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  1. 1. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.1 Course 3: Planning for Instruction
  2. 2. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.2 Skill Standard: B. Develop Outcomes, Assessments and Curricula Key Activities: B2. Create, evaluate, and modify curriculum. Skill Standard: D. Provide Student Instruction Key Activities: D1. Prepare and/or gather current instructional materials and equipment. D4. Modify instructional material and methods based on student and industry assessments and feedback. Planning for Instruction ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ Editor ’s Note : The two levels indicated in this course relate to the level of knowledge and experience of the instructor-learner. Level I relates to the brand new instructor and contains “critical” outcomes. Level II relates to the slightly more experienced instructor and focuses on application and assessment of learning. COURSE DESCRIPTION: Instructor-learners plan for the delivery of adult instruction by creating instructional materials appropriate for students of diverse backgrounds and learning styles. Instructor- learners develop the skills required to create, evaluate or modify a course through the construction of lesson plans and course syllabi. This course assists instructor-learners in ways to plan lessons and units of instruction and to identify textbooks, instructional media and resources. Emphasis is on lesson planning and syllabus development, particularly as they relate to higher order thinking skills such as Bloom’s Taxonomy and domains of learning. LEARNING OUTCOMES: The instructor-learner will: LEVEL I • Create, gather and organize quality instructional materials and media in support of curriculum outcomes and diverse learning styles. • Align assessments with program outcomes and diverse learning styles. • Modify assessments based on student and industry feedback. • Develop well-organized student-centered instructional activities and lesson plans. LEARNING OUTCOMES The instructor-learner will: LEVEL II • Evaluate and customize quality instructional materials, resources, and media in support of curriculum outcomes and diverse learning styles that also meet the requirements of approved policies and procedures. • Modify instructional plans and activities after assessing effectiveness of developed materials and media. • Apply Bloom’s Taxonomy to instructional methods and assessments. • As needed, access a variety of campus resources and personnel in preparation for instruction.
  3. 3. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.3 ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT, LEVEL I: • Construct and complete a syllabus that indicates all segments of course planning, including course description, learning outcomes, competencies, course content, objectives, assessment tools, content assessment, and ADA accommodations. • Select and apply a variety of instructional methods for specific student learning outcomes and course competencies. ASSESSMENTS, LEVEL II: • Apply deliberate criteria, including college, local, state, industry, and federal policies and guidelines and knowledge of learning styles and instructional strategies in the selection and design and/or customization of instructional materials, resources, and media. • Obtain appropriate approval and support for the use of a selected set of instructional materials and or systems. • Actively explore opportunities for team teaching and planning with other disciplines within their institution. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: • Instructional materials and equipment are identified to support program outcomes and appeal to multiple learning styles and diverse learners. • Instructional materials and equipment selected are approved in accordance with college policies and procedures. • Campus resources are consulted to ensure availability of instructional materials and equipment. • Lesson plans are organized to provide regular opportunities for students to actively practice, perform, and receive feedback on all required skills. • Learning activities and lessons are directed toward program and student outcomes and competencies and industry standards. • Course sequence supports student success at achieving outcomes and competencies. • Course and curriculum properly align with accrediting bodies, college mission, and program goals and are driven by workforce needs. • Syllabi includes course descriptions, student learning outcomes, course competencies, course content, objectives, assessment tools, content assessment, ADA accommodations, course prerequisites, and grading requirements. • Course is regularly reviewed by advisory committee and/or accrediting bodies as required and meets all legal requirements. • When appropriate, flexibility is built into the course to address individual student needs. KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS: The instructor-learner will: • Demonstrate knowledge of program outcomes. • Identify sources of instructional materials and demonstrate the ability to access such sources. • Demonstrate knowledge of adult learning styles and diverse teaching methodologies. • Apply knowledge of state/federal and college requirements and guidelines regarding instructional materials and media. • Select and revise appropriate types of instructional materials and teaching strategies, including lecture, demonstration, lesson, discussion, tutorial, workshop practice, projects, case study, or role play as appropriate, that support curriculum outcomes. • Develop implement and demonstrate effective lesson planning.
  4. 4. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.4 ○○○○○○○○○ LEARNING ACTIVITIES: • Identify and collect resources for textbook selection as determined by college and in collaboration with program advisory committee. • Apply Bloom’s Taxonomy to course design, objective development, and student evaluation. • Write course competencies and student learning outcomes and performance objectives. • Construct a variety of methods for student evaluation. • Determine course boundaries for course content. • Identify course prerequisite skills and develop methods for assessing whether prerequisite skill requirements are met by entering students. • Subdivide course content into appropriate units of instruction. • Utilize members of advisory committee to review and evaluate lesson and course design and content. • Identify links between lessons, course, curriculum, and state and accreditation requirements. • Interpret and apply new knowledge and formulate lesson and course design. • Support team teaching/cross disciplinary education. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ SELECTING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL AND MEDIA Essential Content Discussion Topics and Key Points Types of instructional • Textbooks, reference materials, audiovisuals, websites, handouts, material and media simulations, flipcharts, props • Media- Smart Boards, overheads/viewfoils, software, lab equipment Criteria for selecting and developing • College, state and federal requirements instructional material and media • Copyright and intellectual law (See Course #14: Educational Law) • Providing for diverse learners and various learning styles (See Course #7: Learning Styles) Effectiveness of course materials • Readability (not crowded) and material presentation • Attractiveness • Use of white space • Layout • Supporting the speaker Considerations for text selection • Cost to program, cost to students, alignment with program outcomes, currency, accessibility, relevance, explanations, reading level, presumed student experience, sources, topic emphasis, bias, illustrations, format, measurements for students achievement. Course support material and media • Copyright issues (See Course #14: Educational Law.) • Whiteboards • Use of audio-visuals: computer program applications Research methods • Sources • Types • Relevance • Apply information literacy skills
  5. 5. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.5 • Critique current program resources and texts for educational/instructional effectiveness. • Identify criteria and develop a checklist for text selection that aligns with course outcomes. SUPPORT MATERIAL: Success with Visuals Textbook Selection How To Get Books From Publishers and Other Sources of Classroom Materials PRIMARY TEXT/RESOURCES: Johnson, Glenn Ross. (1995). First Steps to Excellence In College Teaching. (3rd . ed.). Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing. WEBSITES: www.presentations.com LESSON PLANS Essential Content Discussion Topics and Key Points ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ Basic considerations of • Time, sequencing, techniques, involving students, visual aids, planning a lesson modeling, and thorough preparation. • Inquiry-Based instruction. • Lesson alignment to student outcomes. Lesson plan preparation • Pre-lesson preparation: Course goals, content, student entry level, student activities. • Lesson Planning and implementation: Unit title, instructional goal, objectives, rationale, content, instructional procedures, assessment and evaluation procedures (including formative), materials. • Post-lesson activities: Lesson evaluation and revision notes. Basic lesson plan format • Sample: 4-Step method-Preparation, Presentation, Application, and Evaluation. • Use your institution’s standard format if applicable. Writing measurable student • Begin with active verbs. learning outcomes and/or • Include domains of learning: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective performance objectives competency statements and outcomes and competencies. • Outcomes are broad statements about what students will know and be able to do at the end of instruction. • Competencies are statements specifically describing what a student must know and be able to do as a result of instruction. • A performance objective tells the conditions under which the learning will occur. Lesson introduction • Anticipatory set—the hook: create interest through a story, personal anecdote, current event, historical development, question or statement of fact. • Preparing the learners. • Connecting to what they already know.
  6. 6. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.6 ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ LESSON PLANS Essential Content Discussion Topics and Key Points Lesson introduction (cont.) • Purposes: To gain student attention, motivate students, and provide overview. • Identifying safety issues. • Identifying student learning outcomes. Chaining • Relating previously taught material to present material and present material to future learning. Teaching content and • Outline or have students outline the information. involving learners • Include examples to aid student understanding. • Personal experiences add realism and practicality. • Ask oral questions to elicit class involvement and to check comprehension. • Use activities which create student involvement. • Use activities requiring students to perform specific behaviors. • Use transitions to signal to students that lesson is progressing to a new point. Closure (Metacognition) • Lesson review and summary: students verbally recapping the major points of the lesson. • Find and correct misunderstanding and errors. • Relating the content to learning outcomes. • Identifying benefit to students. • Getting learners to reflect about their learning. Lesson assignment • Opportunities for student practice. • Specific directions about what the student must do to apply current subject matter and to prepare for the next lesson of instruction. • Assignments as assessments. • (See attachment: What’s an Effective Assignment.) Multiple intelligences • Matching instruction and assignments to accommodate the notion of Howard Gardner’s 8 intelligences: linguistic, mathematical, spatial, musical, interpersonal, intra-personal, kinesthetic, naturalist. Learning styles • Adapting lessons to students. (See Course #7: Learning Styles.) LEARNING ACTIVITIES: • Identify, and collect in a notebook, local, state and federal requirements for instructional materials selection and acquisition. • List five sources and types of instructional material for particular outcomes of lessons. • Customize standard instructional materials to address diverse learner needs. • Compile a set of relevant instructional materials (options) for specified program/ curriculum, identifying multiple colleges, industry, and other resources and using a variety of instructional media. • Develop creative, learner-centered assignments that assess student learning outcomes and accommodate diverse learner preferences and learning styles. • Prepare a lesson and requisite learning materials that align with student learning outcomes and encourage learners to be actively involved. • Establish criteria for effective lessons and assignments.
