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Broadband System - N                           Satellites are spaced every                            2nd degrees above ea...
RF test equipment can be divided in two sections.•   Single equipment capable of reading the strength of a    Television C...
Filed Strength Meter capable of reading Television Channels.      This equipment read the level of a single TV channel or ...
Field Strength Meter         Video                 300 to 400 KHz                              Most FSM read between      ...
Multi Function FSMMulti function meter can be classified in two types;•Meter for customer installation•Meter for complete ...
Multi Function FSM   Installation FSM                      6
Installation FSMThe Model One from Trilithic is an installation meter that can            perform the following functions....
Installation FSMThe Model One from Trilithic is an installation meter that can            perform the following functions....
Installation FSMBelow are examples of a signal been read by the Model One F.S.M.           Analog TV channel              ...
Multifunction HFC Analyzer         860 DSPi                             10
Meter for complete system verification.                          BLOCK DIAGRAMRFINPUT                RF FRONT END         ...
Meter for complete system verification.                         Standard functions.Single Channel Measurement- NTSC or PAL...
Meter for complete system verification.-    Full Plan Measurement.    - Level, CTB, CSO, Hum and C/N on      designated ch...
Meter for complete system verification.- QAM, QPSK- Constellation, MER,  pre and post BER, C/(N+I)?- Spectrum under active...
Meter for complete system verification.  QAM-DOCSIS channel, measuring; Level, MER and BER.64 QAM DOCSIS signal.          ...
Meter for complete system verification.· RSVP   Up to 8 frequencies· SSR   New combined displays· Ingress comparison:   SS...
Meter for complete system verification.Spectrum Analyzer Option:· Span 0, 100 KHz to 860 MHz· Resolution Bandwidth 10 KHz ...
Meter for complete system verification.                                          4   8 d B m V                            ...
Meter for complete system verification.           Spectrum Analyzer Measurement.                                          ...
Meter for complete system verification.                                          4   8 d B m V                            ...
Fiber Optic Test  Equipments                   21
HFC SystemSince a HFC system requires two types of communications, one typebeen fiber optic and the other one been coaxial...
Test equipments for fiber optic communicationTest equipments required for the fiber optic section are the following;•Power...
Power meter.  Power meter are required to measure the power output of theoptic transmitting equipment, the input of the re...
Light Source.Optical Light Source gives a calibrated light output that can be used  for testing a fiber link, when no othe...
OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)OTDR are used to check continuity and signal loss on fiber optic link.  CMA-4000-M...
OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)OTDR are used to check continuity and signal loss on fiber optic link.  CMA-4000-D...
OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)OTDR are used to check continuity and signal loss on fiber optic link.  CMA-4000-D...
OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)Printed view of two fiber optic links measurements.                               ...
The Growing Demand for Data TransportIt is clear, as we approach the 21th century the remarkable evolution     in informat...
Capacity of a fiber optic networkSince to-day, the capacity of a fiber optic network is limitedto 10 Gbps, soon to be 40 G...
Ways of Increasing the Capacity of a Fiber Optic System.   * By installing more fiber.   * By augmenting the fiber optic c...
Installing New Fiber OpticInstalling new fiber optic can be very expensive anddifficult in areas like;•Big city.•Submarine...
SONET transmission capacityOptic           Mb/s        Tel. Conv.   TV ch.DS0             0.064        1           *T1    ...
The DWDM TechnologyThe DWDM technology, consist on transmitting manyoptical waves on the same fiber optic.       Dense Wav...
Thirty Two Wavelengths DWDM Frequencies.                                           36
OSA (Optical Spectrum Analyser).                                   37
OSA (Optical Spectrum Analyser).OSA are used to measure Carrier to Noise, Signal amplitude, EDFA’s     flatness and bandwi...
Talk Set.Talk set are used to communicates between the fieldtechnician and the central office people over fiber optic.Opti...
Visual Fault LocatorThe VFL-670 works at 670 nm with              an output of –4.0 dBm. It iscapable of a distance of 2 k...
Optical Fiber Connector Inspection.The FS-X00 Fiberscope is ideal for inspecting optic connector. This unitwill give a 200...
Problems with Fiber Optic Transport System.                                         42
Two majors problems with Fiber optic transport System      • Chromatic Dispersion.      • Polarization Mode Dispersion.   ...
What is Dispersion.The spreading or broadening of light pulses as they           propagate through the fiber              ...
Digital Communication Bit Times                                                                DispersionSONET     SDH    ...
Eye Diagrams - What They Are• For each bit time, there are 8 possibles conditions:                      1 bit time 0 0 0  ...
Typical Good and Bad Eye Diagram (High Bit Error Rate)OneLevel                             Sample                         ...
