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[ARC2423] Building Services- Project 2 : The inspiration and the intervention
 

[ARC2423] Building Services- Project 2 : The inspiration and the intervention

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    [ARC2423] Building Services- Project 2 : The inspiration and the intervention [ARC2423] Building Services- Project 2 : The inspiration and the intervention Presentation Transcript

    • BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 2423) Project 2 : The inspiration and the intervention Bachelor of Science (Honours) Architecture Members Ang Boon Cheong 0315560 Alice Wong Kie King 0309221 Angeline Kon Kee Hooi 0302068 Chua Sor Hong 0315561 Eric Kwan Zheng Hao 0300694 Kueh Yen Chiew 0312706
    • Content 1. Objectives 3. The Intervention- S.M.K Bandar Sunway 2. The Inspiration - PJ Hilton Hotel 3.1 Introduction to the Building Brief History Site Plan Floor Plan 2.1 Introduction to the Building Brief History Site Plan Floor Plan 2.2 Literature Review 2.2.1 Centralised Air-conditioning System 2.2.2 Active and Passive Fire Protection System 2.2.3 Mechanical Transportation System 2.3 Centralised air-conditioning system Introduction & Function Components of System Operation of System UBBL Requirements and Acts 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System Introduction & Function Components of System Operation of System UBBL Requirements and Acts 2.5 Mechanical Transportation System Introduction & Function Components of System Operation of System UBBL Requirements and Acts 2.6 Discussion 3.2 Proposed Renovation 3.2.1 Plans 3.2.2 Sections 3.2.3 Types of Service System 3.2.3a Centralised air-conditioning system Introduction & Function Components of System Operation of System UBBL Requirements and Acts Reasons for placement of the components Advantages and Disadvantages of the placements 3.2.3b Active and Passive Fire Protection System Introduction & Function Components of System Operation of System UBBL Requirements and Acts Reasons for placement of the components Advantages and Disadvantages of the placements 3.2.3c Mechanical Transportation System Introduction & Function Components of System Operation of System UBBL Requirements and Acts Reasons for placement of the components Advantages and Disadvantages of the placements 4. Conclusion 5. References
    • Design Inspiration 1. Objectives Hilton Hotel The main objective of this project to introduce the basic principles, process and equipment of various building services systems through real life project. This study mainly considers the following: The Inspiration: Report of Findings and The Intervention: Application in Design which expose us to the integration of various building services systems in a building and creates an opportunity for us to demonstrate the understanding of building services systems through application on design intervention. For the Design Inspiration, we visited PJ HIlton Hotel to perform a thorough study and analysis of the following services systems employed in the building: 1) centralised air-conditioning system 2) active and passive fire protection system 3) mechanical transportation system For the Design Intervention, we visited SMK Bandar Sunway and proposed a design intervention towards the original school building design which currently does not employ any centralised air-conditioning and mechanical transportation system with only basic fire safety and protection system, assuming the school owner wish to air-conditioned most of the rooms including the corridors and upgrade the fire protection as well as mechanical transportation systems without removing any of the main rooms and spaces. All in all, we learned to identify and understand the components and function of building services system, the operation of the system and space implications including related regulations. With reference to the systems used in the case study, we proposed an appropriate building services systems for a given type of building.
    • Design Inspiration 2. The Inspiration Hilton Hotel PJ Hilton Hotel 2.1 Introduction to the building Brief History Hilton Petaling Jaya inspired by an elegant yet simplistic blend of Asian traditional design combined with subtle touches of vibrant hues. The hotel was known as the Jaya Puri Hotel, a leading landmark in Malaysia’s premier satellite town. In 1982, the hotel came under the management of Hilton when the then-Pernas Hotel Chain Holdings Sdn Bhd (now known as Tradewinds Hotels & Resorts Bhd) bought over the controlling stake. On February 1982 Jaya Puri Hotel was closed for a RM40 million renovation. Location 2 Jalan Barat, 46200 Petaling Jaya, Malaysia Year established 16 May, 1984 The 398-room hotel was officially reopened by DYMM Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Syah, the current Sultan of Selangor, on April 2, 1984. Hilton Petaling Jaya (which was known as Petaling Jaya Hilton back then) was Hilton Worldwide second hotel in Malaysia and the 17th Hilton International hotel in the Asia Pacific region. It was made up of a 10-story main block and a 21-story tower block, with three restaurants (the current Toh Yuen Chinese Restaurant and Paya Serai were opened then), two bars and an exclusive club and discotheque. Architect Abdullah Bakri Berakan in collabhhvvoration with Hilton International’s Department of Architecture and Design In 1992, the hotel underwent an extensive renovation to maintain its competitive edge. The renovation saw 28 units of a two-story tower block giving way to 212 rooms, a new irregular form swimming pool, expansion to the Kristal Ballroom, redesigning of Toh Yuen and Paya Serai Restaurant and the creation of Uncle Chilli’s Fun Pub. The 21-story tower block was officiated by the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad on January 1995. The 220-room tower block at a renovation cost of RM75 million increased the hotel room inventory to 564. Interior Design Chhada, Siembieda & Associates (Hong Kong) and Garden Landscaping by Belt-Collins & Associates International Between 2004 to 2006, the hotel did major renovations to the popular Paya Serai Restaurant with a RM2 million facelift for the main lobby RM4.5 million for public areas and a RM3.4 million rebirth of Uncle Chilli’s with a sleek and stylish ambience. Engineering Consultant Ranhill Berhad Currently, the hotel features 554 guest rooms and suites, as well as five restaurants and a bar. A total of 18 newly renovated 18 function rooms are available for corporate events. including the 1000-capacity pillar-less Kristal Ballroom, fitness centre, spa and outdoor swimming pool. Land Area 40319.5m²
    • 2.1 Introduction to the building Hotel Building Plan PJ Hilton Hotel
    • 2.1 Introduction to the building Hotel Building Plan PJ Hilton Hotel
    • 2.2 Literature Review PJ Hilton Hotel 2.2.1 Centralised Airconditioning System This literature review is based on the related topic studied and has been given a complete explanation on how the system work out. The stated review below is essential hint in the study of energy consumption and HVAC systems. HVAC defines Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems. It comprises the fundamental principles and systems in a manner that is technically accurate, yet of the practical use in the real working world. In reality, this mandates time and cost effectiveness in HVAC work, dictates this principles approach. In the process of carrying out this project, researches and observations needed to complete HVAC system reports. The term HVAC refers to the three disciplines of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning. However, another important aspect within the disciplines is the Control that pervades the entire HVAC field determining how the systems operate to meet the design goals of comfort, safety and cost-effective operation. Air-conditioning refers to the sensible and latent cooling of air. Sensible cooling involves the control of air temperature while latent cooling involves the control of air humidity. Room air is cooled by transferring heat between spaces, such as with a water loop heat pump system, or by rejecting it to the outside air via air-cooled or water-cooled equipment. Each HVAC discipline has specific design requirements and each has opportunities for energy savings. It must be understood, however, that energy savings in one area may augment or diminish savings in another. This applies to interactions between components of an HVAC system, as well as between the HVAC system or subsystem affects another is essential to the making of the available opportunities for energy savings. This design approach is known as whole building design.
    • 2.2 Literature Review PJ Hilton Hotel 2.2.2 Active and Passive Fire Protection System Fire is a chemical reaction process in which substances combine with oxygen from the air, heat from the surrounding and fuel. It releases smoke, heat and light energy and can cause combustion or burning. There are two types of fire proction system, active and passive. Active fire protection (AFP) is a part of integration on fire protection strategy, it depends on mechanical devices that require a certain amount of action and motion in order to make it works. Active fire protection system interacts with the surroundings, such as extinguish a fire, fire spinkler operation, etc. These actions can put off the fire or slow down the progress of the fire. The aim of the active fire protection system is to extinguish the fire by alarm & fire detection devices, smoke & heat extraction system, fire suppression and sprinkler system. When fire is detected by the heat, smokes or flames, an automatic fire alarm system is initiately sounded and enable emergency evacuation and notify the local fire department. Smoke & heat extraction system controls the movement of smoke and fire to maintain visibility and enable occupants to escape. Then, fire suppression, such as fire extinguisher, portable extinguisher, and hose reels can used manualy to suppress or starve the fire of oxygen and fuel. Sprinkler system is activated, the heat bursts the glass of the sprinkler and release the water. Passive fire protection (PFP) does not require mechanical devices to activate or action and motion in order to work. It can be achieved by providing a barrier to fire, such as creating fire-resistant walls, floors and doors to contain and slow down the rate of fire spreading. It is used to protect load bearing columns and other critical structure elements to against collapsing due to fires. Fire compartments, emergency staircase, exit sign and fire resisting roller shutter, a range of materials used in the design and construction are examples of passice fire protection system.
