry.com. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/.
Conflicts of Ireland* * A timeline of Irish History by Lambert, Tim. (n.d.). A Timeline of Irish History. In . Retrieved November 1, 2010, fromhttp://www.localhistories.org./
-Capital City is Dublin -Total Area is 70,280 Square Miles -As of 2005 Population was 4,015,676 -Ireland has too official languages, English and Irish Gaelic is spoken mostly on the western side of Ireland -98% of the population can read and write -Average life expectancy is 77.56 years -Religious include Roman Catholic, Church of Ireland, and other forms of Christianity -Ireland has a Republic type of government -The currency is the Euro -Natural resources include; natural gas, peat, copper, lead, zinc, silver, barite, gypsum, limestone, and dolomite -Dublin only gets 800mm or less of rain per year making it the driest place in Ireland (WestlyJohnston). Interesting Ireland Facts Unknown Author. (n.d.). A Timeline of Irish History. In Ancestry.com. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/.
More Recent History According to the BBC article “Ireland Country Profile,” “The Irish economy under went one of the deepest recessions in the Euro zone, with it’s economy shrinking by ten percent in 2009.” Currently, the Irish are trying to “shore up” the banks and weather yet another storm, the economic crisis, like the rest of the world. During the 1990’s Ireland again became a hub of immigration. Investors from all over the world flooded Ireland creating an increasingly modern high tech economy (BBC). Like the rest of the world, Ireland felt the devastating effects of the bursting housing bubble. Unknown Author. (October 9, 2010). Ireland country profile. In BBC News. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/.
Irish is a Goidelic Language of the Indo European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is now spoken as a first language only by a small minority of the Irish population, and as a second language by a larger minority. However, it is widely considered to be an important part of the island's culture and heritage Language in Ireland Image: http://islandireland.com/Pages/irish.html Source: http://www.emeraldtiger.com/general/lang.htm
Ireland Language Today “The 1996 Census reported that just over 1.43 million people have the ability to speak Irish (43% of the relevant population). The Irish-speaking heartland is called the Gaeltacht and the percentage of the population purporting to speak Irish in this area is very high at 76.3% however the area is not densely populated.” About 353,000 people speak English regularly and 76% of those people speak Irish http://www.iregua.net/cultura/imleyes/elunedm2.htm
Top 5 biggest Selling Irish acts of all time 1. U2 170 Million + Rock 19-76–Present (33 Years)  2. Enya 80 million + Celtic/New age 1986-present (22 Years)  3. Van Morrison 55 Million + Soul 1967-present (40 Years) 4. The Cranberries 50 million + 1990–2003, -2009 5. The Corrs 43 Million+ pop 1995 - 2006 (on hiatus) (11 Years) . Music in Ireland Irish is the generic term for music that has been created in various genres on the island of Ireland. The indigenous music of island is termed Irish traditional music. It has remained vibrant through the 20th, and 21st century despite globalizing cultural forces. In spite of emigration and well developed connection to music influences from Britain and the United States, Irish music has kept many of its traditional aspect and has itself influenced many forms of music, such as country roots music in the USA, which in turn had some influence on modern rock music. -http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1145.html -http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1038581.stm
Instruments in Ireland Without the traditional Irish music dancing in Ireland would not exist. What are dancers without “foot stomping music of he fiddle, bottom box, concertina, bodhran (pronounced bow-rawn), uilleann (pronounced ILL-uhn) pipes, tin whistle, flute, celtic harp, guitar. “A concertina is another instrument used in traditional Irish music. Often times gypsies are pictured with them!” “The bodhrán is an Irish drum and is considered the heartbeat of Irish music. It is traditionally made with a wooden frame in which a dried goatskin is stretched.” http://www.culkinschool.com/education_music.htm
Irish Traditional Holidays and Wedding Ceremony by Angel Shipley
According to Beebe, Beebe, and Ivy, “by paying attention to what a cultural values, we can get important clues about how to communicate a message, establish relationships, and avoid errors when interacting with people from a given country.” Ireland’s cultural traditions are preserved as a wide range of culturally significant ideas, specific practices, and various methods. Irish people love traditions. So much so, in fact, that the country is full of them. Irish people values how they celebrated their holidays, and wedding ceremony in their own traditional way. Most of the holidays are celebrated the same way around the world. Irish people try to keep their cultural tradition, so that they can be passed down from generation to generation. The following slides are different types of Irish traditional holidays, and traditional wedding ceremony.