  7. 7. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.7 SUPPORT MATERIALS: Instructional Events and the Conditions of Learning Planning Steps for Instruction Classroon Tips for Planning Instruction: Things to Doand Things to Avoid in Planning Skill Standards Integration Work Plan Lesson Planning, Basic Considerations Lesson Design Usefulness of Lesson Plans Lesson Plan Assessment Sample Lesson Plan Format #1 Sample Lesson Plan Format #2 Sample Lesson Plan: Inquiry-Based Learning Sample Lesson Plan: Interviewing Techniques Sample Lesson Plan: Electrical Cooking Equipment Operation PRIMARY TEXT/RESOURCES: • Lesson Planning (34 minutes video), Teacher’s Video Company, Scottsdale, AZ. (1-800-262-8837) • Bartel, Carl, R. (1976). Instructional Analysis and Materials Development. Homewood, Illinois: American Technical Publishers, Inc. • Foran, V. James, Davie J. Pucel, Rosemary T. Fruehling, and Janice C. Johnson. (1992). Effective Curriculum Planning. Eden Prairie, Minnesota: Paradigm Publishing Company, International. • Orlich, Donald C., Harder, Robert, J., Callahan, Richard, C., Kauchak, Donald, P., and • Gibson, Harry, W. (1994). Teaching Strategies; A Guide to Better Instruction. (4th ed.). Lexington, MA: D.C. Hath and Company. ADDITIONAL READINGS AND RESOURCES • Cush, David T. & Buskist, William. The Future for Textbooks. The Teaching Professor. June/July 1997. • Donald E. Greive. Info-Tec. Handbook II; Advanced Teaching Strategies for Adjunct and Part-Time Faculty. (2000). WEBSITES: www.adprima.com/lesson.htm This site contains help on learning to write lesson plans. Topics include avoiding mistakes in writing plans, writing behavioral objectives, lesson planning and teaching questions, behavioral verbs, and other helpful information on teaching and learning. www.solutions.ibm.com/k12/teacher/activity.html This IBM web page contains a Teacher’s Corner of lesson plans and student activities, including teaching the stock market. www.techlearning.com Check out this site if you are interested in building your own home page. The Technology& Learning web site does contain true lesson plans and is a great resource for technology teachers. www.EdHelper.com This is a great source for lesson plans and educational information. This will link to Lesson Stop, Teachers Helping Teachers, The Lesson Plan Page, Lesson Planning Page, and Columbia Education Center. www.sdserv.org/liks/techplan.html Sample lesson plans for all content areas. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  8. 8. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.8 SYLLABUS DEVELOPMENT Essential Content Discussion Topics and Key Points Definition of curriculum • Orderly arrangement or series of supporting activities designed to help individuals reach a long range program objective. • Defines nature and standards of work methods. • Defines evaluation procedures. • Set of directions; means by which work can be re-structured and re- done to improve performance. Components of a course of study • See support material: Components of a Course of Study attached. Syllabus construction • Contract between instructor and student. • Outline of teacher expectations. • College policies; checklist. • Class rules. • Safety considerations. • See support material, The Basic 12-Point Syllabus, Syllabus Example, Preparing a Syllabus attached. Course and curriculum alignment • Learning activities and assessments align with course objectives and student learning outcomes. Course description • Primary Goal: Incite student to take action. • Content is short, clear and concise. Bloom’s Taxonomy • Hierarchical classification system for describing and sequencing learning activities. • Provides: Range of objectives, sequencing, cognitive structure, learning model, reinforcement of learning, instructional congruency, construction of appropriate test items, diagnosis of learning problems, and individualize instruction. • Alignment with objectives, activities, and evaluation. Bloom’s Cognitive Domain • Intellectual Domain. • Incorporating higher levels into curriculum. • Knowledge: Memory Comprehension: Handling learned information • Application: Applying or using the learned material. • Analysis: Explaining how aspects of complex material are arranged and work together. • Synthesis: Creative combining of elements to form new and unique material. • Evaluation: Making and substantiating decisions. • See Course #8: The Adult Learner. David Krathwohl’s Affective Domain • Development of students’ feelings, attitudes, values, and emotions. • Receiving: Awareness, willingness, and controlled or selected attention. • Responding: Acquiescence, willingness, and satisfaction. • Valuing : Acceptance of a value, preference for a value, and commitment. • Organization: Conceptualization of a value and organization of a value system. • Characterization by a value or value complex: Generalized set, characterization.
  9. 9. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.9 SYLLABUS DEVELOPMENT (cont.) Essential Content Discussion Topics and Key Points ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ Kenneth Moore’s Psychomotor Domain • Refinement of human movement; muscular skills and abilities. • Imitation: Rudiments of a skill. • Manipulation: Perform skill independently. • Precision: Perform skill accurately, efficiently, and effortlessly. Learning Styles • Learner preferences for different types of learning and instructional activities. • Four stages of Learning Cycle: • Concrete experience • Reflective observation • Abstract conceptualization • Active experimentation • Four learning style types/ strengths and weaknesses • Converger, Diverger, Assimilator, Accommodator • Access a learning style inventory online - www.arl.org/training/ilcso/adultlearn.html • See Course #7: Learning Styles. Differences among learners • See support material: Potential Differences Among Learners, How Do You Learn? attached. Domains of Learning • Cognitive, psychomotor, affective (See support material: Domains of Learning, attached). • Implications on course development. • Implications on assessment (see Module B3). Instructional methods • Identification of and use for: lecture, demonstration, lesson, discussion, tutorial, workshop practice, project, case study, role play. • See Courses: #1 & #2, Teaching and Facilitating Learning. Evaluation methods • Formative versus summative evaluations. • Assessment construction and implementation (See course #4, Assessment as Learning.) • Tests, assignments, activities, site visits, mentorships. • Variety for course development. • Variety to appeal to diverse learning styles. Framing the course content • Determining what will and will not be included in the course under construction. • Access program advisory committee advise. Incorporating advisory committee/ • Current skill standards. industry recommendations • Approval of changes/modifications. (See Course #9, Developing and Reviewing Programs.) LEARNING ACTIVITIES: • Review and evaluate a variety of syllabi from other instructors. • Collect, review and evaluate a variety of syllabi from other programs with the same content. • Review and analyze model syllabi from other programs with different content to see what content must be.
  10. 10. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.10 ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ • Develop a list of all content required of a syllabus, recognizing that the syllabus is a contract between the school and the student. • Develop activities and assessments that consider all learning styles. • Ascertain rules to be followed in classes. • Meet with members of the program’s advisory committee to review a draft of the syllabus being prepared. • Examine course syllabi to identify strengths and weaknesses of documents prepared for similar courses. • Explore a variety of instructional delivery methods • Construct a course syllabus which includes course objectives and competencies, student activities, student assessments and student assignments. SUPPORT MATERIAL: Evaluation Implications: Kolb’s Learning Styles The Four Learning-Style Types The Four Stages of the Learning Cycle and Your Learning Style Potential Differences Among Learners Course Descriptions: Do You Want Your Class To Fill Up With Students? Bloom’s Taxonomy Active Verbs and Applications for Assessment Educational Taxonomies: Bloom, Krathwohl, Dave Components of a Course of Study Visioning Your Course: Questions to Ask as You Design Your Course The Basic 12-Point Syllabus Syllabus Checklist Preparing a Syllabus Sample Syllabus: Engineering Graphics PRIMARY TEXT/RESOURCES: Foran, James V., Rosemary T. Fruehling, Janice C. Johnson, David J. Pucel. (1992). Effective Curriculum Planning: Performances, Standards, and Outcomes. Eden Prairie, Minnesota: Paradigm Publishing International. Grunert, Judith. (1997). The Course Syllabus A Learning Centered Approach. Bolton, Massachusetts: Anker Publishing Company, Inc. Orlich, Donald C., Harder, Robert, J., Callahan, Richard, C., Kauchak, Donald, P., and Gibson, Harry, W. (1994). Teaching Strategies; A Guide to Better Instruction. (4th ed.). Lexington, MA: D.C. Hath and Company. Pregent, Richard. 1994). Charting Your Course: How to Prepare to Teach More Effectively. Madison, WI: Magna Publications. Stiehl, Ruth. (2000). The Outcomes Primer: Reconstructing the College Curriculum. Corvallis, Oregon: The Learning Organization. ADDITIONAL READINGS AND RESOURCES: Angelo, T.A. and Patricia Cross (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Bennett, Janet M., Ph.D. and Bennett, Milton, J. Ph.D. (1999). Culture and The Process of Learning. Portland, OR: Communication Perspectives, Inc. Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals (Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain). New York: David McKay Company. Buckley, R.& Caple, J. (1990). The Theory and Practice of Training. San Diego, CA: University Associates.
