What is design?
Lets start with a hypothetical situation.
Lets imagine ourselves to be primitive cave men without much
tools and resources.
Now in this scenario one of us comes across a huge tall mango
tree. That guy is hungry and wants to have mangoes (That's
DESIRE). But the question is, how can he climb so up (That’s
PROBLEM)? He calls his tribe men and discusses the problem
with them. They look at the mangoes (That’s GOAL) and start
thinking of possibilities of achieving the goal utilizing the existing
resources (That’s basic BRAINSTORMING PROCES). After the
brainstorming process a number of activities start up within the
group to achieve the goal like throwing stones, using long
branches, using climbers to climb ( that’s PROBLEM SOLVING
All these decisions taken to achieve the goal are not certain and
may bear high penalties for error e.g. during the stone throwing
process someone may get injured.
Overall if we see all the processes, they are a jump from present
facts and resources to future possibilities and convenience.
So we can define design as:
• A goal directed problem solving activity.
• Decision making in the face of uncertainty with high penalties for error.
• Optimum solution to the sum of true needs of a particular set of problems.
• Imaginative jump from present facts to future possibilities.
• Relating product with situation to give satisfaction.
• A creative activity – it involves bringing into being something new and useful that has not
One thing that is common to all the above descriptions is that they refer, not to the outcome of
designing, but to its ingredients.
Design is a process which involves the following activities:
The objectives of designing become less concerned with the product itself and more
concerned with the changes that manufacturers, distributers, users and society as a
whole are expected to make in order to adapt to, and to benefit from, the new
Lateral Thinking ….
Lateral Thinking is a form of thinking which seeks new and unusual ways of
approaching and solving problems, and does not merely proceed by logical steps
from the starting point of what is known or believed.
Edward De Bono defines Lateral Thinking as a technique of problem solving by
approaching problems indirectly at diverse angles instead of concentrating on one
approach at length.
Lateral thinking is about moving sideways when working on a problem to try
different perceptions and different concepts.
A process and willingness to look at things in a different way and sometimes even
in an illogical way.
According to de Bono, intelligence is a potential and thinking is a skill to use that
EXAMPLE NO. 1
There are six eggs in the
basket. Each egg is taken
by a girl. Considering there
are six girls who take the
eggs, how can it be that one
egg is left in the basket?
The last girl takes the
basket as well with the
last egg still in it
EXAMPLE NO. 2
EXAMPLE NO. 3
A merchant who owes money to a money lender agrees to settle the debt based upon
the choice of two stones (one black, one white) from a bag where he placed a white and
a black stone from the footpath on which they're standing. If his daughter chooses the
white stone, the debt is canceled; if she picks the black stone, the moneylender gets the
merchant's daughter. However, the moneylender "fixes" the outcome by putting two
black stones in the bag. The daughter sees this but She can't expose him in front of the
witnesses without angering him and making things worse so she picks a stone out of the
DOES SHE WINS/LOSE?
She picks a stone out of the bag, immediately drops it onto the path full of other
stones where it lost. She then points out that the stone she picked must have been the
opposite color of the one remaining in the bag. To know what color it was they must
look at the stone remaining in the bag.. Unwillingly, the moneylender must agree and
cancel the debt. The daughter has solved an intractable problem through the use of
Principle of Lateral Thinking
To get a different perspective on a
problem, try breaking the elements up
and recombining them in a different way
Vertical vs. Lateral Thinking
Thinking traditions firmly based on logical
thinking in which we have certain ways of
looking things & see what can be
deduced from that
Limited when new & non traditional
alternatives are needed
Moving “sideways” to look at things
in a different & sometimes illogical
approaches as one can.
Vertical vs. Lateral Thinking
Moves in one direction
Each step correct
Moves to generate direction
Makes jumps (can be illogical)
Lateral Thinking (4 Step Process)
Edward de Bono’Creative Thinking Process
Results New Ideas
Select , Define &
Capture & Work
Problem solving activity of identified problems
1. Brain storming
Objective is to stimulate a group of people to produce many ideas quickly.