What is Polarization Mode Dispersion       What is Polarization Mode DispersionPolarization Mode Dispersion is basically d...
Differential Delay                                    The difference in speed between                                    t...
Reading of Chromatic Dispersion.Above are reading of Chromatic Dispersion between 1260 to 1560                         nan...
Chromatic Dispersion.                                +20 -                                                            -   ...
The Results of PMD.Delay caused by     PMD.                               52
PMD AnalyzerThe PMD440 is capable of measuring PMD (Polarisation ModeDispersion). PMD can occur at 1310 and 1550 nm. PMD w...
Reading PMD Results.Good PMD Measurement           Bad PMD Measurement                                                    ...
PMD and HFC System.A HFC system requires the following PMD requirements:For 1310 nm is:      0.5 ps sk-km.For 1550 nm is: ...
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Transcript of "Hfc n test equip for hfc"

  1. 1. Broadband System - N Satellites are spaced every 2nd degrees above earth"C" BandToward satellite 6.0 GHz "L" BandToward earth 4.0 GHz Toward satellite 14.0 GHz Toward earth 12.0 GHz TV TRANSMITTER Headend Cable area 1 Test Equipments Required for a HFC System.
  2. 2. RF test equipment can be divided in two sections.• Single equipment capable of reading the strength of a Television Channels.• Multi function meter, capable of reading; • TV channel signal strength • Digital signal (Power meter) • Multi channel reading (Slope or Tilt) • Spectral view of all the channels carried by an HFC system • C/N measurement. • Distortion measuring (C-N, CTB and CSO) • Frequency Response (Peak & Valley response) • QAM reading (BER, MER and FEC) • Return alignment tool. (Response and Ingress) • Ingress reading (Leakage) 2
  3. 3. Filed Strength Meter capable of reading Television Channels. This equipment read the level of a single TV channel or a single FM music channel. These level can be read as TV channel or Frequency. They also give you the difference in level between the Video and Audio of TV channel. They can usually read signal from: 5 to 870 MHz. 3
  4. 4. Field Strength Meter Video 300 to 400 KHz Most FSM read between 300 to 400 KHz of band 6.0 MHz Audio width. 0 300 to 400 KHz -10 How it is display on the -20 Field Strength Meter -30dB -40 -50 -60 -70 3.59 MHz 4.5 MHz 4
  5. 5. Multi Function FSMMulti function meter can be classified in two types;•Meter for customer installation•Meter for complete system verification.Installation FSM Multifunction HFC Analyzer 5
  6. 6. Multi Function FSM Installation FSM 6
  7. 7. Installation FSMThe Model One from Trilithic is an installation meter that can perform the following functions.Single channel Single channel Digital signal reading Spectral View Strength 7
  8. 8. Installation FSMThe Model One from Trilithic is an installation meter that can perform the following functions. Favourites channels AC – DC Tilt View View Reading 8
  9. 9. Installation FSMBelow are examples of a signal been read by the Model One F.S.M. Analog TV channel QAM TV channel 9
  10. 10. Multifunction HFC Analyzer 860 DSPi 10
  11. 11. Meter for complete system verification. BLOCK DIAGRAMRFINPUT RF FRONT END DISPLAY MULTI-BW I.F. HIGH-SPEED DISPLAY DRIVER 12-BIT DIGITIZER DIRECT DIGITAL “POWER - PC” and SYNTHESIZER DSP PROCESSORS KEYPAD ETHERNET / RS-232C COMMUNICATIONS 11
  12. 12. Meter for complete system verification. Standard functions.Single Channel Measurement- NTSC or PAL video, audio, SAP.- Audio demodulation.- Hum (50/60Hz, 100/120Hz, 1KHz L.P.)- C/N on active channel channels.- CTB, CSO.- Depth of Modulation.- QAM Haystack with power.- Toggle to 1-chan. spectrum mode. 12
  13. 13. Meter for complete system verification.- Full Plan Measurement. - Level, CTB, CSO, Hum and C/N on designated channels - all if possible- Tilt / 8 Channel Plan - Auto Gain and Tilt calculation- FCC Test - Drop, Block and Tap - - - 13
  14. 14. Meter for complete system verification.- QAM, QPSK- Constellation, MER, pre and post BER, C/(N+I)?- Spectrum under active signal 14
  15. 15. Meter for complete system verification. QAM-DOCSIS channel, measuring; Level, MER and BER.64 QAM DOCSIS signal. 256 QAM DOCSIS signal. 15
  16. 16. Meter for complete system verification.· RSVP Up to 8 frequencies· SSR New combined displays· Ingress comparison: SST vs. current location 16
