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Design methodology


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Design methodology

Design methodology

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  • 1. What is design? Lets start with a hypothetical situation. Lets imagine ourselves to be primitive cave men without much tools and resources. Now in this scenario one of us comes across a huge tall mango tree. That guy is hungry and wants to have mangoes (That's DESIRE). But the question is, how can he climb so up (That’s PROBLEM)? He calls his tribe men and discusses the problem with them. They look at the mangoes (That’s GOAL) and start thinking of possibilities of achieving the goal utilizing the existing resources (That’s basic BRAINSTORMING PROCES). After the brainstorming process a number of activities start up within the group to achieve the goal like throwing stones, using long branches, using climbers to climb ( that’s PROBLEM SOLVING ACTIVITY). All these decisions taken to achieve the goal are not certain and may bear high penalties for error e.g. during the stone throwing process someone may get injured. Overall if we see all the processes, they are a jump from present facts and resources to future possibilities and convenience.
  • 2. So we can define design as: • A goal directed problem solving activity. • Decision making in the face of uncertainty with high penalties for error. • Optimum solution to the sum of true needs of a particular set of problems. • Imaginative jump from present facts to future possibilities. • Relating product with situation to give satisfaction. • A creative activity – it involves bringing into being something new and useful that has not existed previously. One thing that is common to all the above descriptions is that they refer, not to the outcome of designing, but to its ingredients.
  • 3. Design is a process which involves the following activities: •Discover •Define •Design •Deliver The objectives of designing become less concerned with the product itself and more concerned with the changes that manufacturers, distributers, users and society as a whole are expected to make in order to adapt to, and to benefit from, the new design.
  • 4. Lateral Thinking …. Lateral Thinking is a form of thinking which seeks new and unusual ways of approaching and solving problems, and does not merely proceed by logical steps from the starting point of what is known or believed. Edward De Bono defines Lateral Thinking as a technique of problem solving by approaching problems indirectly at diverse angles instead of concentrating on one approach at length. Lateral thinking is about moving sideways when working on a problem to try different perceptions and different concepts. OR A process and willingness to look at things in a different way and sometimes even in an illogical way. According to de Bono, intelligence is a potential and thinking is a skill to use that potential.
  • 5. EXAMPLE NO. 1 There are six eggs in the basket. Each egg is taken by a girl. Considering there are six girls who take the eggs, how can it be that one egg is left in the basket?
  • 6. ANSWER.. The last girl takes the basket as well with the last egg still in it
  • 7. EXAMPLE NO. 2
  • 8. ANSWER..
  • 9. EXAMPLE NO. 3 A merchant who owes money to a money lender agrees to settle the debt based upon the choice of two stones (one black, one white) from a bag where he placed a white and a black stone from the footpath on which they're standing. If his daughter chooses the white stone, the debt is canceled; if she picks the black stone, the moneylender gets the merchant's daughter. However, the moneylender "fixes" the outcome by putting two black stones in the bag. The daughter sees this but She can't expose him in front of the witnesses without angering him and making things worse so she picks a stone out of the bag. DOES SHE WINS/LOSE? HOW????
  • 10. ANSWER.. She picks a stone out of the bag, immediately drops it onto the path full of other stones where it lost. She then points out that the stone she picked must have been the opposite color of the one remaining in the bag. To know what color it was they must look at the stone remaining in the bag.. Unwillingly, the moneylender must agree and cancel the debt. The daughter has solved an intractable problem through the use of lateral thinking.
  • 11. Principle of Lateral Thinking • To get a different perspective on a problem, try breaking the elements up and recombining them in a different way (perhaps randomly).
  • 12. Vertical vs. Lateral Thinking • • Thinking traditions firmly based on logical thinking in which we have certain ways of looking things & see what can be deduced from that Limited when new & non traditional alternatives are needed • • Moving “sideways” to look at things in a different & sometimes illogical way. Creates as many alternative approaches as one can.
  • 13. Vertical vs. Lateral Thinking • • • • • • VERTICAL Selective Moves in one direction Sequential (logical) Each step correct Excludes irrelevant Most likely • • • • • • LATERAL Generative Moves to generate direction Makes jumps (can be illogical) Not so Chance intrusions Least likely
  • 14. Lateral Thinking (4 Step Process) Edward de Bono’Creative Thinking Process GET STARTED Results New Ideas Select , Define & Focus Capture & Work with Output Generate Ideas
  • 15. Exercise….. WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ME BOARD ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? WHY ? •Act of introspection •Peer into yourself •Psychographic analysis
  • 16. Churning Ideas Problem solving activity of identified problems 1. Brain storming Objective is to stimulate a group of people to produce many ideas quickly.