    • 2.2 Literature Review PJ Hilton Hotel 2.2.3 MechanicalTransportation System The litereature review is to analyse the type of mechanical transportation system, components and of the system operation. During the rapid development of multi-storeyed buildings and public facilities, it became essential to address the need to transportation of pedestrians and also of goods. With large shopping malls, tall buildings, it is unreasonable to expect the user to travel across the place by means of walking. With that end in view, Mechanical Transportation is an integral part of modern building which carrying people or things to different floors of a building. It is essential in building less than 4 storeys if access for senior citizen or disabled is required. The mechanical transportation system has evolved from traditional elevator machine room to machine-roomless (MRL) technology, offering sufficient handling capacity for the building’s traffic, short waiting and travel time throughout the day, and optimum use of core building space. The process of selecting an appropriate types and placement of elevators for few given types of building are reviewed. Selection design criteria are defined and explained and the relationships between system variables are explored. Key design criteria include handling capacity, interval, waiting time, and travel time. Besides, UBBL requirements for elevators are also summarized. As building owners increasingly demand energy savings, lower carbon footprints, and U.S. Green Building Council LEED certifications, innovations sprung up ease movement of pedestrians as well as goods in large shopping malls, multi-storeyed residential buildings, and other public facilities. Spatial design requirements, placement and operation of mechanical transportation system are discussed including lift lobby, machine room and lift shaft layout. Control system Electric motor Traction lift Sheave Counterweight Guide rails Lift Conventional hydraulic lift Mechanical Transportation System Hydraulic lift Vertical Transportation Roped hydraulic lift Motor roomless lift Parallel Escalator Multiparallel Criss-cross Walkaround Horizontal Transportation Hole-less hydraulic lift Travelator/ Moving walkway
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System Plan of PJ Hilton’s Centralised Air-conditioning System Figure 2.3a Ground Floor Plan 1 of PJ Hilton PJ Hilton Hotel
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System Plan of PJ Hilton’s Centralised Air-conditioning System Figure 2.3b Ground Floor Plan 2 & 3 of PJ Hilton PJ Hilton Hotel
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System PJ Hilton Hotel Introduction Through the study and analysis obtained from PJ Hilton, we observed that it employs Centralised Air-Conditioning System. Centralised system is an air conditioning system which uses a series of equipements to distribute cooling media to exchange heat and supply conditioned air from one point (eg. plant room) to more than one rooms in the building. Centralised system normally uses water as the cooling media for larger buildings. The refrigerant inside the evaporator absorbs heat from the water and this water is pumped to coils in order to absorb heat from the air used for space conditioning. Systems that employ water chillers are commonly called chilled-water system. Centralised air-conditioning system is a process of removing heat content from multiple sources in the building through a series of heat exchange equipments which ultimately remove the heat to the outdoor atmosphere. This process involves the application of chiller, water pump units and cooling tower as shown below. According to the type of condenser used, the centralised air-conditioning system has air-cooled or water-cooled chilled system. Air-cooled and water-cooled chilled systems are categorized by capacity and efficiency. Below attached the schematic diagram to illustrate the typical water-cooled chilled system. Figure 2.3c Schematic diagram of typical centralized water-cooled chilled system
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System PJ Hilton Hotel Function Centralised system uses chilled water as a cooling medium. This system comes with water-cooled chillers as well as systems with cooling towers for heat rejection. Heating within these systems is often generated in a boiler and it is distributed in hot water or steam piping. The system is broken down into three major subsystems : the air-handling unit, the chilled water plant and the boiler plant. Air is taken by the unit either from outside or from the space itself through a return air system. When the temperature of outdoor air is lower that that of the return air, it is more economical to use the outdoor air for cooling of the building than to circulate return air ( this is called economizing). When the outdoor air is warmer than the return air, or when the outdoor temperature is very low, a minimum amount of outdoor air will be mixed with the return air in order to provide fresh air ventilation for removal of indoor contaminants such as carbon dioxide. Preheating and cooling are done with the heat exchanger coils which are supplied with a heat exchange medium, typically steam or hot water for heating, and chilled water for cooling. Air flow to the conditioned space may be controlled, as in the case of a variable air volume system, with a terminal box containing a valve for modulating air flow. The air is finally delivered to the space through a diffuser, whose purpose is to mix the supply air and the room air. The terminal box may or may not have a reheat coil, which provides additional heat when the space does not need to be cooled or needs less cooling than would be delivered by supply air at the terminal box’s minimum air quantity setting. The air leaves the conditioned space either through the return system, or through the exhaust system. In many installations, the ceilings plenum space is used as part of the return ducting in order to save the cost of return ductwork. The chilled water system supplies chilled water for the cooling needs of all the building’s air-handling units. For a water-cooled chiller, the condenser water pump circulates the condenser water through the chiller’s condenser, to the cooling tower, and back. The cooling tower rejects heat to the environment through di-
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System PJ Hilton Hotel Components of System Components of Water-cooled Chilled Water System: Cooling tower : Cooling towers are heat rejection devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to reject process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. Condenser water pump unit : It is a set of device by using mechanical forces to move the condenser water. Chiller : A device that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. This cooled liquid flow through pipes in a building and passes through coils in air handlers, fan-coil units, or other systems, cooling and usually dehumidifying the air in the building. Chillers are of two types; air-cooled or water-cooled. Water-cooled chillers are usually inside a building, and heat from these chillers is carried by recirculating water to outdoor cooling towers. Chiller Components There are several types of water chillers. They differ from each other based on the refrigeration cycle or the type of compressor they use. Absorption water chillers make use of the absorption refrigeration cycle and do not have a mechanical compressor involved in the refrigeration cycle. Water chillers using the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle vary by the type of compressor used. Reciprocating and scroll compressors are typically used in small chillers. Helical-rotary (or screw) compressors are typically used in medium-sized chillers. Centrifugal compressors are typically used in large chillers. AHU : An air handler, or air handling unit often abbreviated to AHU, is a device used to condition and circulate air as part of HVAC system. Usually, an air handler is a large metal box containing a blower, heating and/or cooling elements, filter racks or chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers. Air handlers usually connect to ductwork that distributes the conditioned air through the building, and returns it to the AHU.
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System Components of System Figure 2.3e Water Tank of PJ Hilton Figure 2.3d Cooling tower of PJ Hilton Figure 2.3f Condenser Unit of PJ Hilton PJ Hilton Hotel
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System Components of System Figure 2.3g Chiller Components of PJ Hilton Figure 2.3i Air Ducting of PJ Hilton Figure 2.3h Boiler Components of PJ Hilton Figure 2.3j Air-handling Unit of PJ Hilton PJ Hilton Hotel
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System PJ Hilton Hotel Cooling Tower A cooling tower is a heat removal system used to remove heat from a production or manufacturing process. The process can be a simple heating and air condition system in a building or a complex industrial process such the cooling of water used in the oil refinery process, a chemical plant or a power plant. A cooling tower will vary in size according to the needs of the process it cools for. Some cooling towers are found on the roof tops of high rise office buildings and others are as tall as an office building or even larger. Cooling towers allow the water to be cooled and then returned for use in the industrial or air conditioning process. This saves enormous amounts of money, time and energy. Cooling towers work by using evaporation cooling. Water is pumped to the top of the cooling tower where the water flows down some flow fills to the cooling tower basin. As the water is flowing down the pvc fills air is pulled through the fills and over the water where it releases heat through evaporation. After the water has released the heat it is then pumped back through piping to a chiller where it absorbs more heat and then returns to the cooling tower. Because of evaporation the cooling tower system is equipped with a float that controls the level of water in the basin to prevent the water from evaporating away and giving the system a shot of fresh water called make-up water. When the float drops below a predetermined level a valve is opened introducing make-up water into the cooling tower system. The make-up water is generally supplied from the city water supply or even a well. High efficiency cooling towers have variable frequency drives that can be controlled by a reset schedule based on outside ambient air temperature. This feature saves energy by allowing the fan to run at lower speeds based on lower temperatures outside. HVAC Cooling towers also require water treatment chemicals and regular maintenance for cleaning, fan and motor maintenance. Some cooling towers use filters to filter unwanted particles from the water. Cooling towers play an important part in many industrial processes. Therefore cooling towers that no longer reach their cooling capacity have an important impact on your production process. A decrease in cooling capacity often has the same cause: a polluted cooling towers. Cooling towers are heat exchangers that use water and air to transfer heat from air-conditioning systems to the outdoor environment. Most commonly, they are used to remove heat from the condenser water leaving a chiller. Cooling towers are usually located on rooftops or other outdoor sites. Due to they are frequently out of sight, they are often neglected by operation-and-maintenance technicians, resulting in lower cooling-system efficiency. Cooling towers water must be regularly treated, generally with chemicals, to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria, minimize corrosion, and inhibit the buildup of scale (mineral deposits) on the fill. Inside an operating cooling towers is much like a hurricane. This harsh environment must be regularly inspected and maintained for best system performance.
