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  1. 1. Early Beliefs, Practices and Care of the sick Early Filipinos subscribed to superstitious belief and practices in relation to health and sickness Diseases, their causes and treatment were associated with mysticism and superstitions Cause of disease was caused by another person (an enemy of witch) or evil spirits Persons suffering from diseases without any identified cause were believed bewitched by “mangkukulam” Difficult childbirth were attributed to “nonos” Evil spirits could be driven away by persons with powers to expel demons Belief in special Gods of healing: priest-physician, word doctors, herbolarios/herb doctorsEarly Hospitals during the Spanish Regime – religious orders exerted efforts to care for the sick bybuilding hospitals in different parts of the Philippines: Hospital Real de Manila San Juan de Dios Hospital San Lazaro Hospital Hospital de Aguas Santas Hospital de IndiosProminent personages involved during the Philippine Revolution1. Josephine Bracken – wife of Jose Rizal installed a field hospital in an estate in Tejeros that provided nursing care to the wounded night and day.2. Rose Sevilla de Alvaro – converted their house into quanters for Filipino soldiers during the Phil- American War in 1899.3. Hilaria de Aguinaldo –wife of Emlio Aginaldo organized the Filipino Red Cross.4. Melchora Aquino – (Tandang Sora) nursed the wounded Filipino soldiers, gave them shelter and food.5. Captain Salomen – a revolutionary leader in Nueva Ecija provided nursing care to the wounded when not in combat.6. Agueda Kahabagan – revolutionary leader in Laguna also provided nursing services to her troops.7. Trinidad Tecson (Ina ng Biak na Bato) – stayed in the hospital at Biac na Bato to care for the wounded soldiers.School Of Nursing1. St. Paul’s Hospital School of Nursing, Intramuros Manila – 19002. Iloilo Mission Hospital Training School of Nursing – 1906 1909 – distinction of graduating the 1st trained nurses in the Phils. With no standard requirements for admission of applicants except their “willingness to work” April 1946 – a board exam was held outside of Manila. It was held in the Iloilo Mission Hospital thru the request of Ms. Loreto Tupas, principal of the school.1. St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing – 1907;opened after four years as adispensary clinic.1. Mary Johnston Hospital School of Nursing – 19072. Philippines General Hospital school of Nursing – 1910College of Nursing1. UST College of Nursing – 1st College of Nursing in the Phils: 18772. MCU College of Nursing – June 1947 (1st College who offered BSN – 4 year program)3. UP College of Nursing – June 19484. FEU Institute of Nursing – June 19555. UE College of Nursing – Oct 195819093 female graduated as “qualified medical-surgical nurses”
  2. 2. 1919The 1st Nurses Law (Act#2808) was enacted regulating the practice of the nursing profession in thePhilippines Islands. It also provided the holding of exam for the practice of nursing on the 2 nd Monday ofJune and December of each year.19201st board examination for nurses was conducted by the Board of Examiners, 93 candidates took the exam,68 passed with the highest rating of 93.5%-Anna Dahlgrentheoretical exam was held at the UP Amphitheater of the College of Medicine and Surgery. Practical examat the PGH Library.1921Filipino Nurses Association was established (now PNA) as the National Organization Of Filipino NursesPNA: 1st President – Rosario DelgadoFounder – Anastacia Giron-Tupas1953Republic Act 877, known as the “Nursing Practice Law” was approved.A.1.1. Early Beliefs and Practices(Diseases and their causes and treatment were shrouded with mysticism and superstitions.)1.Beliefs about causation of disease:another person (an enemy or a witch)evil spirits2.Belief that evil spirits could be driven away by persons with powers to expel demons.Belief in special gods of healing, with the priest -physician (called “word doctors”) as intermediary. If they used leaves orroots, they were called herb doctors (“herbolarios”)Early Care of the SickThe early Filipinos subscribed to superstitious belief and practices in relation to health and sickness. Herb men werecalled “herbicheros” meaning one who practiced witchcraft. Persons suffering from diseases without any identifiedcause were believed bewitched by “mangkukulam” or “mangagaway”. Difficult childbirth and some diseases (called“pamao”) were attributed to “nunos”. Midwives assisted in childbirth. During labor, the “mabuting hilot” (good midwife)was called in. If the birth became difficult, witches were supposed to be the cause. To disperse their influence,gunpowder were exploded from a bamboo cane close to the head of the sufferer.Health Care During the Spanish RegimeThe religious orders exerted their efforts to care for the sick by building hospitals in different parts of the Philippines.The earliest hospitals were:Hospital Real de Manila (1577) – it was established mainly to care for the Spanish king’s soldiers, but also admittedSpanish civilians; founded by Gov. Francisco de Sande.San Lazaro Hospital (1578) – founded by Brother Juan Clemente and was administered for many years by theHospitalliers of San Juan de Dios; built exclusively for patients with leprosy.Hospital de Indios (1586) – established by the Franciscan Order; service was in general supported by alms andcontributions from charitable persons.