  11. 11. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.11 ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ Davis, B. G. (1993). Tools for teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Diamond, R.M. (1998). Designing courses and curricula, revised edition. Jossey-Bass. Gagne, R.M. & Briggs, L.J. (1979). Principles of Instructional Design. (2nd ed.) New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Georges, James, C. The Myth of Soft-Skills Training. Training Magazine. January 1996. Grieve, Donald E. (Ed.). (2000). Handbook II; Advanced Teaching Strategies for Adjunct and Part-time Faculty. Elyria, OH: Info-tec. Grasha, Tony. (1996). Teaching With Style: A Practical Guide to Enhancing Learning by Understanding Teaching and Learning Styles. Pittsburgh, PA: Alliance Publishers. Jonassen, David, H., Grabinger, R. Scott, & Harris, N. Duncan. Analyzing and Selecting Instructional Strategies and Tactics. Performance Improvement Quarterly, Vol. 4, Number 2, 1991. Jonassen, David, H. and Barbara L. Grabowski. (1993) Handbook of Individual Differences, Learning and Instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Klatt, Bruce. (1999). The Ultimate Training Workshop Handbook. McGraw Hill. Program Planning, Development, and Evaluation: A-7 Develop A Course Of Study. (2nd ed.). Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience As the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Kolb, D. A. (1985). Learning Style Inventory (revised ed.). Boston: McBer. Langdon, Danny. Performance Technology In Three Paradigms. Performance & Instruction. August 1991. Orlich, Donald, C., Harder, Robert, J., Callahan, Richard, C., Kauchak, Donald P., & Gibson, Harry, W. (1994). Teaching Strategies; A guide to Better Instruction. (4th Ed.). Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company. Stepich, Don. From Novice to Expert: Implications for Instructional Design, Performance & Instruction, July 1999. Walvoord, B.E. and V.J. Anderson. (1998). Effective Grading. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass, Inc. Wlodkowski, R. J. (1998). Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass, Inc. WEBSITES: www.reach.ucf.edu/acg4401/Handouts/blooms.htm. Sample verbs for stating learning outcomes and/or asking multi-level questions in accordance with Bloom’s Taxonomy. Task oriented question construction wheel based on Bloom’s Taxonomy. www.arl.org/training/ilcso/adultlearn.html Kolb’s Adult Learner Model. http://its.foxvalley.tec.wi.us/iss/curric-assessment/COLOMN.html Cognitive verbs for Bloom’s Taxonomy. www.umuc.edu/ugp/ewp/bloomtox.html Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in assignment design.
  12. 12. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.12 http://www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/longview/ctac/bloom.htm Bloom’s Taxonomy and critical thinking. www.it/utk.edu/~jklittle/edsmrt521/affective.html Taxonomy- All three domains. www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/bluewrbn/index/html Lesson plan sitewww.pbs.org/teachersource/standardslist/htm PBS list of standards. www.connectingstudetns.com/lesson2.htm Lesson plans. http://literacynet.org/cnnsf/instructor.html Lesson plan site. www.globe.gov Lesson plan site. GLOSSARY: Instructional Media Smartboards Whiteboards/Visual Aid Panels (VAP) Syllabus Learning Styles Curriculum Outcomes Instructional Design Viewfoils/overhead projection ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  13. 13. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.13 Support Materials for Course 8: Planning for instruction
  14. 14. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.14 Success With Visuals Submitted by Mike Buschmohie, Applause, Issaquah, Washington Each step of your presentation can be a visual image (or “slide” as PowerPoint screens are called). You don’t need to follow the templates in PowerPoint; make your own. Two basic samples: TO EXPLAIN TO PERSUADE Content on each slide Content on each slide 1. Title 1. Title 2. Question 2. Question 3. Promise line 3. Promise line 4. What (is, isn’t, like) 4. So that (benefits) 5. How (process, structure) 5. Do this (desired action) 6. Why (reasons: can be both 6. Instead of causes & purposes) 7. Because (reasons) 7. Summary 8. Invitation to act to gain benefits. 1. READABILITY SHOULD BE THE FIRST AIM To make visuals readable, make or project visuals that are LARGE. Your smallest letter or number should be readable by anyone in the last row. The bigger the visual, the bigger the impact. Fill the screen for projected visuals and write large on charts and white boards. This also applies to lettering: Fat letters read farther. Choose bold typefaces for visuals and PowerPoint. Typically about 33, 48, 55 pt. and larger. 2. PICK DARK BACKGROUNDS, LIGHT LETTERS For all projected media including PowerPoint, prefer a dark colored background (such as black, deep blue, deep green, maroon, dark gray) and light colored lettering (such as yellows, cream colors, white, orange, or light greens and blues). Note this optical illusion: white on black always appears larger than black on white. I also recommend avoiding any background that has a pattern that distracts from the wording. Many of PowerPoint’s backgrounds are cutesy and can be highly distracting from your message. 3. MAKE YOUR VISUALS...MOVE Learn PowerPoint’s marvelous “moving” features. You can make lines of text and images move onto the screen, add sound, animation, and videos. Experiment. I like the “Fly from left” setting which seems most natural, most of the time. Movement attracts attention. Any change (light to dark, still to movement, quiet to loud) attracts attention and reboots interest in viewers. SUMMARY OF TIPS • PICTURES: if you use a picture, place it at the top or left. • TEXT: tend to keep text to the right of pages or screens. • BLANK SPACE: allow more blank space to show at the bottom of visuals and pages than at the top or sides (try 6 units on sides, • 7 on top, 10 on the bottom). • LAYOUT: center info or use the “Golden Section” (5:8:13) division of space, or 1/3:2/3. • LETTERING: Prefer bold, large letters in a sans serif type (as this is) not serif which is difficult to read off screens in dim rooms. This is a serif type. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  15. 15. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.15 ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ • WORDING: display key words only, not sentences, except for quotations. • BULLETS & NUMBERS: use bullets for short lists and numbers for longer lists or when you want to refer to an item easily (“number 4”). • BORDERS: a thin borderline around a page with more blank space showing under it at the bottom adds a great touch. Presenting with visuals is a juggling act. You need to balance your purpose, the audience’s needs, and the demands of art and communication. Here are some suggestions based on my lifetime as an artist, trainer, and communicator. 1. EXPERIMENT • Consider everything an experiment. Experiments never fail, we always learn something. • Try out new high tech media like electronic white boards or PC peripheral boards. • Mix easel charts or butcher paper with PowerPoint or overheads. • Have a no-visuals-version ready in case the power goes out or equipment fails. 2. LOOK AT PEOPLE, NOT VISUALS Nothing in mainstream America is more important than talking into the eyes of your listeners. We are overwhelmingly tempted to spend too much time looking at and talking to our slides. Also, make sure you are not standing in the visual path of your audience. Check the view of those at the room’s corners; sit in one of their seats. 3. SLIDE FIRST, TALK SECOND To help learners digest what you are about to say, show your slide about 5 to 7 seconds before you speak. A study described in Presentations magazine (a helpful Web site: www.presentations.com) found that we like to scan a visual and grasp its meaning before the speaker talks about it—and this seems to aid retention. 4. EMPHASIZE WHAT MATTERS Help your viewers quickly understand what’s important on any visual. Use the ancient technique of Byzantine religious artists: what is most important is largest. Avoid huge titles and tiny bulleted points. Which is more important? Titles and points should be of equal size. Keep title in one color, bulleted or numbered points in other colors. 5. DON’T WORSHIP WHITE SPACE White space is like light: it illuminates text or graphics. The purpose of visuals is not to win art awards, but to help our listeners learn by communicating what is most important to know or do. 6. DON’T SACRIFICE LEARNING A danger of high tech presentations lies in our toy-like fascination with technology. We may be becoming passive viewers- not thinkers or participants. “Genuine education is a dialogue,” wrote Earl Shorris. “We learn what we do.” Help learners/audiences do things, not just watch fancy slides. “We learn more by talking than by listening,” wrote Russell Ackoff to teachers. William Glasser’s idea is my favorite insight into motivation. It is also a perfect haiku mantra: “We all want to have a sense of control over what we choose to do.” Give audiences a sense of control over the entire learning process: offer choices when possible. We commit ourselves to what we choose. When we train, we can tell less: listen and ask more.