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System PJ Hilton Hotel Chiller Chillers can be air-cooled or water-cooled. Water-cooled chillers incorporate the use of cooling towers which improve the chillers’ thermodynamic effectiveness as compared to air-cooled chillers. A chiller plant normally consists of evaporator pumps, chillers, condenser pumps, and cooling towers. The evaporator pumps pump chilled water out to the building through a water pipe loop to air handler units that use valves to vary the amount of chilled water to that unit’s water coil to control the temperature of the air coming out of the unit. Thus, added heat back into the water that goes back to the plant. The return water from the building goes to the evaporator side of the chillers and they cool it back down, transferring the heat to the condenser side of the chillers, which is a separate water loop. The condenser pumps pump the condenser water out to the cooling towers, which are outside. The water is pumped to the top of the tower and then rains down inside it. There are big fans on the top of the tower that pulls air through the tower, thus across the raining water and blows it outside. This water pools up at the bottom of the tower and is sucked back into the building to run through the condenser side of the chillers again, through removing the heat from the building. Chillers are a key component of air conditioning systems for large buildings. They produce cold water to remove heat from the air in the building. They also provide cooling for process loads such as file-server rooms and large medical imaging equipment. As with other types of air conditioning systems, most chillers extract heat from water by mechanically compressing a refrigerant. Figure 2.3k Schematic diagram to show typical chiller components.
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System PJ Hilton Hotel Air-Handling Units Air-handling units are used in central systems to move and condition air which is supplied to the conditioned spaces. Mixing dampers are shown at left end of the unit. The outdoor air dampers at the left most are fully open and the return air dampers at the top of the unit are fully closed. To the right of the dampers is the filter section. The fan, showing inlet dampers, the pulley and the belt drive system, and the drive motor, is at the right of the unit. Many air-handling units are manufactured in modular sections. The small rectangular opening at the right is the fan discharge connection. There are two common fan wheels. i. Forward-curved blades ii. Backward-curved blades Forward-curved blades provide more static pressure for a given size and wheel speed, but and airfoil blades are more efficient. The greater the air flow, the more likely the unit will have backward-curved or airfoil blades. The main filter will usually be preceeded by a coarser pre-filter. Three common main filter types are shown: the angle filter, the roll filter, and the bag filter. In an angle filter, square two-inch thick filters slide into the angled racks. The roll filter automatically rolls from the fresh end to the used end, thus reducing the frequency of manual filter replacement. Bag filters consist of multiple bags of filter material, thus packing much filter surface into a limited volume. Figure 2.3l Schematic diagram of typical air-handling unit
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System PJ Hilton Hotel Components of System Terminal Units Terminal units provide local control of airflow in a large central air-conditioning system. The majority of the terminal units are used for air volume control in variable air volume (VAV) systems. Many also have reheat coils. Most of these are valve boxes, which simply have a sophisticated damper (valve) for control of air flow. There are two types of typical fan-powered terminal box : i. series, ii. parallel fan-powered terminal boxes. These units allow for air flow in addition to the air supplied by the central fan. In series boxes the central air and ceiling plenum air are mixed before entering the fan, these units typically involve constant operation of the fan. In parallel boxes, where the fan is cycled as a first stage of reheat, the ceiling plenum air is mixed with central air passing through the fan. Fan boxes are used often in perimeter spaces, where the perimeter heating load requires that more air to be delivered to satisfy the load. The first stage of control as space temperature falls is to reduce central air flow. The reduced volume may not be sufficient as temperature falls further and the thermostat calls for heating. Final delivery of air to the space is through diffusers. the opening of VAV diffusers varies in order to assure adequate mixing of room and the supply of air over the range of air flow rates. There are typical ceiling diffusers, which may be used for VAV or CAV systems.
    • 2.3 Centralised Air-conditioning System PJ Hilton Hotel UBBL requirements Part III Space, Light and Ventilation Section 41 Mechanical Ventialtion and Air-Conditioning Clause (1) Where permanent mechanical ventialtion or air-conditioning is intended, the relevant building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be waived at the discretion of the local authority. Clause (2) Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition to the permanent air-conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of ventilating the air-conditioned enclosure, such that within half an hour of the air-conditioning system failing, not less than the stipulated volume of fresh air specified hereinafter shall be introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air-conditioning system is not functioning. Clause (3) The provisions of the Third Schedule to these By-laws shall apply to buildings which are mechanically ventilated or air-conditioned. Clause (4) Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect of lavatories, water-closets, bathrooms or corridors is provided for and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the Third Schedule to these By-laws, the provisions of these By-laws relating to natural ventilation and natural lighting shall not apply to such lavatories, water-closets, bathrooms or corridors.
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel Emergency plan Legend Fire Hose Reel Fire extinguisher Fire Alarm Exit
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel Active Fire Protection System 1. Fire Detection and Alarms devices Smoke Detector Heat Detector (a) Smoke Detector A smoke detector is a device to detect smoke at the located area and give signal to the fire alarm system. The size of the smoke detectors normally around 150 millimetres (6 in) in diameter and 25 millimetres (1 in) in thickness. It is usually in a disk-shaped with a plastic enclosure and in white color. The number is indicated beside the detector to ease the management to do checking. There are mainly two types of smoke detectors, through optical detection (photoelectric) and physical process (ionization). The type of smoke detector used in PJ Hilton Hotel is Ionization smoke detector. It is generally more responsive to flaming stage fires compared to optical detector. Ionization smoke detector have a small amount of radioactive material such as isotope americium-241 between two electrically charged plates, it emits ionizing radiation in the form of alpha particles which ionizes the air in the chamber. This enable the ionized ions pass between two plates and causes a small electric current flow. When any smoke particles enter the chamber, the ions in the chamber will attach the particles and reducing to carry the current. Hence, an electronic circuit detects the current drop and activate the alarm. Due to the factor of the highly sensitive of smoke detector, smoke detector is not installed on the ceiling in the toilet, as customer might smoke in the washroom cause false fire alarm. According to UBBL 153, all lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detector. There are smoke detecors at the public area, corridors, kitchens in PJ Hilton (b) Heat Detector A heat detector has the same function as smoke detector. It is sentive to the heat and is designed to detect thermal energy of a fire and. The thermal enery is effect by the increases of the temperature. Heat detectors have two main classifications of operation, “rate-of-rise” and “fixed temperature.” Due to the issue of smoker smoke in washrom, smoke detector is replaced with the heat detector to avoid false fire alarm.
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel (c) Fire Alarm Bell Fire alarm bell is a device to make a loud noise that gives warning of a fire to alert the occupants inside the building when there is fire. It is installed along the corridors, around the escape route and near fire staicase to lead occupant to the exits. It is usually connected to the smoke detector, heat detector and other devices. According to UBBL, premises with gross floor area more than 9290 square metre or exceeding 30metre in height, excluding car park and storage area should have two- alarm system with evacuation (continuous signal) to be given immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert (intermittent signal) be given in adjoining section. (d) Fire Break Glass Call Point The break glass call point is a device to enable personnel to raise the alarm when fire happens. It is worked as by simply breaking a frangible element and thus activating the alarm system. It should be located on exit routes and every floor landings of staircases and also at all exits to the open air. The position of the fire break glass call point should be fixed at a height of 1.4m above the floor the placed at the area which is easily accessible, well-illuminated and unobstructed space. It should be located within 30m so that the person no need travel more than 45m in order to raise the alarm. (e) Emergency Lighting It will light up when the electrical breaks up or any emergency happen. It is used to ligthen the area. Fire Alarm Bell Fire Break Glass Call Point Emergency lighting
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel 2. Fire Extinguisher (a) Portable fire extinguisher A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an the out-of-control fire situation , such as the fire has reached the ceiling which may endanger the user, or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. Its aim to remoce or reduce at least one component of the fire triangle. It is widely installed at every space in the commercial or public building. Fires are identified using a classification system. Each class identifies the type of fuel involved and allows appropriate fire extinguisher media to be identified. Each different type of extinguisher agent has a identify corresponding colour to make it easier for the user. Different type of fire extinguisher is suitable for different types of burning media and will have a fire rating based on the volume of fire that they are capable to extinguish. There’s two type of fire extinguishers used in PJ Hilton Hotel, they are 2kg Carbon Dioxide fire extinguisher and 9kg Dry Powder fire extinguisher (ABC dry powder). ABC dry powder fire extinguishers are suitable for the use when in mixed risk environments. It has an excellent fire protection. With a unique class C rating, for the fires which involving flammable gases, powder fire extinguishers are the only effective solution. It can be used on wood, paper, textiles, liquid and electrical fires but don’t use on cooking media and metal fires. CO2 fire extinguishers are suitable for the use on flammable liquid fires. It is extremely effective at extinguishing fire involving electrical equipment. CO2 is also one of the cleanest extinguisher agents since it does not leave any residue behind.