  3. 3. Hospital de Aguas Santas (1590) – established in Laguna; near a medicinal spring, founded by Brother J. Baustista of theFranciscan Order.San Juan de Dios Hospital (1596) founded by the Brotherhood of Misericordia and administered by the Hopsitaliers ofSan Juan de Dios; support was delivered from alms and rents; rendered general health service to the public.Nursing During the Philippine RevolutionJosephine Bracken, wife of Jose Rizal- installed a field hospital in an estate house in Tejeros; provided nursing care to thewounded night and dayRosa Sevilla de Alvero- converted their house into quarters for the Filipino soldiers; during the Philippine-American Warthat broke out in 1899Dona Hilaria de Aguinaldo- wife of Emilio Aguinaldo; organized that Filipino Red Cross under the inspiration of MabiniDona Maria Agoncillo de Aguinaldo- second wife of Emilio Aguinaldo; provided nursing care to Filipino soldiers duringthe revolution, President of the Filipino Red Cross branch in BatangasMelchora Aquino (Tandang Sora) –nursed the wounded Filipino soldiers and gave them shelter and foodCapitan Salome – a revolutionary leader in Nueva Ecija; provided nursing care to the wounded when not in combatAgueda Kahabagan- revolutionary leader in Laguna, also provided nursing services to her troopsTrinidad Tecson (“Ina ng Biak-na-Bato”)- stayed in the hospital at Biak na Bato to care for wounded soldiersHospitals and nursing schoolsIloilo Mission Hospital School of Nursing (Iloilo City, 1906)It was ran by the Baptist Foreign Mission Society of America. Miss Rose Nicolet, a graduate of New England Hospital forWomen and Children in Boston, Massachusetts was the first superintendent for nurses. It moved from its presentlocation to Jaro Road, Iloilo City in 1929. Miss Flora Ernst, an American nurse, took charge of the school in 1942. In April1944 graduate nurses took the first Nurses Board Examination at the Iloilo Mission Hospital.Saint Paul’s Hospital School of Nursing (Manila, 1907)The hospital was established by the Archbishop of Manila, Jeremiah Harty under the supervision of the Sisters of St. Paulde Chartres located in Intramuros. It provided general hospital services. It opened its training school for nurses in 1908,with Mother Melanie as superintendent and Miss Chambers as Principal.Philippine General Hospital School of Nursing (Manila, 1907)PGH began in 1901 as a small dispensary for Civil officers and Employees in the City of Manila and later grew as a CivilHospital. In 1906, Mary Coleman Masters, an educator advocated for the idea of training Filipino girls for the professionof nursing with the approval of Government officials, she first opened a dormitory for Girls enrolled at the PhilippineNormal Hall and the University of the Philippines.In 1907, with the support of Governor General Forbes and the Director of Health and among others, she opened classesin nursing under the Auspices of the Bureau of Education. Admission was based on an entrance examination. Theapplicant must have completed elementary education to the seventh grade. Julia Nichols and Charlotte Clayton taughtthe students nursing subjects. American physician also served as lecturers.In 1910, the Act No. 1976 modified the organization of the school placing it under the supervision of the Department ofHealth. The Civil Hospital was abolished and the Philippine General Hospital was established.St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing (Quezon City, 1907)The hospital is an Episcopalian Institution. It began as a small dispensary in 1903. In 1907, the school opened with threegirls admitted. These three girls had their first year in combined classes with the PGH School of Nursing and St. Paul’sHospital School of Nursing. Miss Helen Hicks was the first principal. Mrs. Vitaliana Beltran was the first Filipinosuperintendent of nurses and Dr. Jose Fores was the first medical director of the hospital.