  16. 16. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.16 Textbook Selection Adapted from First Steps to excellence by Glenn Ross Johnson, 1995. • Bibliography: Are the citations current and relevant? • Author: Is the writer/researcher prominent? • Reviews: Is this a referred journal? • Topic Emphasis: How do the topics and content relate to the student learning outcomes of your course? • Sequence: Are topics sequentially arranged ? Can they be adapted without disrupting the usefulness of the text? • Content: Does the content reflect current thinking in the field? Are recent developments and research included? • Bias: Is the text free of nationalistic, racial, or sexual bias? • Concepts, Principles, and Generalizations: Are thy clearly developed? Can you read basic facts and information in the book and find that they lead you to concept, principles, and generalizations? • Details: Are there enough details and specific content to support your course? • Explanations: Are they clear and succinct? • Reading Level: Is the readability level of the text at a level appropriate for the average adult learner enrolling in your course? • Presumed Student Experience: Do your adult learners have sufficient background to understand the author’s material? • Titles, Headings, Subheading: Are these helpful for students to visualize the organization relationship of content? • Sources: Are these documented adequately? • Summaries and Review Questions: Are there student aids? Do they help students generalize, apply, and evaluate content? Do they stimulate critical thinking or require problem-solving? For example, after presenting some important information, does the author challenge the students with a simulated happening or with a real problem to solve? • Table of Contents, Preface, Index, and Appendices: Are these adequate and useful? For example, does the author provide a succinct outline of the book in the table of contents? Does the author give a good overview in the preface regarding where the book is going and the type of reader he or she is addressing? Does the index complete with key terms and important terms? Do the appendices include any important survey instrument or measurement device referenced in the body of the text? • Illustrations: Are these accurate, purposeful, properly captioned, and placed near the related text? • Graphs, Tables, Maps, and Charts: Are these clear, pertinent, and carefully done? • Durability: Is the text well-constructed? • Type: Is it clear and easily readable? • Format: Do page size, column arrangement, margins, and white spaces contribute to communicating ideas? Do they allow for supplemental note-taking? Does the format invite reading or does it impede the reader? • Price: Is the price reasonable for the extent to which you will use the book for assignments? • Size and Weight: Will the text be easily carried to class? ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  17. 17. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.17 • Instructor’s Manual: are supplemental materials, teaching aids, text questions, and suggested strategies included? Are they helpful to you. • Supplemental Resources, Supplemental Workbook, and Computer Software: Are the resource materials suitable for all students to purchase? Instructional Events and the Conditions of Learning Source: Gagne, R.M. and Briggs, L.J. (1979). Principles of Instructional Design, (2nd . ed.), New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1. Gaining attention. 2. Informing learner of objective. 3. Stimulating recall or prerequisites. 4. Presenting the stimulus material. 5. Providing learning guidance. 6. Eliciting the performance. 7. Providing feedback. 8. Assessing performance. 9. Enhancing retention. Planning Steps for Instructors Based on: Gagne, R.M. and Briggs, L.J. (1979). Principles of Instructional Design, (2nd . ed.), New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1. Assess personal skills, style, interests, strengths, and weak spots. 2. Assess learners’ styles, interests, abilities, and pervious knowledge. 3. Analyze organization in which instruction occurs: align philosophy, goals, rules, and system. 4. Determine learning outcomes: what will learner know, feel, or be able to do at the end of instruction? 5. Identify content which is essential to achievement of goals and learner needs. 6. Select methods, strategies and resources which are appropriate for goals, learners, and content. 7. Determine how you will assess goal attainment and provide learner feedback. 8. Make a tentative plan. Assign times for each activity. 9. Go! See how it works. Try it out on a small group if possible. Take notes. 10. Evaluate as you go along and at the end of instruction. Involve learners. Identify ways to make program improvements. ○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  18. 18. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.18 Lesson Design Source: Hunter, Madeline. (1989). Mastery Teaching. El Segundo, CA: TIP Publications. Goals: Statement(s) proclaiming the all-encompassing purpose of the lesson. Objectives: Brief statement(s) listing the desired result(s) of the lesson. Anticipatory Set: Anticipatory set is the result of an activity which occurs during the time that students are physically arriving or mentally “shifting” gears from the activity just finished. Anticipatory set elicits attending behavior, deliberate focus, and a mental readiness or “set” for the content of the ensuing. Instructional Input: To plan this step, the teacher must determine what information (new or already processed) is needed by the student in order to accomplish the present objective(s). Modeling: It is helpful for students to not only know about and to see examples of an acceptable finished product (story, poem, model, diagram, graph) or a process (how to identify the main ideas, weave, articulate thinking while proceeding in the assignment, kick a ball, etc.). Monitoring to Check for Understanding: The teacher needs to check for student’s possession of essential information and also needs to observe student’s performance to make sure he/ she exhibits the skills necessary to achieve the instructional objectives. Guided Practice: The beginning stages of learning are critical in the determination of future successful performance. Consequently, the student’s initial attempt in new learning should be carefully guided so he/she is accurate and successful. Independent Practice: The student can perform without major errors, discomfort or confusion, he/she is ready to develop fluency by practicing with minimal teacher supervision. Lesson Planning, Basic Considerations • Keep presentation short (15-20 minutes). • Break it up with...practice sessions, questions, other participatory interactions • Determine level of learners. • Involve students as much as possible. • Use a variety of techniques (3-5 each session). • Use frequent, relevant examples when appropriate, use visual aides e.g. Flip charts, chalk/white board, video, slides, transparencies (viewfoils) models, etc. • Provide frequent opportunities for success. • Model appropriate behaviors and learning tasks and skills. • Provide for maximum time on task. • Prepare thoroughly. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  19. 19. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.19 Closure: Closure is a summarizing event to help students organize lesson materials and activities, consolidate learning, and/or draw their attention to ‘the completion of a lesson or unit. It typically encompasses such steps as reviewing major points, summarizing a discussion, pulling together key relationships, highlighting key rules and principles, providing practice or extending opportunities, etc.. ln addition to those “pulling together” effects, closure can provide students with a sense of accomplishment and progress. Materials Needed: Varies according to lesson. Allowances for Individual Differences: This section should address how the intern would modify curriculum and instruction in this lesson for diverse students. “Extended” lesson activities for able learners and “remedial” lesson activities for children having difficulty should both be considered and addressed. Lesson Evaluation: Written evaluation following lesson. Usefulness of Lesson Plans Submitted by Norma W. Goldstein, Ph.D., Renton Technical College Each instructor is to have at his/her teaching station a copy of the currently approved curriculum guide (program outline). The instructor’s copy may include additions, deletions, and other unofficial modifications needed for curriculum planning purposes. Substitutions must be approved per the procedure for Approval of Program, Title, Hour, and Content Changes. However, the curriculum guide is not in sufficient detail to ensure sound instruction; therefore instructors need to maintain plans of instruction such as lesson plans. Planning for instruction is a part of an instructor’s day-to-day activity for teaching. Lesson plans, or other methods of planning, can specify the learning objective, content, methods, materials/equipment, application, and evaluation for each lesson that is taught. Such planning prepares an instructor to teach and is invaluable to substitute teachers who will need to know what and how to teach. Plans of instruction serve several purposes. For beginning instructors, in particular, they provide the day-to-day planning of a course. Such documentation can easily be modified in subsequent years of teaching a program. Written plans can be evidence of good sound planning and preparation and provide detailed information about teaching performance and level of expertise. Even after the lesson is taught, administrators and instructors themselves can analyze and reflect about instructional methodology. They can also provide useful information for a tenure committee. Ideally, instructors will use formal plans such as lesson plans which usually include the four- step method for teaching to a specific outcome or objective: preparation of the student, presentation (procedure), application, and evaluation. Attached are two (2) lesson plan formats. Although there is no one best way to develop and present a lesson, the formats presented here should help instructors meet the requirements for good planning. Teachers may follow a particular format attached or develop their own to suit their individual needs in planning. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  20. 20. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.20 Lesson Plan Assessment Source: Professional Teacher Education Module Series - B: Instructional Planning (B4). (1983). Athens, Georgia: American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials. Place a check in the appropriate column. Should an item not apply, check N/A. Area of Assessment Performance Met Not Met N/A 1. The Lesson Plan includes a statement of prerequisite knowledge and skill needed by students to succeed in the lesson. 2. The performance objective toward which all lessons in unit arc directed. 3. An enabling objective toward which this lesson is directed. 4. A list of all resources, equipment, and supplies needed during lesson. 5. Statement on how homework from previous day is to be handled. 6. Key points which make good introduction. 7. Key questions or opening statements. 8. Key questions to be used throughout lesson. 9. Main points teacher will cover. 10. How resources will be used. 11. Estimated time for portions of lesson. 12. Summary questions which students will answer. 13. Provision for applications following lesson. 14. Differentiated homework assignments. ○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  21. 21. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.21 Sample Lesson Plan Format #1 Submitted by Norma W. Goldstein, Ph. D., Renton Technical College Program: _______________________________________________ Course: ________________________________________________ Course Competency: ________________________________________________ Lesson: ________________________________________________ OBJECTIVE: (Performance Objective) MATERIALS: TEACHING AIDS: REFERENCES: METHOD/ Four-Step Method I. PREPARATION (of the student): [Introduction/Anticipatory set] II. STEP BY STEP PRESENTATION (of the skills): Steps/Procedure Key Points (Things to remember or say)
  22. 22. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.22 II. STEP BY STEP PRESENTATION (of the skills) Steps/Procedure Key Points (Things to Remember to Say) III. APPLICATION (Practice by students under close supervision, guided practice) IV. EVALUATION ( Test/performance to acceptable standards) Suggested Reading/Activities for Students:
  23. 23. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.23 Sample Lesson Plan Format #2 Program: Course: Lesson: Tools and Equipment: Materials: Teaching Aids: References: COURSE COMPETENCIES: Preparation Presentation Application Evaluation
  24. 24. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.24 Sample Lesson Plan: Inquiry-Based Learning Inquiry-based learning is an active learning model whereby students seek out their own learning from their own need and interest to explore a specific topic. From questions that they develop in a course of study, rather than the instructor providing all or most of the information they are to learn, students pose questions and research the answers, either in groups or individually. It is sometimes called discovery learning. MODEL LESSON: THE FUTURE OF TEXTBOOKS INSTRUCTOR INTRODUCTION: Whole group questioning: • How many of you require a textbook in the programs and classes you teach? • How many require more than one? Two? Three?, or more texts? • How often do you change your required texts? • What are some of the reasons you change? THE LESSON: Individually: 3 minutes: Write down (list format) everything you know or think about teaching with a textbook. Small Group: Get with a partner(s) and discuss and synthesize your lists. Once you have a list, underline the most important items. • Using the supplied blank overhead and pens, identify 3 very specific issues and questions you would like to know more about with textbooks. • Read short article provided. Look over your list and overhead and add two more if the article suggested more questions. EVALUATION: • Does the article agree with your original observations re: textbooks? Has your view changed? • If you were principal of your own school and you had $100,000,000 for everything (salaries, grounds and building upkeep, field trips, computers), what percentage would go to for textbooks? ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  25. 25. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.25 Sample Lesson Plan: Interviewing Techniques Submitted by Carola F. S. Dopps, Career Specialist, Issaquah School District Instructor: X X X X Program: Career Internship Course: Job Interviews COURSE COMPETENCIES: Students will demonstrate how to prepare for a successful job interview. • The student uses listening and observation skills to gain understanding. • The student communicates ideas clearly and effectively. • The student uses communication strategies and skills to work effectively with others. • The student analyzes and evaluates the effectiveness of formal and informal communication. LESSON: Job interviews: Getting Ready OBJECTIVE: Students will begin looking at the characteristics of a successful job interview. In this lesson they will: • Define the qualities that they want to convey during a job interview • Discuss and practice positive nonverbal communication • Observe and assess an interview TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT: Whiteboard. chair, Student Resource Packet. MATERIALS: Student Resource Packet with the following sections: • Help! I have an interview, what do I do now? • Ace the interview • Tips for interviewing • Questions to expect • Questions to ask • Illegal interview questions • Last minute checklist The Job Hunting Handbook. (1995). Houston, MA: Dahistrom & Company. Work Matters. (1997). Public/Private Ventures. Occupational Outlook Quarter. U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, Summer 1999. METHOD: Preparation Introduction • I have an interview. What do I do now? Have you ever wanted something really badly? What steps did you take to get it? • Ask students to open up their Student Resource Packet to “The Interview.” ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  26. 26. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.26 Presentation • Why is it important to prepare for a job interview? (group discussion) • Why do potential employers want to interview you? • What can I expect during the interview? ACTIVITY: 1. Warm-up Write the word attitude on the board and ask students to brainstorm a list of behaviors that convey their attitude to an employer. Write their responses on the board. They might include, for example, body language, eye contact, and tone of voice, vocabulary, appearance, and answers to questions. Ask students to pick two responses they believe are the most important and to share their answers with the class. 2. Nonverbal Communication Explain that the interview is an exchange of information that helps the employer determine who is the best candidate for a position. The interview also allows the applicant to persuade the employer that he or she is the best candidate. Some of this persuasion takes place through nonverbal communication. Using the items from the brainstorming activity, help the class generate a list of the nonverbal ways in which they communicate with a potential employer during an interview. Make sure the list includes: • Clothes • Jewelry • Hair Style • Cleanliness • Handshake • Eve Contact • Posture • Body Movements Ask students to define the kind of impression the want to make through their nonverbal communication - what do they want to “say” about themselves. Write their responses on the board. Then work through each item on the list and get specific suggestions about what each should be like to contribute to this impression. For example, what kind of clothes should they wear? What jewelry, if any? When you get to “handshake,” students can become actively involved. Demonstrate or have a student demonstrate various signals that are given through various types of handshakes: a limp handshake, a too-firm handshake, a damp handshake, too-quick handshake. Demonstrate or have a student demonstrate various kinds of eve contact. Have students shake hands with one another while practicing good eye contact. Follow the same procedure when you talk about ways to sit to signal attention and interest. Demonstrate or have a student demonstrate slouching, sitting back too far, sitting too close, shifting in a chair, and proper posture. Have students try out various kinds of sitting. As part of the discussion of sitting and posture, ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  27. 27. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.27 ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ let students talk about and demonstrate what they should do with their hands during the interview. What would make them look nervous? Aggressive? Shy? Comfortable? 3. Verbal Communication Ask students to brainstorm a list of verbal communications skills they need in order to have a strong interview. Write their responses on the board. They should include listening, speaking clearly, and asking questions. Suggest to students that before they have an interview. they will want to think about how they might answer likely questions. Ask students to go to the page with the heading “questions to expect.” and briefly review it with the class. Have students meet in pairs. Have one student ask the other “Tell me a little about yourself.” while the other students answers this question, then switch roles. EVALUATION: Use a checklist of nonverbal communication indicators and behavior students have identified in the warm-up. Have students self and peer assess. Instructor’s checklist could reflect identified criteria.