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System ABC powder fire extinguisher PJ Hilton Hotel CO2 fire extinguisher According to UBBL, Portable fire extinguishers should be designed, tested, installed and maintained. There’s no absolute type of fire extinguisher must be available in a building, as long as it’s sited at the prominent exits route, visible from all direction. Hence, non-water based fire extinguishers are used in PJ Hilton Hotel. How to use ABC Powder Fire Extinguishers: 1. Before use fire extinguisher to fight a fire, it is important to check that it is fully charged and there is no bent on the safety pin. 2. Ensure you remain a safe distance from the fire and remove the safety pin and this his will break the tamper seal. 3. Aiming the fire extinguisher hose: -Solid Materials: Aim the hose at the base of the flames, moving across the area of the fire -Spilled liquids: Aim the hose at the near edge of the fire and with a rapid sweeping motion, drive the fire towards the far edge until all the flames have been extinguished -Flowing liquid: Direct the hose at the base of the fire and sweep upwards until the flames have been extinguished -Electrical equipment: Switch off the power (if safe to do so) and then direct the hose straight at the fire 4. Squeeze the lever slowly to begin discharging the extinguisher, as the fire starts to diminish carefully move closer to it. 5. Ensure all the fire has been extinguished, re-ignition can be possible when a powder fire extinguisher has been used. How to use CO2 Fire Extinguishers: 1. Before use fire extinguisher to fight a fire, it is important to check that it is fully charged and there is no bent on the safety pin. 2. Ensure you remain a safe distance from the fire and remove the safety pin and this his will break the tamper seal. 3. Do not hold the horn as it will become extremely cold during use and can lead to severe frost burns, 4. Aiming the extinguisher hose: - Flammable liquids: Aim the horn at the base of the fire and move across the area - Electrical equipment: Switch off the power of safe to do so and then direct the host straight at the fire. 5. Squeeze the level slowly to begin discharging the extinguisher, as the fire starts to diminish carefully move closer to it. 6. Ensure all the fire has been extinguished, re-ignition can be possible when a CO2 extinguisher has been used.
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel 3. Sprinkler system An automatic sprinkler system are a network of fixed water pipes with sprinkler heads located at a certain distance apart. It is purposely to detect, control and extinguish a fire, and warn the occupants of the fire. The installation included fire pumps, water storage tanks, control valve sets, sprinkler heads, flow switches, pressure switches, pipe work and valves. The system operates automatically without human controls. Sprinkler Sprinkler head (a) Sprinkler Each sprinkler head contains a glass bulb or a fusible link. There is liquid and a quantity of vapour inside the bulb. The liquid which inside the buld will expand when there is heat. When the temperature reaches a certain level around 68 Degree Centigrade, the liquid expanded and break the bulb or fusible link, which in turn releases water directly onto the seat of the fire. When the sprinkler is operated, it will raise the alarm which near by at the same time to alert occupants to evacuate the area immediately. It is aim to control the size of size but not intended to distinguish the fire.
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel (b) Fire pump room A fire pump is a part of a fire sprinkler system’s water supply. It can be operated by a electric motor or a diesel engine, or steam turbine. It is connected to the public underground water supply piping, or a static water source (tank, reservoir, lake). In PJ Hilton Hotel, fire pump room is connected from the water tank. It provides water flow at a higher pressure to the sprinkler system risers. Fire pumps are needed when the local water supply system cannot provide sufficient pressure to meet the hydraulic design requirements of the fire sprinkler system. In very tall high-rise building, it needs relatively hight pressure to provide large volumn of water to the sprinkler. Types of pumps used for fire service include: horizontal split case, vertical split case, vertical inline, vertical turbine, and end suction. Duty pump is used. Fire Pump room door Fire Pump room Duty Pump Jonkey
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel 4. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) system Carbon dioxide is a colourless and odourless gas which does not conduct electricity. Its significant characteristic is that it does not react with other substances and also no residue produced. This shows that CO2 is a ideally clean extinguishing agent to protect highly sensitive risks against fire to stop the fire from “Breathing”. The function of extinguishing effect of CO2 is to replace oxygen, which oxygen is needed for the development of the fire. By adding CO2 till certain amount to reduce volume of oxygen in the air from 21% to 15% or less, fire will be quickly suffocated. When engineering design a CO2 extinguishing system, the right amount of the storage of extinguishing agent have to be verified because the amount of CO2 inside the agent determines high or low pressure. The extinguishing agent are storeed at the high pressure storage at ambient temperature. The bottles are grouped together to form large batteries and are connected to a common manifold via high pressure hoses. CO2 cylinders
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel 5. Hose Reels System A Hose Reel is a cylindrical spindle made of either metal, fiberglass, or plastic and is used for storing a hose. The most common styles of hose reels are spring driven (which is self retracting), hand crank, or motor driven. Hose reels are categorized by the diameter and length of the hose they hold, the pressure rating and the rewind method. Hose reels can either be fixed in a permanent location, or portable and attached to a truck, trailer, or cart. To operate the system efficiently, first, turn on the stop valve then run out the hose. Components: Drum: The hosereel drum is a universal swing type, where the hose drum rotates around a horizontal shaft and the hose can be withdrawn from any direction. Hose: The fire hose reel is made of non-kinking, braided rubber type and the length of the hose is 30 meter. Nozzle: The shut –off nozzle assembly which is fitted at the end of the hose is constructed of corrosion resistant material conforming to BS 336. There are markings to indicate the open/shut positions of the nozzle. Stop valve: A 25mm diameter stop valve to BS 1010 is provided for the connection of the hosereel to the water supply. Hose reel located at exterior wall Hose reel along corridor Hose reel beside exit door Hose reel located at the fence
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel 6. Breeching inlet It used to supply water to a building from the outside of the building. It can be connected to wet or dry risers to supply hydrants within the building, or to a pressurised water sprinkler system should there be a total power failure, resulting in loss of electrically powered pumps 7. Fireman switch A fireman switch is a specialized switch disconnector/isolator. They are used by firemen to turn off neon lighting or other electrical equipment in case of fire in order to prevent the overheated equipment from exploding. They should be robust & reliable design in non-flammable material like aluminum and have a highly visible color, like red, have a clearly indicated on & off positions on the front side, have an operating handle is designed in such a way that a fireman-hook or axe can be used to switch off in order to achieve effectiveness and safety. To reset, a so called “two hands grip” must be used for safety reasons. 8. Fire blanket A fire blanket is a safety device intend to extinguish small incipient or starting fires. It consists of a sheet of fire retardant material which is placed over a fire in order to smother it. small fire blanket is usually used in kitchens or around of home which is made of fiberglass and folded into a quick-release contraption for ease of storage. While forlarger fire blanklets, it is use in laboratory and industrial situations and often made of wool. These blankets are usually mounted in vertical quick-release container so that they can be pulled out easily and wrapped around a person whose clothes are on fire or burning stuff. The aim of the fire blanklet is to cut off the oxygen supply to the fire and therefore putting it out. It is widely use in PJ Hilton Hotel, since it has many large and small kitchen, safety fire protection is needed. Breeching inlet Fireman switch Fire blanket
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel (9) Fire extinguisher pull It is normallly used in kitchen. It is not automatically on. When a fire happens, if the fire blankets can put off the fire then need to pull this thing. The chemical foam then will come out from the pipe head which placed on the top cooking and extinguish the fire. Fire extinguisher pull Cooking area Pipe head
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel 10. Hydrant system (a) External hydrant system A fire hydrant system is an active fire protection system which a source of water is provided in most urban, suburban and rural areas with municipal water service to enable firefighters to tap into the municipal water supply to assist in extinguishing a fire. Hydrant has to be located with the building in certain distance apart. Fire hydrant installation consists of a system of pipe work which is connected directly to the water main supply to provide water to each and every hydrant outlet. It is intended to provide water for the firemen to extinguish a fire. The water is discharged into the fire engine form which it is then pumped and sprayed over fire. Hydrant pumps should be provided to pressurize the fire mains when the water supply is not reliable or inadequate. A typical hydrant installation is fed directly from JBA water main and pressurized by fire pumps. According to UBBL, the hydrant valves should attach to a ring system of supply with more than one source from the water authority’s main, it has to have a maximum spacing of 150 m apart, next to road with maximum 70 m distance from building entry and a maximum distance of 6 m to a building. External hydrant
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System (b) Dry Riser System Dry risers are a type of internal hydrant for the fireman to use. They are used only if the topmost floor of the building is higher than 18.3 metres and less than 30.5 metres above the fire appliance access level. Breeching inlets are used to connect the firemen pump water, so that water can provided at ground level and are connected to the bottom of the dry risers. Dry risers are usually dry and depend on the fire engine to pump water into the system through the breeching inlet outside the building. If fire happened, fire engine has to connect the pipe into the dry riser inlet. Hence, the inlet shouldn’t locate more than 18m from fire appliance access and not more than 30 meters from the nearest fire hydrant. There’s no pump built internally within the premise, the pressure is totally depend on the fire engine from ground floor. (c) Wet Riser System Wet riser is also a type of internal hydrant. It connects to a tank and can operate any time. It usually used for fourth or lesser floor. The water tank picture below is used for wet rise. The water of the water tank is directly supplied from the sysbas. Water tank PJ Hilton Hotel
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel 11 Control room The main panel is in control room. It controls all functions for the fire detection & alarm system, from processing signals transmitted to the respective field devices to the recording of important events. The authority of the control room operates the fire alarm system and all field devices at this panel. It located at the basement floor and parking area of the PJ Hilton hotel. the fire control room has a fire control board that alarm signals from the manual station would be received there for the people in charge to investigate. Fire escape route is as well map on the board and a phone to phone the firefighting department. Control room Fire Phone 12. Fire Phone Fire phone can be directly connected to the nearest firefighting station so that occupants can directly call during an event of fire. It is located near all the important places such as fire escape, and fire water storage tank room and also one located in the fire control room.