  4. 4. Mary Johnston Hospital and School of Nursing (Manila, 1907)It started as a small dispensary on Calle Cervantes (now Avenida). It was called the Bethany Dispensary and funded bythe Methodist Mission for the relief of suffering among women and children. In 1907, Sister Rebecca Parrish togetherwith registered nurses Rose Dudley and Gertude Dreisbach, organized the Mary Johnston School of Nursing. The nurses’training course began with three Filipino young girls fresh from elementary as their first students.Philippine Christian Mission Institute Schools of NursingThe United Christian Missionary Society of Indianapolis, Indiana- a Protestant organization of the disciples of Christoperated three schools of nursing:Sallie Long Read Memorial Hospital School of Nursing (Laoag Ilocos Norte, 1903)Mary Chiles Hospital School of Nursing (Manila, 1911)The hospital was established by Dr. WN Lemon in a small house on Azcarraga, Sampaloc, Manila. In 1913, Miss MaryChiles of Montana donated a large sum of money with which the preset building at Gastambide was bought. The TuasonAnnex was donated by Miss Esperanza Tuason, a Filipino Philantropist.Frank Dunn Memorial Hospital (Vigan Ilocos Sur, 1912)San Juan de Dios Hospital School of Nursing (Manila, 1913)In 1913, through the initaiative of Dr. Benito Valdez, the board of inspectors and the executive board of the hospitalpassed a resolution to open school of nursing. The school has been run by the Daughters of Charity since then. SisterTaciana Tinanes was the first Directress of the SchoolEmmanuel Hospital School of Nursing (Capiz, 1913)In 1913, the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society sent Dr. PH Lerrigo to Capiz for the purpose of opening a hospital.Miss Rose Nicolet assisted him. The school offered a 3-year training course for an annual fee of Php 100.00. Miss ClaraPedroso was the first principalSouthern Islands Hospital School of Nursing (Cebu, 1918)The hospital was established in 1911 under the Bureau of Health. The school opened in 1918 with Anastacia Giron-Tupasas the orginizer. Miss Visitacion Perez was the first principalOther Schools of Nursing1.Zamboanga General Hospital School of Nursing (1921)2.Chinese General Hospital School of Nursing (1921)3.Baguio General Hospital School of Nursing (1923)4.Manila Sanitarium Hospital and School of Nursing (1930)5.St. Paul School of Nursing in Iloilo City (1946)6.North General Hospital and School of Nursing (1946)7.Siliman University School of Nursing (1947)The FIRST Colleges of Nursing in the PhilippinesUniversity of Santo Tomas-College of Nursing (1946)In its first year of existence, its enrolees were consisted of students from different school of nursing whose studied wereinterrupted by the war. In 1947, the Bureau of Private Schools permitted UST to grant the title Graduate Nurse to the 21students who were of advance standing from 1948 up to the present. The college has offered excellent educationleading to a baccalaureate degree. Sor Taciana Trinanes was its first directress. Presently, Associate Professor Glenda A.Vargas, RN, MAN serves as its Dean.