  28. 28. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.28 Sample Lesson Plan- Electrical Cooking Equipment Operation Submitted by Raul Baeder, Major Appliance and Refrigeration Technician, Renton Technical College Program: Major Appliance and Refrigeration Technician Course: MART 222 Electrical Cooking Equipment Course Competency: Distinguish between the different types of standard oven controls to industry standards. Lesson: Oven/Range Systems Performance Objective: Identify and explain operation of all types of currently used oven controls, utilizing actual components and schematics in the shop. TOOLS & EQUIPMENT: Hand tools, service test meter, overhead, and digital projector MATERIALS: Various oven system components including, thermostats, selectors, clocks, sensors, lock devices, etc. These can be gathered from used parts storage area. TEACHING AIDS: PowerPoint show of oven systems, overheads of controls on schematics and operation, and handouts on oven systems. REFERENCES: Factory service texts, various brands, located in shop METHOD: (FOUR-STEP METHOD) I. PREPARATION (of the student): • The student will be putting to practical use the knowledge gained in previous classroom lectures and exercises. • Poll the group as to what cooking products they have in their own homes. • Survey the group as to who has Self Clean, Continuous Clean, or Manual Clean ovens. • Let students know we will have time to address specific technical concerns they may need for their equipment and list any at this time for future reference. II. PRESENTATION (of the Lesson) Instructor Demonstration: • Overview of oven systems; this presentation lends itself to fielding questions. • Discuss all the oven system controls handouts infile folder along with overhead transparencies. Pass out actual components for students to examine and experiment. • Explain function while showing electrical schematics of oven system components. • Each student will have copies to make their own current flow drawings. • Point out the different controls and components and their features with the actual parts in shop. Also dismantle a product showing locations. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  29. 29. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.29 • Student will choose a product and give presentation to classmates. • Students will be given the actual sheet used to grade this exercise, as an outline for what is expected. • The report is a culmination of what they have learned and will be 40% of this course. • Written test on oven systems. III. APPLICATION: (guided practice) • Students examine and dismantle different oven controls. • Students operate products to discover features, functions, and usage of controls. • Students dismantle , investigate, and re-assemble a product (this will be done on several units; preparing the student for their report to peers). IV. SUGGESTED READINGS/RESOURCES: • Factory service texts and user manuals would be helpful to familiarize student with installation, diagnosis, and usage situations. • Students may gain some resource information from library periodicals. These could include Consumer Reports and Popular Science. Evaluation Implications: Kolb’s Learning Styles Source: Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience As the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. If we teach to a variety of learning styles, our evaluations should also accommodate style differences. Here are some suggestions: • Divergers: Open-ended questions, generate alternative solutions • Assimilators: Compare, contrast, analyze • Convergers: Fact finding, select best answer, choose from alternatives • Accommodators: Practical applications, projects, develop action plans. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  30. 30. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.30 REMEMBER: 1. The LSI gives you a general idea of how you view yourself as a learner. 2. Because learning is a cycle, the four stages occur time after time. While you’re learning, you’ll probably repeat the cycle several times. 3. The LSI does not measure your learning skills with 100% accuracy. You can find out more about how you learn by gathering information from other sources—your friends, instructors, and co-workers. The Four Learning-Style Types Source: Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience As the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Converger: Combines learning steps of Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation People with this learning style are best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories. If this is your preferred learning style, you have the ability to solve problems and make decisions based on finding solutions to questions or problems. You would rather deal with technical tasks and problems than with social and interpersonal issues. These learning skills are important for effectiveness in specialist and technology careers. Diverger: Combines learning steps of Concrete Experience and Reflective Observation People with this learning style are best at viewing concrete situations from many different points of view. Their approach to situations is to observe rather than take action. If this is your style, you may enjoy situations that call for generating a wide range of ideas, as in brainstorming sessions. You probably have broad cultural interests and like to gather information. This imaginative ability and sensitivity to feelings is needed for effectiveness in arts, entertainment, and service careers. Assimilator: Combines learning steps of Abstract Conceptualization and Reflective Observation People with this learning style are best at understanding a wide range of information and putting it into concise, logical form. If this is your learning style, you probably are less focused on people and more interested in abstract ideas and concepts. Generally, people with this learning style find it more important that a theory have logical soundness than practical value. This learning style is important for effectiveness in information and science careers. Accommodator: Combines learning steps of Concrete Experience and Active Experimentation People with this learning style have the ability to learn primarily from “hands-on” experience. If this is your style, you probably enjoy carrying out plans and involving yourself in new and challenging experiences. Your tendency may be to act on “gut” feelings rather than on logical analysis. In solving problems, you may rely more heavily on people for information than on your own technical analysis. This learning style is important for effectiveness in action- oriented careers such as marketing or sales. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  31. 31. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.31 Concrete Experience (CE) This stage of the learning cycle emphasizes personal involvement with people in everyday situations. In this stage, you would tend to rely more on your feelings than on a systematic approach to problems and situations. In a learning situation, you would rely on your ability to be open-minded and adaptable to change. Reflective Observation (RO) In this stage of the learning cycle, people understand ideas and situations from different points of view. In a learning situation you would rely on patience, objectivity, and careful judgment but would not necessarily take any action. You would rely on your own thoughts and feelings in forming opinions. Abstract Conceptualization (AC) In this stage, learning involves using logic and ideas, rather than feelings, to understand problems or situations. Typically, you would rely on systematic planning and develop theories and ideas to solve problems. Active Experimentation (AE) Learning in this stage takes an active form—experimenting with influencing or changing situations. You would take a practical approach and be concerned with what really works, as opposed to simply watching a situation. You value getting things done arid seeing the results of your influence and ingenuity. Learning from Feeling Learning from specific experiences Relating to people Being sensitive to feelings and people Learning by watching and listening Carefully observing before making judgments Viewing issues from different perspectives Looking for the meaning of things Learning by thinking Logically analyzing ideas Systematic planning Acting on an intellectual understanding of a situation Learning by doing Ability to get things done Risk-taking Influencing people and events through action Four Stages of the Learning Cycle and Your Learning Style Source: Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience As the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. LEARNING STYLE From the preceding descriptions of Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization, and Active Experimentation, you may have discovered that no single mode entirely describes your learning style. This is because each person’s learning style is a combination of the four basic learning modes. Because of this, we are often pulled in several directions in a learning situation. By combining your scores, you can see which of four learning-style types best describes you. They are named as follows: • Accommodator • Diverger • Converger • Assimilator Understanding your learning-style type, its strengths and weaknesses, is a major step toward increasing your learning power and getting the most from your learning experiences. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  32. 32. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.32 Potential Differences Among Learners • Age • Sex • Race • Physical abilities • Mental abilities • Cultural differences • Social-economic background • Educational background • Needs and desires • Attitudes and beliefs • Motivation • Interests • Aptitudes • Self- concepts • Vocational maturity • Learning style Course Descriptions: Do You Want Your Class To Fill Up With Students? CONSIDER THESE SUGGESTIONS WHILE WRITING YOUR COURSE DESCRIPTIONS: The focus of the copy must be on the course and its benefits. Make sure you address: • What is the course about? What are the objectives of the course (be very specific and rank in order of importance). • What are the benefits of the course to the student in order of importance (List ALL the benefits). • Who is your audience? Make sure the document’s tone of voice matches both the audience and the writer. • Sound the way your audience PERCEIVES you should sound. • Identify the difference between a feature and a benefit. • A feature is self-promoting. • A benefit shows the student what is in it for them. • Tell your reader what’s in it for them. • Write in second person language (participants will learn how to...). • Keep your description to about 45-words or less to write in complete sentences using action verbs. • Avoid overworked phrases like, “in this session,” or “you will learn.” • Emotion sells over logic. Use emotional words. ..smart vs. intelligent, applause vs. clap, tough vs. difficult, discover vs. learn, give vs. donate. The primary goal of description writing is to incite the reader to take action. Keep your sentences short, clear and concise. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  33. 33. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.33 Bloom’s Taxonomy: Active Verb and Applications for Assessment Adapted from California State University San Mateo College of Education BLOOM’S TAXONOMY OF ACTIVE LEARNING VERBS LEVEL 10 GOOD STARTER VERBS KNOWLEDGE List, match, identify, record, who/what/when/where, name, find, label, write, recall. COMPREHENSION Summarize, describe, tell in your own words, explain, give examples of, show, conclude, generalize, rewrite/reword/retell, express in other terms. APPLICATION Apply, collect information, construct, demonstrate, experiment, perform, practice, model, put to use, solve. ANALYSIS Compare and contrast, deduce, draw conclusions, form generalizations, discover, examine, infer, uncover, formulate, diagram SYNTHESIS Create, combine, design, devise, organize, produce or present, invent, build, imagine, prescribe. EVALUATION Argue, criticize or critque, defend, evaluate, grand, judge or justify, rank, recommend, validate or verify, support ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  34. 34. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.34 Define, draw, identify, label, list, locate, match, name, recite, select, state. Classify, demonstrate, describe, explain, generalize, give examples, group, paraphrase, put in order, retell, rewrite, show, summarize. Apply, compare/contrast, debate, diagram, draw conclusions, discover, examine, interview, investigate, keep records, make, construct, predict, produce, prove, track, translate. Analyze, deduce determine, examine, infer, relate, compare, contrast, uncover. Combine, create, design, develop, imagine, invent, make up, perform, prepare, present (an original piece of work), produce, revise, tell, synthesize. Argue, award, choose, criticize, critique, defend, grade, judge, justify, rank, rate, recommend, support, test, validate. Flash cards, rebus story, scrapbook, drawing, puzzle, tape recording, mobile, collage Puppet show, picture dictionary, pamphlet, news story report, diagram, essay, bulletin board, diary Chart or graph, model, peep show, display, interview, survey experiment, learning center Textbook, transparency, oral report, movie, scroll, collection, guest speaker, letter Poem, song, game, speech, play, gallery, museum exhibit, choral reading Written report, scroll, book cover, poster, project cube, photo/picture essay, advertisement, editorial, debate KNOWLEDGE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION ANALYSIS SYNTHESIS EVALUATION Bloom’s Taxonomy Applied to Assessment of Student Achievement LEVEL ASSESSMENT FORMAT MORE ACTION VERBS Educational Taxonomies: Bloom, Krathwohl, Dave Submitted by Cal Crow, Center for Learning Connections, Highline Community College COGNITIVE DOMAIN, BY BENJAMIN S. BLOOM, 1956. 1. Knowledge: Involves recall or recognition of specific facts. Focus is on remembering. Television game shows, Trivial Pursuit, and many “objective” tests focus on this type of learning. “What do I know?” 2. Comprehension: Involves putting knowledge in a different form by paraphrasing, summarizing, interpreting, or inferring. It represents the lowest level of understanding because a person can use the information without seeing the big picture. “What does this mean?” 3. Application: Involves using knowledge in new, not previously learned ways. Requires the ability to use abstractions in concrete situations. Seeing relationships/connections is an important skill here. “How can I use what I know in different situations?” 4. Analysis: Involves breaking material down into its constituent parts, seeing how the parts ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  35. 35. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.35 ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ are related, and being able to explain these relationships. “Why does this work as it does?” 5. Synthesis: Involves putting together elements and parts into a new pattern or structure that was not there before. It is the category in the cognitive domain that most clearly provides for creativity. “What can I create from the information and ideas I have?” 6. Evaluation: Involves using criteria and standards to make judgments about the value of ideas, works, solutions, methods, materials, etc. “Is this accurate, useful, effective, economical, satisfying?” AFFECTIVE DOMAIN, BY DAVID KRATHWOHL, 1956. 1. Receiving (attending): A willingness to receive or attend to phenomena and stimuli. Learner is passive, but attentive and listening with respect. “I’ll at least hear what the person has to say.” 2. Responding: A willingness to commit in at least some way to participate in the given activity. Learner reacts as well as showing awareness. “I’m not sure why we are doing this, but I’ll give it a try.” 3. Valuing: Acknowledging that something has worth. Learner willingly displays behavior consistent with a belief or attitude. “I can see the importance of this and embrace it as something I need or want to do.” 4. Organization: Beginning to develop an internally consistent value system. Seeing how values are interrelated, and being able to establish priorities. “Doing this assignment will mean missing my favorite television show, but in the long run developing these new skills will be much more important than my being entertained right now.” 5. Characterization: Acting consistently in accordance with internalized values to the point that 1) we are described and characterized as having specific, pervasive tendencies and behaviors, and 2) these beliefs, ideas and attitudes are integrated into a total philosophy or world view. “I want to be known as Ms. dependable.” “I want my epitaph to read, ‘he was never known to utter a cross word about anybody.” PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN, BY R.H. DAVE, 1970. 1. Imitation: Observing and patterning behavior after someone else. Performance may be of low quality. Example: Copying a work of art. 2. Manipulation: Being able to perform certain actions by following instructions and practicing. Example: Creating work on one’s own, after taking lessons, or reading about it. 3. Precision: Refining, becoming more exact. Few errors are apparent. Example: Working and reworking something, so it will be “just right.” 4. Articulation: Coordinating a series of actions, achieving harmony and internal consistency.
  36. 36. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.36 Components of a Course of Study TITLE INTRODUCTION • Nature and scope of course (course description) • Pre-Requisites • Duration, credits • Physical or other limitation issues PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVE STATEMENTS • Mission statement alignment • Operational division goals and objectives • Industrial or sponsoring agency considerations OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS • Cognitive (What the student must know) • Psychomotor (What the student must be able to do) • Affective (Attitudes, feelings, beliefs) LESSON PLANS • Individual, complete, in acceptable format LITERATURE REVIEW AND SUPPORT RESOURCES • Current research in the field you are teaching • Advisory committee or other input • Films, transparencies, charts (teacher-made or pre-published) EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT • Examination strategy and frequency • Grade scheme • Follow up Example: Producing a video that involves music, drama, color, sound, etc. 5. Naturalization: Having high level performance becomes natural, without needing to think much about it. Examples: An excellent athlete, dancer, musician or artist, who literally flows with the activity. Education programs should address levels of learning as well as the content being learned. When concerns about unmotivated students are raised, the real issue is often the level of learning taking place. Students who don’t know why they are learning something probably have a difficult time valuing it, which may mean they spend little time on refinement, exactness and precision. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  37. 37. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.37 • Skills (writing skills, library skills, computer skills, research skills, critical thinking problem-solving, etc.) • Attitudes (appreciation for field/subject, global perspective, tolerance, etc.) • Other, or some specified combination of the above 2. At what level(s) do I want my students to perform? • Knowledge (ability to recall facts) • Comprehension (ability to understand ideas anti translate them into other formats • Application (ability to use ideas hi particular and concrete situations) • Analysis (ability to dissect ideas into constituent parts to make the organization clear) • Synthesis (ability to integrate parts into a unified whole) • Evaluation (ability to judge the value of an idea, procedure, etc., using appropriate criteria) 3. What class activities will help my students meet these goals and levels? • Lecture • Demonstration • Debate • Case methods • Role-play • Games, simulations • Other, or some specified combination of the above • Large group discussion/problem-solving • Small group discussion/problem-solving • Laboratory exercise/experiments • Programmed learning • Library research • Field research 4. What support will I give my students to enhance their success in meeting goals and levels? • Administrative handouts (syllabus. course policies, etc.) Visioning Your Course: Questions to Ask to Design Your Course By Kathleen T. Brinko, Appalachian State University as cited in The Facilitative Instructor in the Learning Class- room, Johnson Community College, Instruction Module, 2001 Course quality depends upon the success of two activities: design and implementation. In designing a course, we articulate goals and plan activities to meet these goals. In implementing a course-the actual classroom teaching—we execute these plans, usually evaluating the success of the class as it unfolds. Needless to say, the more issues we raise and resolve in the design phase, the fewer problems we will that you and your students will be free to focus on course content.experience in the implementation. The goal of this worksheet is to aid in the systematic design of the course so 1. What are my course goals? What do I want my students to learn primarily? • Content (facts, applications, theories, etc)
  38. 38. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.38 • Content handouts (outlines of lectures, illustrative examples, tables, charts, etc.) • References, bibliographies • Models, demonstrations • Individual conferences • Other, or some specified combination of the above • Practice sessions • Review sessions 5. What assignments will I use to evaluate the success my students have in meeting goals and levels? • Exams, quizzes • Papers • Projects • Other, or some specified combination of the above • Oral presentations • Performance of skills 6. How much uniformity of assignments will best help my students meet these goals and levels? • Standardized (students have no choice) • Menu (students have choices from a fixed list) • Individualized (students have large range of choice) • Some combination of the above 7. What evaluation approach will best help my students to meet these goals and levels? • Summative, for grades and evaluation • Formative, for feedback 8. What evaluation unit for each assignment is consonant with these goals and levels? • Individual (each student works independently) • Small group (students work in pairs, triads, groups) • Some combination of the above 9. What type of class atmosphere will foster students’ success in meeting these goals and levels? • Competitive • Cooperative • Some combination of the two (in what percentages and how combined?) 10. What kind of participation will foster students’ success in meeting these goals and levels? • Teacher, 95%; students, 5% (lecture with an occasional student question) • Teacher, 75%; students, 25% (lecture with some group discussion) • Teacher, 50%; students, 50% (teacher-lead discussion, as in a seminar) • Teacher, 10%; students, 90% (student-designed and -directed projects) • Some combination of the above