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel Passive Fire Protection System 1. Fire Escape A fire escape is a directly and shortest route of emergency exit to the outside building. Emergency plan provides a method of escape fromt inside the building to outside, it is very useful when there is fire happens. It is mostly found on multiple-storey buildings. Railings are usually provided on each of the levels, but as fire escapes are designed for emergency use only, these railings often do not need to meet the same standards as railings in other contexts. (a) Escape Routes/ Emergency plan An emergency plan is located beside lift, if there is fire or emergency, occupants can refer to the emergency plan and follow the escape route direction. (b) Magnetic Switch If there is fire being detected through fire detectiors, the door will automatically close by using this magnetic switch to Emergency plan beside lift Magnetic switch
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System PJ Hilton Hotel (c) Emergency exits & staircase The proportion of the staircase is different to the standard staircase. (d) Fire door A fire door is a door with a fire-resistance rating. It is used as part of a passive fire protection system to reduce the spread of fire or smoke between compartments and to enable safe egress from a building or structure or ship. There is a label at the corner of the fire door, it indicates its factory name and series number. (d) Emergency signs It gives direction to the occupants. It is in green color because when in the hardzous smoke, green color is obvious to see. (e) Regulation All components are required to adhere to product certification requirements that are acceptable to the local Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) by meeting the requirements of the local building code and fire code. The regulatory requirement different from country to country. Regulation Emergency staircase Fire door Emergency sign
    • 2.4 Active and Passive Fire Protection System UBBL REQUIREMENTS By-law 229–Means of access & fire fighting in buildings over 18.3meters high •Must provide gaining access and fighting firefrom within the buildingconsisting of fire fighting access lobbies, fire fighting staircases, fire lifts anddry or wet rising systems •Fire fighting access lobbiesshall be provided at every floor & the leveldistance from the furthermost point of the floor does not exceed 45.75meters •Fire fighting access lobbies may be omitted if the fire fighting staircase ispressurised to meet the requirements of by-law 200 •A fire fighting staircaseshall be provided to give direct access to each firefighting access lobby & shall be directly accessible from outside the buildingat fire appliance access level •A fire lift shall be providedto give access to each fire fighting access lobbyor in the absence of a lobby to the fire fighting staircase at each floor level •The fire lift shall discharge directlyinto the fighting access lobby fire fightingstaircase or shall be connected to it by a protected corridor PART VII - Passive fire protection requirements •Clauses 136 – 137 Fifth Schedule _ Provisions of compartment walls and floors_ floor area exceeds relevant height e.g. floors in building exceeding 30m in height, or volume of space exceeds relevant cubic capacity to be constructed as compartment floor •Clause 139 Separation of fire risk areas from areas of occupancy. •Clause 140 Fire appliance access e.g. 12m width road to support fire engine for buildings over 7000cum of volume & minimum proportion building perimeter as road for fire access based on building volume. • Clause 148 Special Requirements for Compartment Walls and Floors • Clause 150 Protected Shafts Requirements PJ Hilton Hotel • Clause 151 - 155 Lifts Requirements _ Ventilation, Openings, Smoke Detectors in Lift Lobbies & Emergency Mode • Clauses 162 – 164 Fire Doors _ 162(2) Openings in compartment and separating walls to be protected by Fire Doors in accordance with the FRP requirements of the relevant walls referred in the Ninth Schedule 162(3) Openings in protected structures to be protected by Fire Doors with FRP not less than ½ of the relevant walls referred in the Ninth Schedule 162(4) Openings in protected corridor or lobby to be protected by Fire Doors having FRP of ½ hour. • Clauses 168 - 169 Exit Staircases _ Every upper floor to have minimum 2 staircases except buildings lower than 12m that comply with Clause 194, Number of Staircases should accommodate highest occupancy load under Seventh Schedule even though one staircase is not accessible/available, handrails may encroach into staircase width to a maximum 75mm, widths of staircases and exit routes shall be maintained [not reduced in width] throughout & door swings should not encroach the access width. • Clause 172 Conditions for Emergency Exit [KELUAR] Signs • Clause 173 Conditions for Exit Door • Clause 222 Fire resistance for walls PART VIII - Active fire protection requirements • Clause 226 Every building to have [1] means of detecting and extinguishing fire, equipped with fire alarm and exit signs based the Tenth Schedule and [2] a minimum one Fire Hydrant not more than 91.5m from nearest fire brigade access • Clause 226 Automatic fire protection system for hazardous occupancy to suit hazard
    • 2.5 Mechanical Transportation System PJ Hilton Hotel Introduction A lift is an apparatus for raising and lowering people or goods to diferent floors of a building. Based on our thorough observation and analysis, we found that PJ Hilton Hotel employs mechanical transportation system. The hotel commonly type vertical transportion which is traction lift for 3 guest lifts, 1 fire lift, and 2 service staff lifts. Traction lift system is a car and counterweight attached to opposite ends of a hoist rope, which is moved by a traction machine. It is used in buildings with more than four floors. The guest lifts carry passengers from ground floor to the top floors. Service floor of every elevator within the same group is identical. The geared traction lifts have a gearbox that is attached to the motor, which drives the wheel that moves the ropes. Geared traction lift are capable of travel speeds up to 500 feet per minute. The maximum travel distance for a geared traction elevator is around 250 feet. The motor room sited at the top of lift shaft. It reduces the length of rope and optimise the ventilation efficiency. The standard lift is classified according to the two rated loads, starting from 320 Kg up to 800 Kg rated load or more than 800 Kg up to 1600 Kg rated load. The lift machine is located above the lift shaft as this allows the most economical and simplest roping system.The power consumption is low and the loads on the overhead structure are also lower than those with the lift machine below the lift shaft. At PJ Hilton Hotel, the lift is actually under the safety department in Hilton Hotel. THe person in charge of taking control of the lift, fire safety and hotel safety. It is easier for them to control all the system. When the building is on fire emergency mode, the guest is not allowed to use the lift due to safety reason. Therefore, they have to use the staircase to leave the building.
    • 2.5 Mechanical Transportation System PJ Hilton Hotel Function A mechanical transportation system comprise the cars, supporting cables, counterweights, lift machine (motor) and sheave, shaft(s) or hoistway(s), an elevator machine room, and controls. Controls include drive control (for an individual car), operating control (the interface with users), and supervisory control (for group operations). Gearless traction machines are typically used for medium- to high-speed applications (500 fpm and higher); Geared traction machines are typically used for low-speed (less than 500 fpm) applications. There are several car, door, and signal arrangements available. In addition, there are several common car control systems that may be considered—these include ac and dc thyristor control, variable voltage dc motor control (also known as Ward-Leonard), and the high-performance variable-voltage, variable-frequency AC motor control system. Overall control of an elevator system may take several forms: simple single automatic pushbutton control, collective control, selective collective control, and substantially more sophisticated computerized control systems.
