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  • 1. Broadband System - E Satellites are spaced every 2nd degrees above earth"C" BandToward satellite 6.0 GHz "L" BandToward earth 4.0 GHz Toward satellite 14.0 GHz Toward earth 12.0 GHz TV TRANSMITTER Headend Cable area 1 Passive equipments.
  • 2. Passive Equipment in a Broadband System.All equipments required on a CATV, HFC or Broadband system thatare not amplifying signals are called passives equipments. They fallin the following group;•AC Power supply.•Power inserter.•Coaxial Splitter - Coupler.•Multitap.•Coaxial connectors.•Equalizer.•Attenuator. 2
  • 3. Passive Equipment in a Broadband System.POWER SUPPLY.•The power supply’s function is to convert 110 or 220 Volts AC, 60 Hertz sine wave, toeither 60 or 90 Volts AC 60 Hertz square wave.•The power supply can transform directly the 110 or 220 VAC supplied by the powercompany, to 60 or 90 volts AC. These are called Non-Standby power supply.• Standby Power Supplies are equipped with 3, 4 or 8 batteries, and keep theBroadband system operating, when the power company no longer supplied 110 or 220VAC.•Stand-by Power Supply comes in two types, UPS or Switch Mode. UPS suppliesvoltage to the system at all time, where Switch Mode have a very short delay beforegoing to battery operation. Standby Power supply Non standby DC Power supply to 90 90 90 90-60 90 110-220 180 360 to 0 180 360 180 360 VAC 0 180 360 0 0 90-60 270 VAC 270 3
  • 4. Passive Equipment in a Broadband System. Non standby Power supply UPS Standby Power supply 4
  • 5. Passive Equipment in a Broadband SystemStandby Power Supply will keep the system operating on standby modedepending of the following:•Current draw from the system. system.•Number of batteries installed.•The operating temperature. 5 Time operating
  • 6. Passive Equipment in a Broadband SystemThe Power Inserter is the junction between the coaxial system and the powersupply, it introduce 60 or 90 Volts AC from the Power Supply.The Power Inserter are usually capable of handling 20 amperes.Fuses can be installed on each leg for better protection. 6
  • 7. Passive Equipment in a Broadband SystemRF splitter and coupler function are to distribute RF signal from one coaxial cable totwo or more coaxial cables. The frequency range is 5 to 1000 MHz.•Splitter devise signal evenly. 50% x 50% in both legs.•Coupler devise signal unevenly, 10% x 90%, 20%X80, 40%X60%.•3N Splitter : 4.6 X 4.6 dB loss7N Coupler: 3.4 X 8.4 dB loss9N coupler: 2.4 X 9.7 dB loss12N Coupler: 2.0 X 12.7 dB loss16N Coupler : 1.9 X 16.6 dB loss 7
  • 8. Passive Equipment in a Broadband SystemUtilisation of a RF splitter and a RF coupler. 4.5 dB loss by 4.5 dB equal distance from splitter, 3.5 dB loss by 10.9 dB long distance short distance 8
  • 9. Passive Equipment in a Broadband SystemThe Multitap function is to attached the customer drop to the BroadbandSystem. Multitap comes equipped with; 2, 4 or 8 output. The output level ateach outlet on a modern system should be between; 14 to 16 dBmVThe thru loss of a multitap depends on his value, the higher the value of themultitap, the less is the insertion loss.They come in the following values: 35.0, 32.0, 29.0, 26.0, 23.0, 20.0, 17.0, , 14.0, 12.0, 10.5, 10.0, 7.5 Where the 14 to 16 dBmV customer Installation goes. 9
  • 10. Passive Equipment in a Broadband SystemExample of the input signal required and the thru loss at a multitapsupplying: + 14.0 dBmV level at the customer’s drop. Thru loss of the multitap: 1.7 dB @ 870 MHz Input Level: 34.0 dBmV Output Level: 32.3 dBmV 14 dBmV output At 870 MHz. 10
  • 11. Passive Equipment in a Broadband System Tap Specifications. 2 Outputs ModelModel 5-MHz 50-MHz 50- 450-MHz 450- 550-MHz 550- 750-MHz 750- 870-MHz 870- 1000-MHz 1000-4TN - - - - - - -7N 3.4 3.3 3.9 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.710N 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.8 2.2 2.5 3.212N 1.4 1.0 1.5 1.6 1.9 2.4 2.714N 1.1 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.217N 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.7 2.020N 0.6 0.5 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.923N 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.826N 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.829N 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.832N 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.835N 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.8 11
