Indigenous ResearchBy Angelito B. MenesesSocial Development 398University of the Philippines
Indigenous Research and Research on, about and with Indigenous People done by scholars conducted by who develop outsider indigenous theorizing researchers on their identify and use terms indigenous concepts for their own build their projects purposes or those on an indigenous of their institutions research paradigmSource: Porsanger, 2010
Decolonizing Methodologies “Research is probably one of the dirtiest words in the indigenous world’s vocabulary” – Linda Tuhiwai Smith Decolonizing Methodologies, sets the scene for an extensive critique of Western paradigms of research and knowledge from the position of an indigenous and “colonized” Mäori woman (Wilson, 2001).Carla Wilson. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand • Issue 17 • December 2001
Smith challenges traditional Western ways of knowing and researching and calls for the “decolonization” of methodologies, and for a new agenda of indigenous research. According to Smith, “decolonization” is concerned with having “a more critical understanding of the underlying assumptions, motivations and values that inform research practices.” Using Kaupapa Maori, a fledgling approach toward culturally appropriate research protocols and methodologies, Smith‟s work is designed primarily to develop indigenous peoples as researchers.Carla Wilson. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand • Issue 17 • December 2001
The principles of Kaupapa Maori in Indigenous Research Tino Rangatiratanga – The Principle of Self-determinationTino Rangatiratanga relates to sovereignty, autonomy, control, self-determination and independence. The notion of Tino Rangatiratangaasserts and reinforces the goal of Kaupapa Māori initiatives: allowingMāori to control their own culture, aspirations and destiny. Taonga Tuku Iho – The Principle of Cultural Aspiration This principle asserts the centrality and legitimacy of Te Reo Māori, Tīkanga and Mātauranga Māori. Within a Kaupapa Māori paradigm, these Māori ways of knowing, doing and understanding the world are considered valid in their own right. In acknowledging their validity and relevance it also allows spiritual and cultural awareness and other considerations to be taken into account.http://www.rangahau.co.nz/research-idea/27/
Kaupapa Maori Ako Māori – The Principle of Culturally Preferred Pedagogy This principle acknowledges teaching and learning practices that are inherent and unique to Māori, as well as practices that may not be traditionally derived but are preferred by Māori. Kia piki ake i ngā raruraru o te kainga – The Principle of Socio- Economic Mediation This principle asserts the need to mediate and assist in the alleviation of negative pressures and disadvantages experienced by Māori communities. This principle asserts a need for Kaupapa Māori research to be of positive benefit to Māori communities. It also acknowledges the relevance and success that Māori derived initiatives have as intervention systems for addressing socio- economic issues that currently exist.http://www.rangahau.co.nz/research-idea/27/
Kaupapa Maori Whānau – The Principle of Extended Family StructureIt acknowledges the relationships that Māori have to one another andto the world around them. This principle acknowledges theresponsibility and obligations of the researcher to nurture and care forthese relationships and also the intrinsic connection between theresearcher, the researched and the research. Kaupapa - The Principle of Collective Philosophy The Kaupapa refers to the collective vision, aspiration and purpose of Māori communities. Larger than the topic of the research alone, the kaupapa refers to the aspirations of the community. The research topic or intervention systems therefore are considered to be an incremental and vital contribution to the overall kaupapa.http://www.rangahau.co.nz/research-idea/27/
Kaupapa Maori Te Tiriti o Waitangi – The Principle of the Treaty of Waitangi The Tiriti provides a basis through which Māori may critically analyze relationships, challenge the status-quo, and affirm the Māori rights. Ata - The Principle of Growing Respectful Relationships The principle of āta, was developed by Pohatu (2005) primarily as a transformative approach within the area of social services. The principle of āta relates specifically to the building and nurturing of relationships. It acts as a guide to the understanding of relationships and wellbeing when engaging with Māori.http://www.rangahau.co.nz/research-idea/27/
Significance to Social DevelopmentIt gives the indigenous people powerIf indigenous people do want to decide about their present andfuture, they need access to their own knowledge. All indigenouspeoples know from their own philosophies as well as from their ownexperiences of colonization that knowledge is power.Self-determined DevelopmentSelf-determined development in the context of research articulatesan indigenous framework and defines the processes by which socialjustice is achieved by indigenous peoples on which they can freelypursue their economic, social and political development (Abayao,2010).
