Learning disabilities Part 1


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Learning disabilities Part 1

  1. 1. LearningDisabilities
  2. 2. What are the learning disabilities? Learning disabilities, or learning disorders, are an umbrella term for a wide variety of learning problems. A learning disability is not a problem with intelligence or motivation. Kids with learning disabilities aren’t lazy or dumb. In fact, most are just as smart as everyone else. Their brains are simply wired differently. This difference affects how they receive and process information.
  3. 3. Common Types of LearningDisabilitiesDyslexia Difficulty reading Problems reading, writing, spelling, speakingDyscalculia Difficulty with Problems doing math math problems, understanding time, using moneyDysgraphia Difficulty with Problems with writing handwriting, spelling, organizing ideasDyspraxia Difficulty with Problems with hand–eye(Sensory fine motor skills coordination, balance,Integration manual dexterityDisorder)
  4. 4. Common Types of Learning DisabilitiesDysphasia/ Difficulty with Problems understandingAphasia language spoken language, poor reading comprehensionAuditory Difficulty hearing Problems with reading,Processing differences comprehension,Disorder between sounds languageVisual Difficulty Problems with reading,Processing interpreting math, maps, charts,Disorder visual symbols, pictures information
  5. 5. Learning disabilities in reading (dyslexia) There are two types of learning disabilities in reading.1. Basic reading problems - occur when there is difficultyunderstanding the relationshipbetween sounds, letters and words.2. Reading comprehension problems - occur when there is aninability to grasp the meaning ofwords, phrases, and paragraphs.
  6. 6. Signs of reading difficulty include problems with:letter and word recognitionunderstanding words and ideasreading speed and fluencygeneral vocabulary skills
  7. 7. Learning disabilities in math (dyscalculia)Learning disabilities in math vary greatly depending on the child’s other strengths and weaknesses. A child’s ability to do math will be affected differently by a language learning disability, or a visual disorder or a difficulty with sequencing,memory or organization.
  8. 8. A child with a math–based learning disorder may struggle with memorization and organization of numbers, operation signs, and number ―facts‖ (like 5+5=10 or 5x5=25).Children with math learning disorders might also have trouble with counting principles (such as counting by 2s or counting by 5s) or have difficulty telling time.
  9. 9. Learning disabilities in writing (dysgraphia)Learning disabilities in writing can involve the physical act of writing or the mental activity of comprehending and synthesizing information.Basic writing disorder refers to physical difficulty forming words and letters.Expressive writing disability indicates a struggle to organize thoughts on paper.
  10. 10. Symptoms of a written languagelearning disability revolve around theact of writing. They include problems with:neatness and consistency of writingaccurately copying letters and wordsspelling consistencywriting organization and coherence
  11. 11. Learning disabilities in motorskills (dyspraxia) Motor difficulty refers to problems with movement and coordination whether it is with fine motor skills (cutting, writing) or gross motor skills (running, jumping). A motor disability is sometimes referred to as an ―output‖ activity meaning that it relates to the output of information from the brain. In order to run, jump, write or cut something, the brain must be able to communicate with the necessary limbs to complete the action.
  12. 12. Dyspraxia by Category Category May Cause Trouble with: Inability to complete single-stepIdeomotor Dyspraxia motor tasks such as combing hair and waving goodbye. Difficulty with multi-step tasks like brushing teeth, making aIdeational Dyspraxia bed, putting clothes on in order, as well as buttoning and buckling Difficulties coordinating theOromotor Dyspraxia muscle movements needed to pronounce words Problems with establishing spatial relationships — forConstructional Dyspraxia instance being able to accurately position or move objects from one place to another
  13. 13. Learning disabilities in language(aphasia/dysphasia)Language and communication learning disabilities involve the ability to understand or produce spoken language.Language is also considered an output activity because it requires organizing thoughts in the brain and calling upon the right words to verbally explain something or communicate with someone else.
  14. 14. Auditory processing disorderProfessionals may refer to the ability to hear well as ―auditory processing skills‖ or ―receptive language.‖An auditory processing disorder interferes with an individuals ability to analyze or make sense of information taken in through the ears.
  15. 15. Visual processing disorderProblems in visual perception include:- missing subtle differences in shapes- reversing letters or numbers- skipping words- skipping lines- misperceiving depth or distance- having problems with eye–hand coordination.
  16. 16. Short quizwrite ―True‖ if the statement iscorrect and ―False if it is wrong.‖____1.ADHD means attention deficit/hyperactively Disease.____2. Inattentive Type is when children show both hyperactive and impulsive behaviour, but are able to pay attention.____3. One of the Hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms of ADHD includes fidget and squirming.
  17. 17. ____4. Combined Type - Children withthis type of ADHD show all threesymptoms(Inattentive/Hyperactive/Impulsive this is the most commonform of ADHD.___5. Behavioural treatment forchildren with ADHD involvesadjusting the environment to promote more successful socialinteractions.