    • 2.5 Mechanical Transportation System PJ Hilton Hotel Components of Mechanical Transportation System The standard lift include the following key components such as lift car, machine drive system, control system and safety system. The lift car is composed of the following components: Car Sling: a metal framework connected to the means of suspensio in the lift car as well as its function of isolating vibrations due to running. It may come with braking or without braking system. The elevator cabin: a cabinet completely enclosed by walls, floors and ceiling. It has opening which are the car door, emergency trap door and ventilation apertures. Car door: consists of one power operated single panel sliding doors. There are few types of car dor which are single slide door, single speed center opening, two speed side opening, and two speed center opening doors. Door operator: a motor-driven device mounted on the elevator car that opens and closes the car doors. Guide shoes: a device that guides the car and counterweight along the path of the guide rails. They also assure that the lateral motion of the car and counterweight is kept at a minimum as they travel along the guide rails. Door Protective Device: a device used with automatic power operated doors that detect obstructions to the normal closing of the elevator doors and causes the doors to change the door motion by either stopping it, or causing it to reopen or produce nudging sound. Traction Lift System
    • 2.5 Mechanical Transportation System PJ Hilton Hotel Components of Mechanical Transportation System center-opening car door Guest lift COP (Car operating Panel) Lift Control Switch Lift Control Room (Safety) lift name display key hole to lift shaft lift call button landing door Service Lift Lift Control Panel
    • 2.5 Mechanical Transportation System PJ Hilton Hotel Operation of Traction Lift System Traction lift have an elevator car and counterweight attached to opposite ends of hoist ropes. The hoist ropes pass over a driving machine that raises and lowers the car. First, the guest is required to choose going up or down the building floor level through the lift call button located at the lift lobby. The assigned lift will run on loadbearing rails in the lift hoistway. This traction lift is driven by wire ropes passing over a driving wheel or sheave and connected to the lift car and a counterweight. It will arrive the landing floor depends on the rate of speed of the lift system. The speed of the lifts at PJ Hilton is 1.5 m/s. The lift system using two panel center opening. It is considered the most efficient door configuration as passengers can pass through the entrance before the doors are fully open. The guest enters the assigned lift after its arrival. Then, guest need to input the desired destination floor through the registration device located in the lift.The lift will bring the guest o the registered destination floor.
    • 2.5 Mechanical Transportation System PJ Hilton Hotel UBBL Requirements In section 124, For all non-reseidential buildings exceeding 4 storey above or below the main access level at least one lift shall be provided. In Section 239, it is stated that there shall be two separate approved continuously electrically supervised voice communications systems, one a fire brigade communications system and the other a public addres system bewteen the central control station and the following areas: a) lifts, lift lobbies, corridors and staircases In Section 151, is is stated where openings to lift shafts are not conected to protected lobies, such lift shafts shall be provided withvents of not less than 0.09 square meter per lift located at the top of the shafts. Where the vent does not discharge direction to the open air the lift shafts shall be vented to the exterior through a duct of the rewuired FFRP as for the lift shafts. In Section 152(1), every opening in a lift shaft or lift entranc shall open into a protected loby unless other suitable means of protection to the openig to the satisfaction of the local authority is provided. These requirements shall not apply to open type industrial and other special buildings as may be approved by the D.G.F.S. In Section 152 (2) Landing doors shall have a FRP of not less than half the FRP of the hoistway strucutre with a minimum FRP of half hour. In Section 156(1), if a protected shaft serves as, or contains, a ventilating duct(a) the duct shal be fited with automatic fire dampers together with or without subducts as Australian Standard 1668: Pt 1:1974, so constructed at such intervals and in such positions as may be necessary to reduce, so far as practical, the risk of fire spreading from a compartment to any other compartment, or such other provision shall be as will reduce such risk so far as practicable: and (b) the duct shall not be constructed of, or lined with, any material which subtantialy increses such risk. In Section157. it is stated that a protected staircase or a protected shaft containing a staircase shall not contain any pipe conveying gas or oil or any ventilating duct other than a duct serving only that staircase or shaft.
    • 2.6 Discussion PJ Hilton Hotel 2.6.2 Active and Passive fire protection system Problems There are some common problems with passive fire protection. The smoke seals around doors missing,damaged or incorrectly fitted. Fire doors wedged or propped open. Advantages and disadvantages An ionization type smoke detector is used as it is generally cheaper to manufacture than an optical smoke detector; however, it is sometimes rejected because it is more prone to false (nuisance) alarms than photoelectric smoke detectors.It can detect particles of smoke that are too small to be visible. Another advantge is several active and passive fire protection system are installed, when sprinklers don’t always work as designed, system malfunctions, there are still others system can be worked on.
    • 2.6 Discussion PJ Hilton Hotel 2.6.3 Mechanical transportation system Advantages and Disadvantages Lift grouping can generally serve all floors in buildings for a shorter waiting time and travel time. In terms of design eficency, a motor room is required above the lift shafts. Therefore, the top floor is ocupied and not spacesaving. If the traction lift breaks down, it can take a really long time for the guest for leave the lift.
    • Design Inspiration 3. The Intervention Hilton Hotel SMK Bandar Sunway 3.1 Introduction to the building Brief History SMKBS was officially opened by the Minister of Education, YB Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Hj. Abdul Razak on April 8, 1996.During January 1998, SMK Bandar Sunway is one of the selected schools in the state to organize special education programs for students with learning disabilities at the secondary school level. program began with its first intake of 11 students under the supervision of Mrs. Juairiah bt Hj Johari, as Coordinator of Special Education Class. Special Class students has increased and in year 2002, there are 54 students with 10 teachers. During recent years, SMKBS has seen tremendous progress in various fields. Now, the school continues to grow and in year 2002, there were 2,109 students, 119 teachers and 12 support staff. Also increased the number of classes and now there are two transition classes, 10 classes of Form One, Form Two class 11, class 13 Form Three class 12 Form 4 and Form 5 class of 13. The facilities include a large school hall, computer lab with 40 computers network internet, well-equipped science laboratories, workshops, Life Skills Resource Centre, Library, Art Education Room, Cafeteria, Surau, Counseling Room, Bookstore, Treatment Room, Tennis badminton / takraw court and playground. Besides that a building (4 classrooms) have been completed and now another building 12 classrooms are in the process of construction. SMKBS viewed as a School in a Garden, as a cheerful School Complex is surrounded by some interesting mini park in the area, of which Park Herbs, Cottage Recreation and ‘Twin Towers’. Location Jalan PJS 7/15, Bandar Sunway Year established December 1, 1994 Land Area 59800m²
    • PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway SMK Bandar Sunway Plan, Site Plan PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT SCALE 1:1000
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway Site Section SMK Bandar Sunway
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3 Types of Services System used 3.2.3a Centralised air-conditioning system Introduction and Function Site plan SMK Bandar Sunway conducted 10 blocks of buiilding included Hall, Workshop, Canteen, Block A, B, C, D, Computer Lab, Special Classroom and the last Green House which been abandoned. All buildings blocks been design in Centralized air-conditon system except Hall and Green House. Hall is using split unit air-condition system dues not functioning all the time. Green House doesnt have any air-condition system cause it been abandoned and non-functioning anymore, it will reuse back as Chiller Plant room for the air-condition system.
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway Components of System Cooling Tower AHU Chiller Water tank
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway Operation of System Design Inspiration Ground Floor Plan First Floor Plan
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation Second Floor Plan SMK Bandar Sunway Third Floor Plan SMK Bandar Sunway will be provided with two chiller and two cooling tower whereby one of them will be used for standby in case of no electricity supply. Water supply from the water tank will be directed to cooling tower. Cooling towers will transfer the processed waste heat to the atmosphere and use the evaporation of water to reject processed heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. Chiller removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression. This cooled liquid flow through pipes in underground and pass through coils in air handles. Chiller used is water-cooled type and heat from chiller is carried by recirculating water to outdoor cooling tower. AHU are located parellal in every single floor, it used to condition and circulate air as part of HVAC system. Process cool air will be release to all the area though AHU and hot air will be return to AHU process to the chiller and then cooling tower.