  17. 17. Meter for complete system verification.Spectrum Analyzer Option:· Span 0, 100 KHz to 860 MHz· Resolution Bandwidth 10 KHz to 3 MHz in 1,3 format· Video Bandwidth 100 Hz to 3 MHz in 1,3 format· Spur free Display Range 60 dB· Noise floor -50 dBmV in 10 KHz resolution· Display smoothed to approximate an analog analyzer 17
  18. 18. Meter for complete system verification. 4 8 d B m V 4 7 4 6 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 1 4 0 3 9 3 8 3 75-40 MHz 18
  19. 19. Meter for complete system verification. Spectrum Analyzer Measurement. 4 8 d B m V 4 7 4 6 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 1 4 0 3 9 3 8 3 75-40 MHz 19
  20. 20. Meter for complete system verification. 4 8 d B m V 4 7 4 6 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 1 4 0 3 9 3 8 3 75-40 MHz 20
  21. 21. Fiber Optic Test Equipments 21
  22. 22. HFC SystemSince a HFC system requires two types of communications, one typebeen fiber optic and the other one been coaxial cable, two type of testequipments are require to test both sections of a system. •Test equipment for coaxial cable distribution. •Test equipment for fiber optic communication. 22
  23. 23. Test equipments for fiber optic communicationTest equipments required for the fiber optic section are the following;•Power meter.•Light Source.•OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer).•OSA (Optical Spectrum Analyser).•Talk Set.•Visual Fault Locator•Optical Fiber Identifier.•Optical Scope.•PMD Analyzer. 23
  24. 24. Power meter. Power meter are required to measure the power output of theoptic transmitting equipment, the input of the receiving equipment and the actual loss of a fiber optic link. GN-6025 Freq.: 800 to 1700 nm. +5 to – 70 dBm GN-6025C * Freq.: 800 to 1700 nm. +20 to – 60 dBm * Best for HFC system. 24
  25. 25. Light Source.Optical Light Source gives a calibrated light output that can be used for testing a fiber link, when no other light signal are available. GN-6250 * 1310-1550 nm. - 8.0 dBm GN-6260 1550-1625 nm - 8.0 / - 5.0 dBm *Best for HFC system. 25
  26. 26. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)OTDR are used to check continuity and signal loss on fiber optic link. CMA-4000-MDK-1 •8.4” Colour Matrix Display. •30/28 dB 1310/1550 nm. •Dual Single Opt. Module. •Hard Transit Case. •Network VisionNet Plus Software. 26
  27. 27. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)OTDR are used to check continuity and signal loss on fiber optic link. CMA-4000-DK-2-X •8.4” Colour Matrix Display. •36/34 dB 1310/1550 nm. •Built-in-Hard drive. •Built in Light Source. •Dual Single Opt. Module. •Hard Transit Case. •Network VisionNet Plus Software. 27
  28. 28. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)OTDR are used to check continuity and signal loss on fiber optic link. CMA-4000-DK-3-X •8.4” Colour Matrix Display. •40 dB 1310/1550 nm. •Built-in-Hard drive. •Dual Single Opt. Module. •Built in Light Source. •Hard Transit Case. •Network VisionNet Plus Software. 28
  29. 29. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)Printed view of two fiber optic links measurements. 29
  30. 30. The Growing Demand for Data TransportIt is clear, as we approach the 21th century the remarkable evolution in information services in our society. This revolution in information has been promoted by; • Higher number of long distance phone call • Internet traffic • Multimedia services • Transport of medical picture at high speed • Financial exchanges (Credit card, Direct payments etc.) • Demand for more television signalThese are the reason, why information services need increase in capacity 30
  31. 31. Capacity of a fiber optic networkSince to-day, the capacity of a fiber optic network is limitedto 10 Gbps, soon to be 40 Gbps, we must find other way toincrease the fiber optic’s capacityLet have a look at the possibility of augmenting the capacityof the network. 31
  32. 32. Ways of Increasing the Capacity of a Fiber Optic System. * By installing more fiber. * By augmenting the fiber optic capacity. * By using the technology of CWDM or DWDM. 32
  33. 33. Installing New Fiber OpticInstalling new fiber optic can be very expensive anddifficult in areas like;•Big city.•Submarine cable.•Underground duck been completely full.•Lack of space in CO (Central Office) 33
  34. 34. SONET transmission capacityOptic Mb/s Tel. Conv. TV ch.DS0 0.064 1 *T1 1.54 24 *DS3 44.74 672 *OC-3 155.52 2,016 2OC-12 622.08 8,064 12OC-48 2,488.32 32,256 48OC-96 4,976.64 77,760 55OC-192 9,953.28 155,520 111* Only slow scan picture. 34