St. Valentine - "Patron Saint of Lovers.” Red heart is the traditional symbol of Valentine's Day. In 1836, Pope Gregory XVI sent a gift to the Carmelite Church on White friar Street, Dublin. The gift was a relic of a Christian martyr: a small gold-bound casket containing the earthly remains of St. Valentine. Every year, on February 14th, the casket containing the Saint's mortal remains will be carried inprocession to the high altar of the Carmelite Church for a special Mass dedicated to young people and those in love. For the most part Valentine's Day is celebrated with candy hearts, chocolates, flowers and cards.
Shamrock - a three-leaved plant, symbolized the Holy Trinity
to the pagan.
Easter is named after the Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring (Eostre), and is originally a pagan (non-Christian) festival. Eggs were used as symbols of fertility. The Easter bunny (baby rabbit) is also another symbol of spring and fertility. The streets are full of bright greens to symbolize the shamrock and yellows to convey the new lease of life that begins in Easter. Images: http://www.yourirish.com/st-patrick Source by: http://www.celticspiritband.com/holidays.htm
The Celts believed that on October 31 Samhain (who was the lord of the dead) would call together all of the dead and these souls would take on the shape of an animal. They believed that all creatures wandered the Earth on that night. This was called the Vigil of Samhain. The Celts celebrated their new year on November 1. This day marked the end of summer and the harvest and the beginning of the dark, cold winter, a time of year that was often associated with human death. Today in Ireland children dress up in costume and trick or treat and Jack-O'Lanterns are seen lighting the way for the witches and ghosts.
Traditionally the Christmas season begins on 8 December in Ireland and lasts until 6 January. In Ireland, Santa works a little differently than in the United States. Instead of leaving everything under the tree he leaves each child's gifts in their room, often in a pillowcase at the end of the bed, though sometimes a large gift may be left unwrapped under the tree. Christmas stockings are a tradition with some families and are hung Christmas Eve for Santa to fill. The Candle in the Window - The placing of a lighted candle in the window of a house on Christmas Eve is a symbol of welcome to Mary and Joseph as they traveled looking for shelter. A further element of the tradition is that the candle should be lit by the youngest member of the household and only be extinguished by a girl bearing the name 'Mary'. The Laden Table - After evening meal on Christmas Eve the kitchen table was again set and on it were placed a loaf of bread filled with caraway seeds and raisins, a pitcher of milk and a large lit candle. The door to the house was left unlatched so that Mary and Joseph, or any wandering traveler, could avail of the welcome. Decorations - The placing of a ring of Holly on doors originated in Ireland as Holly was one of the main plants that flourished at Christmas time and which gave the poor ample means with which to decorate their dwellings. All decorations are traditionally taken down on Little Christmas (January 6th.) and it is considered to be bad luck to take them down beforehand.
St. Stephen's Day (Boxing Day)
On St. Stephens Day (the day after Christmas) a procession, known as The Wren Boy Procession takes place. A pole with a holly bush would be carried from house to house and families dressed up in old clothes and with blackened faces. In olden times an actual wren would be killed and placed on top of the pole. There is a famous song called “The Wren Boys” that was known to be sung as part of this procession. This custom has to a large degree disappeared but the tradition of visiting from house to house on St. Stephens Day has survived and is very much part of Christmas. St. Stephen's Day is a national holiday in Ireland and most businesses remain closed until 27 December. Source: http://www.celticspiritband.com/holidays.htm
The groom’s proposal may not be “Will you marry me?”, but something more like
“Would you like to be buried with my people?” or
“Would you like to hang your washing next to mine?”
Handfasting is an old Irish ceremony of commitment.
Formalized a relationship, whether an engagement, a permanent marriage, or a marriage over several
lifetimes, "trial marriage”.
One of many forms of marriages permitted under the ancient Irish Brehon law.
The man and woman agreed to stay together for a year-and-a-day.
At the end of the year the couple faced a choice. They could enter into a
longer-term "permanent" marriage contract, renew their agreement for another year, or go their separate ways.
The wrists of the couple are bound together with a ribbon or cord.
The ribbon is wound around the wrists, over the top of one and
under and around the other, creating the infinity symbol. * ‘The origin of the term ‘tying the knot ’.
The Irish Claddagh Ring
Primarily worn by those of Irish heritage, as both a cultural symbol and as engagement and wedding rings.
It is a heart held by two hands with the heart topped by a crown. The hands represent faith, the crown symbolizes honor, and the heart signifies love.
The ring’s motto is: “Let love and friendship reign.”