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway Section above show how the Centralized Air - Condition System Operation in one of the SMK Bandar Sunway’s block
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway UBBL requirements Part III Space, Light and Ventilation Section 41 Mechanical Ventialtion and Air-Conditioning Clause (1) Where permanent mechanical ventialtion or air-conditioning is intended, the relevant building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be waived at the discretion of the local authority. Clause (2) Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition to the permanent air-conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of ventilating the air-conditioned enclosure, such that within half an hour of the air-conditioning system failing, not less than the stipulated volume of fresh air specified hereinafter shall be introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air-conditioning system is not functioning. Clause (3) The provisions of the Third Schedule to these By-laws shall apply to buildings which are mechanically ventilated or air-conditioned. Clause (4) Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect of lavatories, water-closets, bathrooms or corridors is provided for and maintained in accordance with the
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway Reasons for the placement of the components The Cooling tower and chiller are placing at the end of the school. Chillers axactly relocate at green house which been abandoned and non-function for a long time. The reason of components placing at the end of school dues it doesnt disturbing the student during their study timing and in the same time it utilized the empty space, the important is there got not activities get involved so that sutdent even staff rarely wiil be there for a reason. AHU are located parellal in every sinfgle floor and mostly of AHU room was near the staircase. The reason located AHU room parellal in single floor of all building block, its reduced the capacity supply of AHU then just using very a fews of AHU. Advantages of the placement of Components 1) Doesnt disturding the school operation dues located far away frrom the classroom and any activities area. 2) fully utilized the empty spase of school within destroy any building of school. 3) Easier for maintainance without any troublesome and risky. 4) Refunction back the building which been abandoned. Disadvantages of the placement of Components 1) Have to walk a distance for maintainance from the entrance of the school. 2) Hard installation dues the size of machine expecially for the highrise building 3) Installation is discruptive to other unrelated area.
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3 Active and passive fire protection system 3.23b Active fire protection system 1. Fire hydrant A fire hydrant is an upright pipe that consist of a system of pipe work that connected directly to the JBA (Jabatan Bekalan Air) water supply main that is intended tp provide a source of water for fireman to put out a fire. The water is then discharged by fireman to extinguish the fire. The fire hydrant needed to be provided too give a quick access for firefighter to assist in extinguishing the fire as time is important factor to consider in put down the fire. In the SMK Bandar Sunway, Double headed fire hydrant is used. This double- headed hydrant allows fireman to mount two single head hydrant valves, connects to 65mm diameter canvas hose. There are 1 fire hydrants located at the entrance of block B to the staircase, with distance of 8 to 12m from the building, vary at different space. The fire hydrant is situated at the location is strategic, which is according to the recommendation for installation of external hydrant, that a maximum 70 m distance from building entry and a maximum distance of 6 m to a building is fulfilled as required. The size of the fire hydrant is 0.8m in height, with a radius of 8cm, and is painted in yellow. This fire hydrant is abled to channel 500- 999 gallon water per minute that is adequate for institutional building. This type of fire hydrants are comply with M.S.1395 and located at not more than 30 meters away from the breeching inlet of the building, which providing water for dry riser. The fire hydrany is connected to a large underground pipe that carries water. The hose reel which is prepared on site is attached to the fire hydrant to supply the water for fire extinguished. The water is supply once it is opened by the firefighters with a five- sided wrench to open the covers and to connect to the opening. After that ‘stem nut needed to be opened for water to pump to the hoses that lead to the fire engines. As more pressure is needed to pump the water up for fire fighters, a smaller hoses that is attached to the engines is used. Figure 3.2.3.1 Dry riser installation
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 1. Fire hydrant Figure 3.2.3.2 Fire hydrant on the site Figure 3.2.3.3 Dry riser FIRE HYDRANT HOSE REEL FIRE ALARM RING BELL FIRE ALARM BREAK GLASS FIRE STAIRCASE ESCAPED ROUTE
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 2. Portable fire extinguisher Generally there are five type of the fire extinguisher which served for different purpose that the range of price different. Thus careful consideration is needed to save the cost and most importantly is to extinguish the fire according to the purpose of that room. Fire is categorised into 6 classes, which is A, B, C, D, E, and F. Throughout the case study, pottential classes of fire that will be taken place in SMK Bandar Sunway is class A which involves fires in ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper and many plastics. Class B which the combustion caused by flammable and combustible liquid includes oils, greases and also flammable gases for the chemical is stored in the block C for science classes. Class C is caused by energized electrical equipment which is needed for computer lab room which having much plud for electricity purpose. Types of fire extinguisher provided on site is the Carbon Dioxide fire extinguisher and Dry Powder fire extinguisher. Dry powder which is blue color coded is used for normal purpose involves fires in ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper and many plastics. As for carbon dioxide fire extinguishers it is situated in the corridor leading to fire escape, electrical plant and pump rooms. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are placed in plant and pump rooms is to avoid damaging the machines and pump in the specific room. Figure 3.2.3.4 A blue color powder fire extinguish- Figure 3.2.3.5 A blue color powder fire extinguisher n site
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 2. Portable fire extinguisher Figure 3.2.3.6 Section cut of carbon PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 3. Fire detector Fire detector is used to detects fire, either through smoke or heat. It usually indidcates the presence of fire at a specific spot. There is one fire detector between workshop and block C. In the school, only heat detector is used. Both system is used to detect fire. When overheating in switch board is happened, the heat detector can help to detect that tenant inside can have time to leave earlier as time is crucial to save one live. Figure 3.2.3.7 Heat detector Figure 3.2.3.8 UBBL Heat detector requirement
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 4. Fire alarm system Automatic fire alarm system is necessary; it is to alert occupants to evacuate in the event of a fire or other unforeseen emergency, indicating path to the exit. In the respective case study of th eschool, only conventional fire alarm system is adapted. Thus automatic fire alarm is a better choice to be installed as if nobody notice the incident, the system will detect it earlier for tenant to take cautious. The on drawback is the cost to installed will cost more than the original fire alarm system. Most of the time, an alarm system is used to give alerts to occupant in the building and it’s incoporate with detector for better performance. In the school, only fire alarm bell is used along the way to escape. It is installed on fire staircase as well. This is the alarm being practice in all premises. After the heat detector is triggered, the system will start giving signal by sounding as an intermittent alarm with the red light is on. The LED on the repective zone will be lighten and seen in the control panel. All this signal will continue alarm people to leave the respective building. Figure 3.2.3.9 Fire alarm ring bell and fire alarm break glass
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 5. Fire Sprinkler System For the building, we would like to propose a fire sprinkler system to the school. The main reason is this is the most effective system applied in most of the building. The only drawback is the cost is cosy. A fire sprinkler system are a network of fixed water pipes supplied by two water sources with sprinkler heads fitted at recommended distances apart. The water is be supplied from a tank via pump, providing the sufficient flow, controlled by different type of valves. When the sprinkler in operation, it will actuate an alarm to give a warning to occupants to evacuate from the area immediately. The main purpose for sprinkler system is to control the fire size, not to distinguish the fire. Thus tenants need to be alerted and leave the building as soon as posible. This system will help to slow down the fire spreading to the other side of the room which reduced the damaged to the building and property inside. The hazard class (LH, OH, HH) to which sprinkler system is to be designed, will determine the characteristics of the fire sprinkler installation in regards of their specification of water supply, number of fire pumps, number of sprinklers etc. Thus the hazard class to which the sprinkler system is to be designed, shall be determined before starting the design work. The classifications is divided into 3 types as Light hazard (LH) Ordinary Hazard (OH) and High Hazard (HH) depends on the occupancy. Figure 3.2.3.10 Fire sprinkler head
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 5. Fire Sprinkler System The heat from fire will raise the temperature at ceiling level and when the area adjacent to the head reaches a specific temperature, glass bulb that hold back the water will burst, then sprinkler head will actuate and spray water on to a fire. Only the sprinklers over the fire will opened and the others will remain closed to reduce any damage to areas where there is no fire and reduces the amount of water needed. Figure 3.2.3.11 Fire sprinkler head Figure 3.2.3.12 Fire sprinkler control valve assembly.
