Combining Clauses

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  • 随着年龄的增长,儿童需要用更复杂的句式表达自己的意思,因为他们需要接触到更多的信息流,用到更复杂的句式(例如对关联词的使用),掌握更多的语言形式,他们要学会用不同的策略来表达。
  • 讲述重点:儿童是如何由词开始合成从句的。包括并列从句、补语从句、关系从句、时间从句、因果从句。我将重点讲一下关系从句。要习得以上结构,儿童要做到两件事:一 . 如何合并两个或两个以上的从句为一个独立结构,以表达特定含义 ;二 . 正确的运用形式(可以说是相当于习得正确的语法吗?)
  • 复句(从句)的习得有六个种类,我分为两个部分来讲复句习得。第一部分是概述;后面是儿童复句习得的步骤和五种类型。第一步:连词的使用;五种类型分别是关系从句、补语结构、时间结构、因果结构、条件结构。我主要讲连词,关系从句,补语结构的习得 , 其他的类型一带而过。
  • 什么是从句,从句与短语的区别,两种类型:独立分句(可以单独成句的分句)和从属分句(依附从属于另一个分句,并且是它的一个成分的分句。从属分句通常用从属连词或关系代 / 副词 与另一个分句相连。)今天的内容主要是从属分句的习得。
  • 儿童习得复句的第一步是从连词的使用开始的。 首先来看 D 的例子, a 、 b 句是因果关系的, c 句是时间关系的。 D 的句子只是一些简单的联合,儿童对复句习得的下一步是加连词,一开始是 [er] 或者停顿。在 2 岁半的时候,儿童开始加连词,例如 and, because, when, if 来连接各个分句。
  • 人们把分句组合在一起有两种手段,要么选用并列句、要么选用从句。选哪一种取决于许多因素:比如谈话的类型,谈话的目的或者取决于对话者和不同的时机。首先出现的连词是 :and. Ardery 为了了解儿童是否会对不同的事件类型用不同的连词做了一项研究,表 10.1 是她的研究结果。从表中可以看出, 2 岁半到 6 岁的儿童对某些并列结构表现出系统的理解。
  • Ardery 还得出,他们对难理解的词会用简单的结构代替。 Ardery 对此种现象有三种解释:动词优先效应(动词是从句结构的首要单位);线性句式(句子是主语加动词加宾语的);并列策略(两件或两件以上的事情可以用 and 等连接词连接起来)。
  • And 之后习得的是 that, who, when, because, if 等词,可以有表 10.2 得出 。
  • 通过以上两个例子,为了更好的了解儿童把两个分句连在一起的方式,我们下面来看一下关系从句的研究。
  • 关系从句的习得过程在儿童复句习得中是很重要的, 人们习惯称由关系代词 that , which , who , whom , whose 和关系副词 when , where 等引导的从句为“定语从句” ,英语中定语是后置的。关系从句的习得从 2 岁开始。 表 3 说明一种位置的变化,位置由最后变成内嵌。 表 4 说明 echo 只要能听到关联词 that 或者 who 就可以很好的重复句子的内容,但是没有这些标志词时她理解起来就有困难。这说明,在没听到关联词时,她没意识到句子的关系。
  • 在儿童习得复句的过程中,在说明情况下容易;什么情况下困难? 在英语中,关系从句有关系代词,有些其它语言没有,必须通过连接词作为标志。
  • 对比研究发现,修饰语在被修饰对象之前的语言中的儿童比修饰语在被修饰对象之后语言的儿童习得关系从句要早,例如英语和法语的儿童掌握关系从句比土耳其语和日语儿童早。 介绍习得的年龄顺序。
  • 总的来说,习得关系代词,儿童同时要学会功能和形式,学会怎样恰当的运用它们。 不同的语言中习得年龄也不同。
  • 补语从句分为非限定从句和不定式从句。通过两个图表来说明两种类型:表 10.6 儿童语言中的插入语形式;表 10.7 儿童补充句子的习得阶段。
  • 在这些词后面,儿童很少或不用 that ,为什么呢?因为儿童的父母们 97% 的情况下不用 that 。 像 think, know, bet, mean, guess, 这些词都映射着儿童的态度。
  • 要掌握不定式分句,儿童首先要掌握这些动词的意思:表示计划的: want to, be going to, have to; 表示意愿的 : try to, be ready to, need to; 表示说明的 : show how, know where to, ask to; 表示负面意思的 : forget to, used to, not nice to. 儿童在 8 , 9 岁之前很少能全部正确使用它们。
  • 通过一个研究实例和一个表来说明时间从句的习得。 例 4 : 3 岁时,儿童开始用 when 来做时间上的描述, a, b 是同时发生的; c, d 是序列性的。
  • 对 before 的习得早于对 after 的习得,到 4 , 5 岁的时候,这两个词的运用都会很好了。 其他的时间连词,如 while, when, during, until, since, when, before, after 是怎样习得的,还需要时间研究。
  • 开始儿童只会简单的并列,不使用连接词,承认必须依靠上下文来推断他们的意思。
  • 儿童用 from 来标记因果从句中的施事。 总体来说,儿童儿童在 3 到 3 岁半时能够说出复句的因果联系。
  • Combining Clauses

    1. 1. Combining clauses : More complex constructions By 曹文静 0997067 [email_address]
    2. 2. Focus <ul><li>How children combine clauses, from their first word combinations onwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition for coordinate, complement, relative, temporal, causal constructions. </li></ul>How to combine two or more clauses into single construction to express a specific meaning Children must learn The appropriate forms
    3. 3. Outline Combining propositions 1 Relative clause 2 Complement constructions 3 Temporal constructions 4 Causal constructions 5 Conditional constructions 6
    4. 4. What is Clause? <ul><li>A group of words that contains a subject and a verb . </li></ul><ul><li>It is different from a phrase in that a phrase does not include a subject and a verb relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Tow kinds: Independent and Dependent Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Clauses can not stand by themselves. they are joined with independent clauses in order to make sense. </li></ul>