  35. 35. The DWDM TechnologyThe DWDM technology, consist on transmitting manyoptical waves on the same fiber optic. Dense Wave Division Multiplexing      35
  36. 36. Thirty Two Wavelengths DWDM Frequencies. 36
  37. 37. OSA (Optical Spectrum Analyser). 37
  38. 38. OSA (Optical Spectrum Analyser).OSA are used to measure Carrier to Noise, Signal amplitude, EDFA’s flatness and bandwidth response and signal frequency.Model CMA4791Wavelength: 1520 - 1570 nmPower Range: +20 to –60 dBmPower Range: +10 to –70 dBm opt.Channel table: 256 channels. 38
  39. 39. Talk Set.Talk set are used to communicates between the fieldtechnician and the central office people over fiber optic.Optical SpecificationsFor Full-duplexOVS-60001310 nmRange: >30 dBOVS-61001310 nmRange: >50 dBAbove on single-mode fiber. single- 39
  40. 40. Visual Fault LocatorThe VFL-670 works at 670 nm with an output of –4.0 dBm. It iscapable of a distance of 2 kilometres. It give a RED visible light, wherethere is a break or a bad connected installed. The unit work for multimodeand single mode fiber optic. 40
  41. 41. Optical Fiber Connector Inspection.The FS-X00 Fiberscope is ideal for inspecting optic connector. This unitwill give a 200X or 400X view for multimode and single mode fiberconnector. You need one of the following ADAPTER: FC-APC, ST, SC-APC,or D4. 41
  42. 42. Problems with Fiber Optic Transport System. 42
  43. 43. Two majors problems with Fiber optic transport System • Chromatic Dispersion. • Polarization Mode Dispersion. 43
  44. 44. What is Dispersion.The spreading or broadening of light pulses as they propagate through the fiber 44
  45. 45. Digital Communication Bit Times DispersionSONET SDH Transmission Rate Bit Time LimitOC-1OC- 51.84 Mb 19.29 ns 2 nsOC-3OC- STM-1 STM- 155.52 Mb 6.43 ns 640 psOC-12OC- STM-4 STM- 622.08 Mb 1.61 ns 160 psOC-24OC- 1244.16 Mb (1.2 Gb) 803.76 ps 80 psOC-48OC- STM-16 STM- 2488.32 Mb (2.4 Gb) 401.88 ps 40 psOC-192OC- STM-64 STM- 9953.28 Mb (10 Gb) 100.47 ps 10 psOC-768OC- STM-256 STM- 39,813.12 Mb (40 Gb) 25.12 ps 2 ps Above are SONET •Transmission Rate •Bit Time •Dispersion Limit 45
  46. 46. Eye Diagrams - What They Are• For each bit time, there are 8 possibles conditions: 1 bit time 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1• Combine (overlap) them for an eye diagram 46
  47. 47. Typical Good and Bad Eye Diagram (High Bit Error Rate)OneLevel Sample WindowZeroLevel 1 bit time OneLevel Sample WindowZeroLevel 1 bit time 47
  48. 48. What is Polarization Mode Dispersion What is Polarization Mode DispersionPolarization Mode Dispersion is basically due to the fact that different polarizations of light travel at different speeds. Off Center Different Size Non-Circular Above are some the majors causes of PMD. 48
  49. 49. Differential Delay The difference in speed between the two cars (or two wavelengths of light) causes them to arrive at the end at different times. The longer the distance, the more 65 mph time difference between them. 55 mph 65 mph Start0 sec. diff 55 mph 65 mph After 1 mille 10 sec. diff 55 mph After 20 mille 200 sec. diff 49
  50. 50. Reading of Chromatic Dispersion.Above are reading of Chromatic Dispersion between 1260 to 1560 nanometre. 50
  51. 51. Chromatic Dispersion. +20 - - Dispersion (psnmxkm) Standard Single-Mode Fiber +10 - - 0 - - DWDM band -10 - - D-NZ-DSF -20 - - 1300 1400 1500 1600 Wavelength (nm)As there are two types of fiber optic with different type of ChromaticDispersion. Above is the Chromatic Dispersion for standard fiber and NZ-DSF (None Zero Chromatic Dispersion). This type aof fiber optic is usedfor long distance transport and utilized the 1550 nm light frequency. 51
  52. 52. The Results of PMD.Delay caused by PMD. 52
  53. 53. PMD AnalyzerThe PMD440 is capable of measuring PMD (Polarisation ModeDispersion). PMD can occur at 1310 and 1550 nm. PMD will be one ofthe major problem with fiber optic for long distance and high speeddata transmission. 53
  54. 54. Reading PMD Results.Good PMD Measurement Bad PMD Measurement 54
  55. 55. PMD and HFC System.A HFC system requires the following PMD requirements:For 1310 nm is: 0.5 ps sk-km.For 1550 nm is: 0.2 ps sk-km.Any worse PMD readings than the above, would cause abad CSO (Composite Second Order) reading at the NODE. 55
  56. 56. 56
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