Case AnalysisThe Ifugao’ Alim as Gendered Discourse. A doctoral dissertation in thePhilippine Studies by Rosario de Santos del Rosario (2003).(Alim explores the character of their god-bathala called Makanungan, the lives of theirseveral gods, and deities, and their idea of “heaven.” Alim is sung as part of their ritualreligious songs.)Research ProblemHow does the „alim in its context articulate notion of Ifugao genderand social life, what are those notions, to whom, for whom, and why isit articulating them?Research ObjectivesIn order to answer the question, the researcher makes an analysis ofthe alim discourse, that is, its text and context. Then draws forth itsnotions of ifugao social life as well as its gender notions, thendetermine to whom the alim is being addressed, for whom it isarticulating its messages, and how it is doing so.
Conceptual Framework Macro Context External factors: State, Laws, Gender, religionInternal factors: Ifugao terrain, population, rice terraces, history, kinship organization, marriage and divorce, gender, social stratification. Micro/Local Context Oral Discourses - Ritual (Baki) - Dinupday honga - Alim Piwong, the Field SiteStructure & content Mode of Production & of the ‘alim Performance of ‘alim Notion of Gender & Social Life, Gender Ideology
Methods in Data Gathering and Analysis Ethnography -It is a naturalistic observation and holistic understandings of cultures or subcutures (Babbie & Rubin, 2001).It gives an intimate feel for the way of life observed by the researcher. Transcription and Translation - recording of the ‘alim on two tapes recorder using UHER reel tape and a Sony cassette tape recorder . - taking notes - photos –but hardly could for fear of disrupting the performer with the flashing light and clicking sound of the camera. - made some sketches - in the transcription a local transcribed the sounds recorded according to Filipino orthography Feminist Discourse Analysis “So to interpret the ‘alim, I tried to first understand the patterns in its language, from which I established several meanings. I realized, of course, that my own sense of ordering and understanding was guiding my recognition of the patterns, meanings, and ideologies.”
Major Conclusions- It is clear that the alim is a male performance, and is associated with a mythology that focuses on male creators, male distributors (traders), male bonding, and male spiritual connection through the male Mumbaki.- In social life as in the alim narrative, pigs are mainly associated with males. In consumption of pigs, males play a big role in running after them to catch them, in trying then up ready for killing, and in dressing and partitioning then for distribution and cooking.- The performance of the alim is a display of male expertise, male artistic expression, male symbolism, male bonding and male spiritual conceptualizations.
Major Conclusions- The language of the alim, depicts images of men’s daily experiences, and elicits the feelings of those moments women are tied down to the tedious job of daily weeding in the fields, an image which the alim is silent about.- In the narrative, there are more active male characters than female.- The alim stresses the importance of ‘biyawhood” – a trading partnership of equals that is full of merriment, and which is necessary for prosperity, as it facilitates travel, contacts and exchange.- The alim recognizes that there is a tension between husband and wife.- There is a material basis to say that the alim (and its singer) are promoting the alim for material and non- material benefits they desire from its performance.
Major Conclusions- The alim is an ideological apparatus, which contributes to the process of reproducing the relations of production (agricultural and trading partnership) in real life.- The alim as discourse reflects, and projects notions of social life and gender and ideology.- Ifugao culture, therefore cannot sweepingly be called patriarchal, and this concern in the male alim to promote the importance of men and men’s preference mode of production in actually a negotiation with the other half of society, and even with other males, who will need convincing. Ifugao discourses allow for alternative male and female opinions to be aired, in alternating chants between males and females. The alim, like its female counterpart, the hudhud, is singly negotiating its own beliefs.
ReferencesAbayao, L.E. 2011. Owning research and building force at the margin: indigenous peoples as agents of self-determined development Towards an Alternative Development Paradigm: Indigenous People’s Self-Determined Development. 2011. Tebtebba Indigenous peoples International Centre for Policy Research andEducation.Corpus, V.T. 2011. Indigenous peoples’ self-determined development: challenges and trajectories. Towards anAlternative Development Paradigm: Indigenous People’s Self-Determined Development. 2011. TebtebbaIndigenous peoples International Centre for Policy Research and EducationDel Rosario, R. 2003. The Ifugao’ Alim as Gendered Discourse. A doctoral dissertation in the PhilippineStudies Posanger, J. 2011. Self-determination and indigenous research: capacity building on our own terms. Towardsan Alternative Development Paradigm: Indigenous People’s Self-Determined Development. 2011. TebtebbaIndigenous peoples International Centre for Policy Research and Education.Wilson, C. 2001. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous People. Social Policy Journal of NewZealand • Issue 17.http://www.rangahau.co.nz/research-idea/27/