  5. 5. Manila Central University-College of Nursing (1947) The MCU Hospital first offered BSN and Doctor of Medicine degrees in 1947 and served as the clinical field for practice. Miss Consuelo Gimeno was its first principal. Presently, Professor Lina A. Salarda, RN, MAN, EdD serves as its Dean. University of the Philippines Manila-College of Nursing (1948) The idea of opening the college began in a conference between Miss Julita Sotejo and UP President. In April 1948, the University Council approved the curriculum, and the Board of Regents recognized the profession as having an equal standing as Medicine, Engineering etc. Miss Julita Sotejo was its first dean. Presently, Professor Josefina A. Tuason, RN, MAN, DrPh is once more reappointed as the Dean of UP Manila College of Nursing Tags: Alms, Causation Of Disease, Early Filipinos, Evil Spirits, Franciscan Order, Francisco De Sande, Gunpowder, Health Care During The Spanish Regime, History Of Nursing In The Philippines, Hospital De Aguas Santas, Indios, Juan Clemente, Leprosy Hospital, Mangkukulam, Midwife, Midwives, Religious Orders, San Lazaro Hospital, Spanish King, Superstitious Belief Jean Carper is a New York Times best-selling author, contributing editor to USA Weekend Magazine and a leading authority on health and nutrition. She is the author of 23 books, including Your Miracle Brain, Miracle Cures, the award- winning Stop Aging Now!, Food-Your Miracle Medicine and the Food Pharmacy. Her latest book is Jean Carpers Complete Healthy Cookbook. Previously she was senior medical correspondent for CNN (Cable News Network), and is a recipient of the cable industrys prestigious ACE award for a series on brain cancer. She has written more than 200 articles for national publications and appeared on numerous television programs, including the Today Show, Good Morning America, Dateline and Extra. She received an "excellence in journalism" award for her ground-breaking book, Stop Aging Now! from the American Aging Association, made up of leading academic and governmental scientists who investigate the causes of aging and how to slow it down. Stop Aging Now!, published in 1995, details cutting-edge research showing that specific vitamins, minerals, herbs and foods have astonishing powers. By popular demand, Jean formed a company to produce Stop Aging Now! supplements in 1996, based on information in that book. She sold the company in January 2007 to a group of private investors led by her friend and former director of operations in whom she has the utmost confidence. She does not participate in the production or promotion of Stop Aging Now! Supplements and has no financial interest in the company. For 14 years Jean wrote Eat Smart, a column for USA Weekend Magazine (600 newspapers, 50 million readers) and continues as a contributing editor for the magazine, writing on health and nutrition subjects. Her books have been translated into 15 different languages and are sold throughout the world. Jean serves on the board of the American Aging Association and on the advisory board of the American Botanical Council, the most reliable source of information on medicinal herbs. She is a graduate of Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, Ohio, and a recipient of their distinguished achievement award. Show full bio Benner’s stages of clinical competence - NSW Health, NaMO - WOW Project tool 2011 Page 1 Benners Stages of Clinical CompetenceIn the acquisition and development of a skill, a nurse passes through five levels ofproficiency: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert.Stage 1: Novice The Novice or beginner has no experience in the situations in which they are expected to perform. The Novice lacks confidence to demonstrate safe practice and requires continual verbal and physical cues. Practice is within a prolonged time period and he/she is unable to use discretionary judgement.Stage 2: Advanced Beginner
  6. 6. Advanced Beginners demonstrate marginally acceptable performance because the nurse hashad prior experience in actual situations. He/she is efficient and skilful in parts of the practicearea, requiring occasional supportive cues. May/may not be within a delayed time period.Knowledge is developing.Stage 3: Competent Competence is demonstrated by the nurse who has been on the job in the same or similarsituations for two or three years. The nurse is able to demonstrate efficiency, is coordinatedand has confidence in his/her actions. For the Competent nurse, a plan establishes aperspective, and the plan is based on considerable conscious, abstract, analytic contemplationof the problem. The conscious, deliberate planning that is characteristic of this skill level helpsachieve efficiency and organisation. Care is completed within a suitable time frame withoutsupporting cues.Stage 4: Proficient The Proficient nurse perceives situations as wholes rather than in terms of chopped up partsor aspects. Proficient nurses understand a situation as a whole because they perceive itsmeaning in terms of long-term goals. The Proficient nurse learns from experience what typicalevents to expect in a given situation and how plans need to be modified in response to theseevents. The Proficient nurse can now recognise when the expected normal picture does notmaterialise. This holistic understanding improves the Proficient nurses decision making; itbecomes less laboured because the nurse now has a perspective on which of the manyexisting attributes and aspects in the present situation are the important ones.Stage 5: The Expert The Expert nurse has an intuitive grasp of each situation and zeroes in on the accurate regionof the problem without wasteful consideration of a large range of unfruitful, alternativediagnoses and solutions. The Expert operates from a deep understanding of the total situation.His/her performance becomes fluid and flexible and highly proficient. Highly skilled analyticability is necessary for those situations with which the nurse has had no previous experience.

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