  • 17. Churning Ideas (contd)……… 2. Synectics Objective is to direct the spontaneous activity of the brain and the nervous system towards the exploration and transformation of design problems by drawing analogies. • Direct analogy • Personal analogy • Symbolic analogy • Fantacy Analogy 3. Removing mental blocks Objective is to find new directions of search using transformation techniques when the apparent search space has yielded no wholly acceptable solution.
  • 18. Exercise….. Synectics Group 1 Group 2 • Security system for homes OR • Reusable watch package Brain Storming • Traffic system in bhopal OR • Interior of a car Removing mental block • Ornamentation of Usha fans. OR • Second class sleeper compartments Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6
  • 19. Accessory Design • What is our domain being accessory designers? • What is accessory design? • Being professionals what uniqueness are we supposed to offer? Or When a manufacturer/ retailer comes to accessory designer to improvise his or her product what is his/ her expectation?
  • 20. User Centered Design Principles • Set Business Goals – Determining the market, users, and competition to target is central • Understand Users – An understanding of the users is the driving force behind all design. • Design the Total User Experience – Everything a user uses and feels is designed together by a multidisciplinary team A forearm-mounted, 11-ounce WT4000 Series wearable computer from Motorola. An answer for out in the field or warehouse jobs.
  • 21. User Centered Design Principles • Evaluate Designs – User feedback is gathered often and drives product design and development. • Assess Competitiveness – Competitive design requires a relentless focus on the competition and its customers. • Manage for Users – User Feedback is integral to product plans, priorities, and decision making. Design experts say that a backlash is brewing against all the buttons on gadgets like cell phones. A children's mobile phone from Firefly, pictured here, is designed to account for the fact that a child will primarily be calling mommy and daddy
  • 22. Exercise……. To expose the students (in groups) to real life situations where in they need to analyze the situation/ scenario and map design opportunities. How………? • Understand the system/ the scenario, its purpose, its values, the market and stake holders. • Alternatives to that system/ scenario. • To go deepest of depth by questioning, reasoning through consumer and market survey. The situations/ scenarios/ areas are : Habibganj Railway Station, Bus Depot in Hamidia Road, Weekly haat in Bittan market, DB mal Outcome – Group Presentation
  • 23. Exercise (contd)……. Individuals from each of the groups need to come up with their specific areas of intervention within the context. The flowchart depicts the approach. Design philosophy Consumer Board Cross check Design brief Governs each other Product defination Inspiration board Concept Development Product Form Governs each other Product Detailing
  • 24. Techniques for visualization and realization of products 1. Defining product area : This is the first step it opens up the door for the already existing forms in a particular product area. For example if we talk about bath accessories we see canister, tooth brush holder, soap dish, tumbler, liquid soap dispenser, towel ring and hanger. We can draw analogies in the already existing product forms due to usability factor. This factor is the largest influencing factor which affects the form. There are certain basic usability factors in bath accessories: • They are to store or contain (almost all of them are hollow forms). • They need to sit stable or get mounted on wall ( stable nature of the products). • They don’t occupy too much space ( to make them easy to hold or use) These usability factors are so strong that they almost form law for the form and scaling (dimensions).
  • 25. 2. Product Form : When we conceptualize a particular product, we do it as per the design brief. Product defination* and Product detailing* goes hand in hand. Both have an impact on each other. For example in a hypothetical case if we again see the bath accessories the product detailing changes with materials and respective processes. There are typicalities attached with every material. Same product area addressed with different materials taking care of the fabrication constraints. *Marked terms – Product defination and product detailing are explained in the next slide.
  • 26. Product Defination In a design brief the product defination characterizes the product. It defines the following aspects: • Product area • Clientele/ market, psyche & taste • Usability/ functionality • Context of redefinition Product Detailing It is the style planning for the product. There are numerous contextual as well as intrinsic styling factors associated with every product. These need to be specified to manufacture the product.
  • 27. Prototyping An approximation of a product (or a system) or its components in some form for a definite purpose in its implementation. It covers all kinds of prototypes used in product development process like mathematical model, pencil sketches and of course the functional physical approximation. There are primarily two aspects of interests which revolves around prototyping : • Form of the prototype : Transforming from a virtual prototype to a physical prototype. • Degree of approximation of the prototype : It can vary from a very rough presentation to an exact replication of the product.
  • 28. Bibliography 1. 2. 3. 4. Design Methods by John Chris Jones Lateral Thinking by Edward de bono Product design and development. By Karl T Ulrich and Steven D Eppinger Product design – practical methods for systematic development of new products. By Mike Baxter 5. Presentation on Design Methodology by by Manisha Singh, Asso Prof, NIFT. 6. 7.