  • 12. Passive Equipment in a Broadband System Tap Specifications. 4 Outputs ModelModel 5-MHz 50-MHz 50- 450-MHz 450- 550-MHz 550- 750-MHz 750- 870-MHz 870- 1000-MH 1000-7N - - - - - - -10N 3.3 3.3 3.3 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.214N 1.6 1.3 1.9 1.9 2.4 2.6 3.217N 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.620N 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.7 2.123N 0.6 0.5 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.926N 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.929N 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.932N 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.935N 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.9 12
  • 13. Passive Equipment in a Broadband System Tap Specifications. 8 Outputs ModelModel 5-MHz 50-MHz 50- 450-MHz 450- 550-MHz 550- 750-MHz 750- 870-MHz 870- 1000-MH 1000-10N - - - - - - -14N 3.9 3.4 3.3 4.0 4.0 4.6 5.017N 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.3 2.7 2.8 3.520N 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.9 2.1 2.623N 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.7 2.126N 0.6 0.5 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.6 2.029N 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.932N 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.935N 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.9 13
  • 14. Passive Equipment in a Broadband SystemTypical multitap installation between two RF amplifiers. 26 23 20 17 14 11 90 to 100Multitaps are placed about 90 to 100 feet apart in most system. Noticethat we never install a multitap at the input of an RF amplifier. 14
  • 15. Passive Equipment in a Broadband SystemCoaxial connectors are a vital part of the CATV system. They connect all theactive and passive equipment to the coaxial cable system. They require specialtool to be connected to the cable, so they won’t cause the signal to leak out of thecable or let outside signal get in the Broadband system. Connect to all housing. Ingress sleeve Connect Inside housing 15
  • 16. Passive Equipment in a Broadband SystemSignal equalizer is the first piece of equipment installed in all RF amplifier. Theirmain function is to bring all the signal to a flat input before these signals areamplified.There are two thing required for a proper Equalizer, the first one been, the rightsystem frequency for the system and the second one been, the right value ofequalization. 16
  • 17. Passive Equipment in a Broadband System 22 21 Frequency response of 450 - 750 - 870 - 1,000 MHz 20 19 18 17 16 15EQ Value dB 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 50 450 750 870 1,000 17
  • 18. Passive Equipment in a Broadband System Insertion of 50 - 1000 MHz Equalizer 18
  • 19. Passive Equipment in a Broadband System Insertion loss of 50 - 750 & 870 MHz Equalizer 19
  • 20. Passive Equipment in a Broadband System Frequency response of 5 - 40 & 65 MHz Equalizer 12 EQ- 40 - 65 MHz 11 10 EQ Value dB 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 5 40 65 MHz 20
  • 21. Passive Equipment in a Broadband SystemFixed attenuators are also called attenuation “PAD”. There function is to reduce RFlevel to get the RF amplifier to operates in their proper range. Even with theinstallation of PAD, the final adjustment of an amplifier should always be done witha variable GAIN, a TLC or AGC control.•Depending on the type of amplifiers used, some pad comes in values of 3, 6, 9, 12and 15 dB, some other suppliers will supply PAD from 0 to 25 dB in one dB step. Where PAD can be placed in an RF Amplifier 870 MHz 50 870 MHz MHz 50 MHz to Different PAD Values 870 50 status monitoring -20 dB MHz MHz 40 JXP RF/ 870 MHz 5 RF MHz MHz AC AC 50 -20 dB MHz Possibility of 5 40 RF Splitter or MHz MHz RF/ EQ JXP BODE BRD JXP AC RF 7, 10, 12 dB AC coupler ADU JXP -20 dB Manual JXP RF/ Gain RF AC AC 5 40 Control -20 dB MHz MHz Possibility of a 3th ICS JXP RF output 5 40 from MHz MHz status monitoring -20 dB -16 dB fuse ICS fuse EQ JXP JXP Drive 24 Vdc to status Power vcc monitoring Supply -20 dB fuse 90 / 60 Vac fuse ICS JXP 21
  • 22. TEST! 22
  • 23. Name two types of Power Supply._______________________________________________________________________What is called the piece that goes between the Power supply and the cable system._______________________________________________________________________What is the right output value of a multitap.________________________________________________________________________How many batteries are required on Stand-by- Power Supply.________________________________________________________________________What is UPS stand for.________________________________________________________________________What is the main function of a cable equalizer.________________________________________________________________________What are the Pad main function in an RF amplifier.________________________________________________________________________ 23
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