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 5. Fire Sprinkler System (Calculation for spacing of fire sprinkler) Figure 3.2.3.13 Fire sprinkler
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 5. Fire Sprinkler System (Calculation for spacing of fire sprinkler) (a) Ordinarily fire hazard building category required a maximum served floor area odf 12mm2 per sprinkler head. Therefore the calculation for each space proposed of sprinkler system is as follow- ing excluded the canteen as it is opened space. (o)length x width = area Area/ 12 (m2) = nos of sprinkler needed (i)Block A 12 x 57= 684 684/12= 57= 60 (vi) Special classroom 35x 10= 350 350/12= 29.17= 30 (iii) Block C 2.556 x 4.614= 11.77 m2 (vi) Special classroom 4.538 x 2.579= 11.70m2 (ii) Block B 10.2 x66= 673.2 673.2/12= 56 (iii)Block C 10.2 x 65= 663 663/12= 55.25= 56 (iv) Block D 42 x12= 504 504/12= 56 (vi) Workshop 45x 14= 630 630/12= 52.5= 53 All is satisfactory for being less than 12 m2. (i) Block A 3 x 3.785= 11.35 m2 (ii) Block B 4.722 x 2.474= 11.68m2 (iv) Block D 4 x 2.963= 11.852m2 (v) Computer lab 2.996 x 3.91= 11.71 m2 (vi) Special classroom 3.252 x 3.507= 11.40m2
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 6. Hose reel system Hose reel system is intended for the occupant to use during the early stages of fire and comprises hose reel pumps, fire water tank, hose reels, pipe work and valves. The hose reel system generally is served as an initial firefighting aid. From the photo, the hose reel on site is not placed properly housed in glass fronted cabinet securedly under lock and key. The hose reel drum is a universal swing type which is made of non-kinking, braided rubber type and the length of the hose is 30 meter. The shut –off nozzle assembly which is fitted at the end of the hose is constructed of corrosion resistant material. A 25mm diameter stop valve, also known as ball valve is provided for the connection of the hose reel to the water supply. According to UBBL 1984, the length of hose reel should be 30m which in Setia City Mall, it is. A hose reel should also be found 1 in every 80sqm2. The system can be found throughout the whole school along the corridor. It is placed outside th class for easily access. Figure 3.2.3.14 Hose reel
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3b Active and passive fire protection system 2.0 Passive Fire Protection System 2.01 Fire door The fire door is used to withstand fire where it slow down the time to burn the building. It is only found at the computer lab block of the buidling. The door closer shown on the photo is complies with the UBBL number 164 which is a door closer for fire door. The ‘keluar’ sign is not in the existing building. As the lift is installed, we proposed this to the door to upgrade the school service system. According to UBBL, fire door should have the exist sign on top of the door. Figure 3.2.3.15 Hose reel Figure 3.2.3.16 “Keluar’ sign
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3c Mechanical Transportation System 3.2.3c Motor RoomLess (MRL) lift SMK Bandar Sunway currently has staircase and does not employ any mechanical vertical transportation system.To serve the increasing number of school building population during peak school period, motor roomless lift has been designed for 4-storey building blocks. 10 motor room-less lift has been proposed to be installed in SMK Bandar Sunway. Two lifts at the lift loby extension area opposite the corridor connecting the main Block A and Block B which are central pedestrian circulation point whereas one lift each nearby the existing staircase for the rest of the blocks. The installation of the mechanical tansportation system will facilitate the movement of school children and special needs students as well as the school teachers. Motor roomless lift do not have a fixed motor room on the top hoistway, instead the traction hoisting machine is installed either on the top side wall of the hoistway. The motor is installed using a permanent magnet which attach to the motor permanently and work with Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF) drive. The hoisting machines using gearless synchronous motors instead traditional induction motors. This design reduced the size, weight, heat output and energy consumption of traditional traction systems by up to one-half. Besides, it also eliminates the need of a fixed machine room and thus saves much building’s space. Therefore, the hoisting motor is installed on the side wall of the hoistway. The main controller is installed on the top floor next to the landing doors. The controller positioned behind a locked cabinet which have to be unlocked using a key for repair, maintenance and emergency use.. The motor roomless lift uses steel rope belts instead of the conventional steel cord ropes used as the hoisting cables. With flat steel belt ropes, it saves much space on the hoistway and to allow a minimun size of the hoisting sheave. The flat steel belts also allows 30% lighter than conventional steel ropes.
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3c Mechanical Transportation System(Ground Floor Plan) LIFT LIFT LIFT LIFT LIFT LIFT LIFT
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3c Mechanical Transportation System The motor room-less system is designed for buildings between about two and 30 stories. It employs a smaller sheave than conventional geared and gearless elevators. The reduced sheave size, together with a redesigned machine, allows the machine to be mounted within the hoistway itself, eliminating the need for a bulky motor room on the roof. The flat polyurethane-coated steel ropes replace the heavy, woven steel cables that have been the industry standard since the 1800s. The belts make the smaller sheave possible. They are only 0.1 inch (3 mm) thick, yet they are as strong as woven steel cables and far more durable, flexible and space-saving The lift system is divided into zones based on type of traffic and are served by separate groups of lifts to optimize the lift system. On a single tenant floor, the corridors and lift lobby (except on the entry level) are part of a usable area. Such lift lobbies generally does not have any landlord equipment or fixtures other than ceiling fixtures like those found in all tenant areas. A control cabinet is placed at the side of the lift. Flat Polyurethane-coated Steel Belts Ropes Motor room-less lift Control Cabinet
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3c Mechanical Transportation System- Lift The Lamda Eelctronics control panel for machine roomless applications is designed in two separare units, the power lift (height:700mm, width: 550mm, depth:280mm) and the control unit height:1960mm, width: 260mm, depth:130mm) While the VVVF device is placed in the power unit and is installed in the shaft, the VVVF remote control pad is placed in the control unit which is installed by the doors in order to allow for easy access during the tuning process The Lamda Eelctronics control panel is using one power relay for the motor maximum safety. With the use of high fidelity and high quality UPS device, a sucessful automatic evacuation is guaranteed. VVF Pragrammer Power Unit Brake Release Module LIft Plan LIft Section
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3c Mechanical Transportation System- Proposed Location The Reason of the Placement 1) Block A, B and C are connected. We used the space between Block A and B to build 4 lifts which is just opposite the staircase. 2) Block B has it own lift so that it would not squeeze with the people in Block A. 3) In between Block B and Block C there are 2 lifts. It let students and teachers more convenient to the classroom. 4) At the end of Block C, it is a lift for students and teachers to use when they need to go to special classroom or computer lab. It is nearer than walking all the way from Block B to Block A. The lift location of Block C is nearer to the computer lab and special classroom 5) Block D is independent building. So we provide 2 lifts which at the begin and end of Block D. The Location:1) Advantage - More convenient to go to classroom s - Empty space is used which between Block B and Block C. 2) The energy savings in motor roomless lift comparison conventional traction lift are even more substantial. p í ~ á ê Å~ ë É LIFT LOBBY LIFT b ã é í ó = pÉ ~ Å é LIFT LIFT LOBBY 3) With the smaller size of the new motor, a machine room above or adjacent to the lift hoistway was not required. Disadvantages: 1) Part of the view between Block A and Block B are covered by the lift. The Empty Area between Block A and Block B 2) Equipment may be harder to maintain.
    • 3.2 Proposed Renovation SMK Bandar Sunway 3.2.3c Mechanical Transportation system Related Calculation The elevator system required is calculated (or estimated) accordingly based on: 1. Population to be served (represented by handling capacity of an elevator) 2. Passenger waiting time waiting for an elevator Round Trip Time is basically the average time taken by a lift to complete one trip, from the main lobby to all the floors of the building and back, during up-peak traffic. Waiting interval in seconds = Round Trip Time (RTT) / number of lifts The school has population number of 2053 people. For building population of 200 per unit, 10 lifts are needed for the school.
    • Design Inspiration 4. Conclusion From our case study, we learned how the centralized air-conditioning system, fire protection system, and mechanical transportation system of a hotel function including the connections and position of different parts and equipment as well as space implication. Hence, a building services system influences the architecture of a building and plays a significant role in design and environment consideration. As for design intervention, we need to understand the client’s needs early on in the design process and plan the required spaces effectively so that the school building renovation such as centralised air-conditioning system, upgraded active fire protection system, and machine room-less lift can achieve energy savings for lowering carbon emissions and aesthetically pleasing at the same time.
    • Design Inspiration 5. References http://www.xpedio.carrier.com/idc/groups/public/documents/marketing/tdp_796-055_preview.pdf http://arch.ced.berkeley.edu/vitalsigns/res/downloads/rp/hvac/hvac-big_opt.pdf http://www.classikcoolingtowers.com/cooling-tower-maintenance.html http://www.maced.org/E3/documents/HVAC%20System%20function,%20ee%20and%20ES.pdf http://www.qualitysmith.com/request/articles/articles-cooling/central-air-conditioning-parts/ http://www.trane.com/COMMERCIAL/HvacSystems/1_1_ChilledWater.aspx?i=863 http://www.pseg.com/home/customer_service/worry_free/replacements/air_conditioner/about.jsp http://www.ashraeqatar.com/images/HSK_Air_Handling_Unit_General_Catalogue.PDF http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_sprinkler_system http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_detector