If a woman wears a Claddagh Ring on her right hand with the heart facing outward
toward the end of her finger, she is signifying that she is a single woman. If the ring is worn on the right hand with the heart facing inward, toward the woman’s knuckle, then she is signifying that she is engaged. And finally, if a Claddagh Ring is worn on the left hand, it means that the woman is married. Source: http://www.littleshamrocks.com/Irish-Wedding.html Image: irishpostcards.blogspot.com
Verbal Communication Generation to generation “A large influence on the culture of Ireland, was transmitted orally from generation to generation” (Culture of Ireland) Cultural Communication Creates a worldview Source: Dictionary.com
What does folklore represent in terms of communication?
Irish folklore is a verbal communication, understanding and interpreting folklore was a key need for the Irish descendants. “Our culture and life experiences determine our worldview-the general cultural perspective that shapes how we perceive and respond to what happens to us.” Folklore is what was used to shape the minds from one generation to the next (Communication p. 151)
History, or myth?
Present day, folklore has been translated and archived to provide essential information about Irelands history, and traditions. (O p. 179) Folklore was the “principal source from which Gaelic writers interested in history drew the material with which they flushed out of the traditional outline of the nations past. ‘” folklore informs us, not only about the bare events of history, but about the mind and heart and thoughts of all who came before us” (O’connor)
Folklore creates a identity through verbal communication of storytelling of the Irish Culture.
Through lore, similarities of goals, feelings of genuine liking, similarity of backgrounds and culture are common variables that influence group cohesiveness.
“Communication is how we make sense out of the world and share that sense with others, our worldview is one of the primary filters that influence ho we make sense out of the world.” (Communication p. 151)
Storytelling Folklores To instill a connection to each other the Irish used storytelling, it became a part of the culture as a means for passing down who they were ; language, traditions, history and ethics were all included. The most important ingredients are history, tradition, language and value. (Kerry Gems)
Today the language is still alive and with it the old sayings, songs, stories and customs. Even Gaelic place names that we take for granted can be very significant in terms of folklore (Kerry Gems)
Celts arrived in Ireland 600 B.C. what they found created corner stone of Irish folklore. A land of magnificent forests. Streams with abundance of salmon and many fine Archaeological remains from earlier invaders
In conclusion, Irish culture has clearly incorporated the elaboration of verbal communication through Irish language, music, and folklore storytelling. We have gained knowledge by seeking important information in Ireland’s history, and we have learned the Irish traditions and cultural values in celebrating Ireland’s holidays and wedding ceremony. The Main objectives are presented by: History of Ireland (Aliesha Stephens) Language, Music (Vanessa Ramm) Traditional Holiday and Wedding Ceremony (Angel Shipley) Storytelling Folklore (Ashley Stanton)
Questions There have been many battles between Catholics and Protestants over time. Catholics are granted the right to vote after some of these conflicts. What is the time frame and another right given to the Catholics during this time? 2. What is a formalized ceremony that represents a relationship, whether an engagement, a permanent marriage, or a marriage over several lifetimes, "trial marriage”? 3. What piece of irish culture involves history, tradition, language and values?
References: Beebe, Steven A., Beebe, Susan J., and Ivy, Diana K. (2010). Communication: Principles for a Lifetime, Fourth Edition. Boston, Ma. Allyn and Bacon. Culture ireland facts. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.realirishfood-recipes.com/culture-ofIreland.htm Haggerty, Bridget. (2010). Tips For Planning a Traditional Irish Wedding. In Chiff.com. Retrieved October 28, 2010. http://www.chiff.com/a/wed-irish.htm Kerry gems. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.kerrygems.com/folklore.html Lambert, Tim. (n.d.). A Timeline of Irish History. In . Retrieved November 1, 2010, fromhttp://www.localhistories.org./ O'Connor, Anne. (2010). Irish folklore: myth and reality . Retrieved from http://www.dominican- college.com/index.phpoption=com_content&task=view&id=139&Itemid=142 Ó, D. (2000). Locating irish folklore: tradition, modernity, identity. Cork Univ Pr. Unknown Author. (n.d.). A Timeline of Irish History. In Ancestry.com. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/. Unknown Author. (October 9, 2010). Ireland country profile. In BBC News. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/.
Reference: Unknown Author. (n.d.). Holidays in Ireland. In Celtic Lore. Retrieved October 28, 2010, http://www.celticspiritband.com/holidays.htm Unknown Author, (2006 – 2010). Ancient Irish Wedding Customs. In Littleshamrocks.com. Retrieved October 28, 2010, http://www.littleshamrocks.com/Irish-Wedding.html