    5. 5. The first stages: combining propositions <ul><li>【 Example 1 】 </li></ul><ul><li>a. D (1;11.11, as father tested the car door to see if the child lock is on): car driving: Don’t open. Don’t open. </li></ul><ul><li>b. D (1;11.23, playing with toy car, pushing and letting it run; as it slowed down): [ ] race-car stopping, [ ] red light. I(t) waiting [ ] red light </li></ul><ul><li>c. D (2;1.11, watching his parents at breakfast): I get bigger I have tea </li></ul>
    6. 6. Coordination and subordination <ul><li>First conjunctions: and </li></ul><ul><li>Order of acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>【 Table 10.1 】 </li></ul><ul><li>Order of acquisition: Understanding coordinate </li></ul><ul><li>construction-types ( Ardery 1980:313-314 ) </li></ul>
    7. 8. Coordination and subordination <ul><li>The coordinate structures best understood were the ones the children seemed able to produce most easily </li></ul><ul><li>Three reasons </li></ul>a) Verb primacy b) Linear sequencing c) A coordination strategy
    8. 9. <ul><li>Next: that, who, when, because, if. </li></ul>Coordination and subordination 【 table 10.2 】 Early connectives and semantic relations in child speech (Bloom and her colleagues 1980: 249)
    9. 10. <ul><li>Up to age 2;9, the connective children produced most frequently were and, because, what, when, so. Somewhat less frequent were and then, if, that, and where. </li></ul>
    10. 11. 【 Example 2 】 a. Eric (2;5.21, going toward disks): Get them cause I want it [causal] b. GIA (2;10.15, using a toy telephone): Mother: who did you call GIA : the man who fixes the door. [referent specification] c. Peter (3;2, telling about a friend who hurt her foot): She put a band-aid on her shoe and it maked it feel better. [causal] 【 Example 3 】 Adult: maybe he’ll ride the horse. Child: yeah, when he comes in
    11. 12. Relative clause 【 table 10.3 】 Typical relative clauses in D’s speech (Clark) 【 table 10.4 】 Some relative clauses imitated by Echo, aged 2;2 (Based on Slobin & Welsh 1973) Begin age: 2 Echo managed to repeat the content appropriately as long as the Relative clauses she heard contained relativizers like who or that . Final position Medial position
    12. 15. Relative clause Easier : <ul><li>When relative clauses interrupt the main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. the dog that we stroked ran away. </li></ul><ul><li>When the object of the main clause is also the object of the relative clause. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. the dog ran to the tree that the cat was in. </li></ul>Harder : <ul><li>When the subject of the main clause is also the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. the dog that chased me crossed the road. </li></ul><ul><li>When the relative clause is attached to the object noun phrase of the main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. the dog crossed the road that goes uphill. </li></ul>
    13. 16. Relative clause 【 table 10.5 】 response-types by age in referent specification (Tager-Flusberg 1982:110) <ul><li>3 years old: few relative clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Both 3 and 4: favored preposition phrases </li></ul><ul><li>5 years old: more relative clauses </li></ul>