Churning Ideas (contd)………
Objective is to direct the spontaneous activity of the brain and the nervous system
towards the exploration and transformation of design problems by drawing analogies.
• Direct analogy
• Personal analogy
• Symbolic analogy
• Fantacy Analogy
3. Removing mental blocks
Objective is to find new directions of search using transformation techniques when the
apparent search space has yielded no wholly acceptable solution.
• Security system for homes
• Reusable watch package
• Traffic system in bhopal
• Interior of a car
Removing mental block
• Ornamentation of Usha fans.
• Second class sleeper compartments
• What is our domain being accessory designers?
• What is accessory design?
• Being professionals what uniqueness are we supposed to offer?
When a manufacturer/ retailer comes to accessory designer to improvise his or her
product what is his/ her expectation?
User Centered Design Principles
Set Business Goals
– Determining the market, users, and
competition to target is central
– An understanding of the users is the
driving force behind all design.
Design the Total User Experience
– Everything a user uses and feels is
designed together by a
A forearm-mounted, 11-ounce WT4000 Series
wearable computer from Motorola. An answer
for out in the field or warehouse jobs.
User Centered Design Principles
– User feedback is gathered often
and drives product design and
– Competitive design requires a
relentless focus on the
competition and its customers.
Manage for Users
– User Feedback is integral to
product plans, priorities, and
Design experts say that a backlash is brewing
against all the buttons on gadgets like cell phones.
A children's mobile phone from Firefly, pictured
here, is designed to account for the fact that a
child will primarily be calling mommy and daddy
To expose the students (in groups) to real life situations where in they need to analyze the
situation/ scenario and map design opportunities.
• Understand the system/ the scenario, its purpose, its values, the market and stake
• Alternatives to that system/ scenario.
• To go deepest of depth by questioning, reasoning through consumer and market
The situations/ scenarios/ areas are :
Habibganj Railway Station, Bus Depot in Hamidia Road, Weekly haat in Bittan market, DB mal
Outcome – Group Presentation
Individuals from each of the groups need to come up with their specific areas of intervention within
the context. The flowchart depicts the approach.
Techniques for visualization and realization of products
1. Defining product area : This is the first step it opens up the door for the already
existing forms in a particular product area.
For example if we talk about bath accessories we see canister, tooth brush
holder, soap dish, tumbler, liquid soap dispenser, towel ring and hanger.
We can draw analogies in the already existing product forms due to usability factor.
This factor is the largest influencing factor which affects the form. There are certain
basic usability factors in bath accessories:
• They are to store or contain (almost all of them are hollow forms).
• They need to sit stable or get mounted on wall ( stable nature of the products).
• They don’t occupy too much space ( to make them easy to hold or use)
These usability factors are so strong that they almost form law for the form and scaling
2. Product Form : When we conceptualize a particular product, we do it as per the
Product defination* and Product detailing* goes hand in hand. Both have an
impact on each other.
For example in a hypothetical case if we again see the bath accessories the
product detailing changes with materials and respective processes. There are
typicalities attached with every material.
Same product area
addressed with different
materials taking care of
*Marked terms – Product defination and product detailing are explained in the next slide.
In a design brief the product defination characterizes the product. It defines the
• Product area
• Clientele/ market, psyche & taste
• Usability/ functionality
• Context of redefinition
It is the style planning for the product. There are numerous contextual as well as intrinsic
styling factors associated with every product. These need to be specified to manufacture
An approximation of a product (or a system) or its components in some form for a
definite purpose in its implementation.
It covers all kinds of prototypes used in product development process like
mathematical model, pencil sketches and of
course the functional physical approximation.
There are primarily two aspects of interests which revolves around prototyping :
• Form of the prototype : Transforming from a virtual prototype to a physical
• Degree of approximation of the prototype : It can vary from a very rough
presentation to an exact replication of the product.
Design Methods by John Chris Jones
Lateral Thinking by Edward de bono
Product design and development. By Karl T Ulrich and Steven D Eppinger
Product design – practical methods for systematic development of new
products. By Mike Baxter
5. Presentation on Design Methodology by by Manisha Singh, Asso Prof, NIFT.