  39. 39. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.39 11. What policy for class attendance will foster students’ success in meeting goals and levels? • Mandatory and graded • Expected • Mandatory, but not graded • Voluntary 12. What pace of the course will foster students’ success in meeting theses goals and levels? • Fixed (no deviations from syllabus) • Flexible (accommodate to skills students bring to class) • Some combination of the two 13. What criteria will I use to determine the amount of success a student achieved over the term? • Achievement of preset goals (comparison with standards) • Achievement of norm (comparison with others) • Progress made from the beginning of the term (comparison with self) • Some combination of the above (how calculated?) 14. How will I calculate final grades for my students? • Percentage of work satisfactorily completed • Contracts made levity individual students • Competency-based education • Some combination of the above (in what percentages?) 15. What qualities do I expect my students to possess as they enter my class? E.g.: Prerequisite content, prerequisite skills, appreciation for discipline/field 16. What behaviors do I expect of my students while they are in class? E.g.: Willingness to participate in class activities, prompt and consistent attendance, prompt and consistent completion of assignments, responsibility for the participation of others. 17. What flexibility/contingencies have I planned in case my students don’t meet these expectations? E.g.: Reprimands (what kinds?), additional course work, adjustment of syllabus 18. How will I convey all of the above information to my students? • Administrative handouts (syllabus, course policies, etc.) • Content handouts (outlines of lectures, illustrative examples, etc.) • Introductory session to course • Pretest • Verbal and nonverbal cues throughout term • Other, or some specified combination of the above
  40. 40. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.40 The Basic 12-Point Syllabus Source: First Day. Graeber/Harris. Communications and Production, Inc., 1995. EACH SYLLABUS SHOULD INCLUDE: • Name of the Course • Faculty Name • Office Hours and Phone • Text • Course Objectives • Nature of the Course • Course Requirements • Resources, References, and Supplies • Grading and Evaluation • Attendance Requirements • Additional Information • Course Outline Syllabus Checklist Source: Clark College. Syllabus Checklist, 1998. 1. Course Information • Title, Number, Section, Quarter, Time, Location, Credit Hours, Prerequisites 2. Instructor Information • Name and Title • Office location, office hours/office phone/messages/mailbox/email address 3. Texts, Readings, Resources, Materials • Textbooks (titles, authors, editions, etc. possibly costs, vendors) • Readings or other resources such as videos, CD-ROMs, etc. (titles, required or optional, where to locate) • Materials (art supplies, special calculators, etc.) • Electronic resources (web sites, listserv, newsgroup) 4. Course Description • General descriptive summary/topics covered 5. General instructional methods (lecture, group discussion, projects, lab, etc.) 6. Philosophical importance of course 7. General education requirements met by course • Requirements for major 8. Student Learning Objectives • Identify what students should know and be able to do upon successful completion of course • May state knowledge and ability objectives separately or combined as one objective • Label the learning objective with the ability it relates to. ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  41. 41. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.41 9. Course Policies • Attendance/lateness • Class participation • Missed exams and assignments • Lab safety/health • Academic honesty • Factors in assessment 10. Requirements • Assignments, Assessments, and Grading 11. Support Services Available • Library help sessions • Tutoring Center information • Department help sessions Computer Lab availability/hours 12. Tentative Course Schedule (may be on attached sheet) • Daily or weekly schedule of topics to be covered • Due dates for daily assignments such as readings, projects, etc. • Dates for exams, quizzes, papers, assignments and events. Preparing A Syllabus Submitted by Norma Goldstein, Ph.D., Renton Technical College A syllabus outlines teacher expectations for student performance. Prior to the beginning of class, the instructor should prepare a course syllabus with the class policies and course outline in printed form ready to distribute to students the first evening of class. The syllabus represents a contract between you and your students. No single format is recommended but a strong syllabus contains the following (not necessarily in this order): • Full name of the course (number, meeting time, prerequisites) • Faculty name (professional/educational background, credentials to teach the course, or yourspecial interest in the course subject) • Office hours and location (when you are available to talk with them) • Text and other required or recommended readings, tools or supplies • Course description: course objectives/course competencies (what will be learned) • Nature of the course (how the course will be taught-lecture, discussion, lab, etc., expectations of student participation, homework, etc.) • Course requirements (assignments, written work, tests, projects, labs) • Resources and References (outside readings, bibliographies, etc.) • Grading and Evaluation (what work will be graded, level of acceptable work, what percentage each factor contributes the final grade (tests, quizzes, labs, attendance, participation, special projects, etc.) • Attendance and Make up work policies (Be very clear on expectations.) • Additional information that is helpful to the smooth running of the course such as special policies required by the instructor. (Ex. All written work is to be word processed.) • Course Outline • Chronological schedule of topics and assignments • Class meetings by date and topic- specific reading assignments • Dates for tests, mid-term and final exams • Dates for homework assignments, special projects, lab sessions and other activities ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  42. 42. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.42 Sample Course Syllabus: Engineering Graphics Submitted by Dr. Phillip Sell, Engineering, Highline Community College Instuctor: Office: Phone: Office Hours: COURSE DESCRIPTION: Theory and practice in graphical representation and visualization of three dimensional objects; orthographic projection of standard, auxiliary, and section views; graphical geometry; isometric and oblique pictorials; developments and basic descriptive geometry; dimensioning and working drawings. Introduction to CAD. (5 Credits) PREREQUISITES: Engr 101 or Permission REQUIRED MATERIALS: Text: Modern Graphics Communication, Giesecke, et al, Prentice-Hall. Equipment & Supplies: Scale (mm & decimal inch) - Protractor (180 or 360 deg) Triangles (8"- 45 deg & 10"- 30/60 deg) Dividers (6") - Compass (6") - Circle Template French Curve - Freehand Lettering Guide Mechanical Pencils ( 0.7mm thinline) Engineering computation paper COURSE PROCEDURES & REQUIREMENTS: 1. This course will be taught through lecture, demonstration, and hands-on drawing, using both paper/pencil and CAD. Drawing lab time and individual help will be available periodically. 2. Regular attendance is necessary and students are responsible for all assignments and information given in class. 3. Performance in the course will be evaluated based on problem assignments, weekly quizzes, and a comprehensive final examination. Problems will be assigned per the course outline along with due dates for their completion. Assigned drawings will be graded on accuracy, legibility, and promptness of completion. Not all problems assigned will be graded. Work turned in after the due date will receive a 20% reduction in grade. Work submitted more than one week after the due date will not be accepted for grade. No make-ups for missed quizzes will be given without good justification on the part of the student. 4. Grades for the course will be based on accumulated points from assignments (40%), weekly quizzes (40%), and the final examination (20%). Grades will be calculated on a 1% = 0.1 grade point basis and will be assigned per the following schedule. 90% = 4.0; 85% = 3.5; 80% = 3.0; 75% = 2.5; 70% = 2.0 65% = 1.5; 60% = 1.0; <60% = 0.0 ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  43. 43. PlanningforInstruction CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION 3.43 5. Cooperative learning among students is encouraged; however, all students are required to produce their own work. Evidence of dishonesty will be dealt with in accordance with the College policy on academic honesty. 6. If you have special needs, please provide the instructor with your Letter of Accommodation from the Office of Access Services. COURSE OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of the course students will: Demonstrate proficiency in the use of basic drafting instruments and media, and acquire the skills necessary to produce legible and accurate linework and lettering. Demonstrate an understanding of the lines, symbols, conventions, and formats used in technical drawing. Solve graphical problems by means of graphical geometry and basic descriptive geometry. Demonstrate an understanding of 3-dimensional projection theory and the principal drawing types. Demonstrate three-dimensional visualization skills. Demonstrate a proficiency in creating multiview drawings, including partial, auxiliary, and section views. Demonstrate proficiency in creating isometric and oblique pictorial drawings. Demonstrate proficiency in applying dimensions and tolerances to working drawings. Demonstrate basic C.A.D. drawing techniques. Demonstrate an understanding of engineering design processes and documentation methods. COURSE SCHEDULE - ENGINEERING 131 Week Topics 1 Intro- Formats & Standards (Ch 1,2 & 3) Sketching & Lettering 2D & 3D drawing intro 2 Drawing techniques (Ch 4 & 5) Instrument use - Scales Geometric construction 3 Projection theory (Ch 5) Visualization - Points, lines, planes Object lines, surface types 4 Multiview drawing (Ch 5) Section views (Ch 7) ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○
  44. 44. CURRICULUM GUIDE: PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION3.44 5 Pictorials (Ch 6) Isometrics & Obloquies 6 Descriptive geometry intro (H/O & Ch 8) Points, true length lines Edge & true size planes 7 Projecting solids (Ch 8) TS surfaces, dihedral angles Auxiliary views 8 More solids (Ch 8) MV curve construction Developments FINAL EXAM - Thu, Dec 14, 8-10am ○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○