    14. 18. Relative clause <ul><li>In summery </li></ul><ul><li>In acquiring relative clauses, children must identified both function and form, and learn how to interpret and use this type of modification in a range of different syntactic positions. </li></ul><ul><li>different languages, different acquiring age. </li></ul>
    15. 19. Complement constructions <ul><li>Complement constructions </li></ul>Finite clauses Infinite clauses Finite clauses Infinite clauses 【 table 10.6 】 Forms of parenthetical verbs in child speech (Diessel & Tomasello 2000) 【 table 10.7 】 Stages in the acquisition of to complements (Bloom, Tackeff& Lahey 1984)
    16. 22. Complement constructions <ul><li>In summery </li></ul><ul><li>Children must learn which verbs can take that and to complement constructions, the meanings of those verbs, and the relation between their meanings of those verbs, and construal of the complement clause. </li></ul>
    17. 23. Temporal constructions <ul><li>【 Example 4 】 </li></ul><ul><li>a. I was crying when my mummy goed away (= at a time) </li></ul><ul><li>When I was a baby, I got washed in a basin. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m coming up when Nicola’s jumped.(= after) </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll pick it up when I’ve made this.(= after) </li></ul>When children talk about more than one event and link them in time, they simply juxtapose them.
    18. 24. 【 table 10.9 】 Three-year-old children rely on order of mention (Clark 1971) <ul><li>Conclusion : </li></ul><ul><li>they rely on what they have observed </li></ul><ul><li>They also rely on heavy stress </li></ul>
    19. 25. Causal constructions <ul><li>Begin age: 2—2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>【 Example 5 】 </li></ul><ul><li>D (2;4.17): I’m tired </li></ul><ul><li>Mother: You’re tired? </li></ul><ul><li>D (looking at his doll “asleep” in his cart): ’cause I’m going to go to bed. </li></ul><ul><li>D (2;4.18): Those lights on ’cause it getting light. Mother: You mean dark? </li></ul><ul><li>D : No, it getting light . </li></ul><ul><li>Mother: Oh, they make it light? </li></ul><ul><li>D : Yes . </li></ul>
    20. 26. Causal constructions <ul><li>【 Example 6 】 </li></ul><ul><li>D (2;6.12, reporting an incident of three months earlier): Then I cried a bit from you go get him </li></ul><ul><li>S (2;8.3,explaining how a block became stuck on top of his toy garage): That’s fro<respire> that’s from I put a thing on it. </li></ul><ul><li>D (2;10.23,): If I talk too much, I be tired from doing that. </li></ul>By age 3 to 3.5, children appear to have established because for both external and internal causes.
    21. 27. Summery <ul><li>In this chapter, we reviewed some major types of clause combinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Children become more precise about what they mean and incorporate into their utterance. </li></ul><ul><li>Also increases the possibilities for speakers as they “think for speaking”. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, all these structural options are put to use by speakers to further their goals in conversation. </li></ul>
    22. 28. <ul><li>Thanks for your time </li></ul><ul><li>and attention! </li></ul>

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