University of Puerto Rico - Cayey RISE ProgramTemplate for Laboratory Summaries of Assignment 2 Biol. 4997-Biomedical TechniquesDue date March 9, 2012Reg.# 5 Name Angélica M. González-Sánchez Date: March 7, 2012.Paragraph 1. Column Chromatography and SDS - Page This laboratory was envisioned to teach us about proteins and techniques related to their study. Welearned that it is important to isolate proteins so that we can work with them in their purest form. Pureproteins can be useful as catalysts, for therapeutics, and for structure studies, among others. They areusually isolated by very specific techniques that separate them due to differences in density, shape,charge and size of the proteins, such as column chromatography. In our experiment, we took lysozymesby filtration of an egg white. We isolated and purified the lysozyme by using column chromatography andtaking several samples of it, each one purer than the one before. After purifying the samples, weprepared a Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) – PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) unit. Withelectrophoresis we were able to see that the C1, C2, and C3 samples of our proteins were visible assingle bands. Therefore, we concluded that they were the most purified ones. This implies that thesesamples can be used to characterize the proteins in them for further analysis. This can lead to discoveriesin the biochemical field, for example the detection of a protein whose activity promotes the developmentof a disease.Paragraph 2. Workshop MSU – Introduction to Neurobiology This workshop was proposed to teach us about Neurobiology, one of the most relevant areas forinvestigations currently. We learned about the different parts that compose our nervous system, such asthe brain and the spinal cord. We also got acknowledge about neurons, the building blocks of the nervoussystem, and their functioning. Later on, we got to apply the concepts that we learned by making a neuronrecreation, testing our sensory system and reflex reactions to different stimuli, listening to the ion channeldiffusion of neurotransmissors in a cockroach leg, and by dissecting a sheep brain and identifying all of itsstructures. Consequently, it can be determined that the nervous system is a complex ensemble that hasan essential role in in the survival of organisms due to response to stimuli and normal involuntaryfunctioning of vital mechanisms. This workshop has huge implications in our lives as scientists becausewe are now capable of applying the basic information about Neurobiology to future research work, as forexample investigations about neurological disorders. These kinds of investigations can lead to a betterunderstanding of diseases such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson.Paragraph 3. Protein-Protein Interactions The workshop “In-Silico drug discovery and development” was intended to teach us the basics aboutstructure based drug design. This is the process of finding new drugs based on the knowledge of the tri-dimensional structure of a biological target. Such a target can be a protein, as for example HIV protease,with which we worked. Structure based drug design takes advantage of technology to obtain, process andconvert information about biological targets and chemical compounds. It does so with the use of differentprograms and databases, like pdb, AutoDock, Fugu and NanoBio. With this workshop we had theopportunity to identify a useful target to which the drug, in our case benzene clusters, could bind to inhibitthe harmful activity of the HIV protease. We got to identify 4 potential benzene clusters which had thehighest binding energy and site-specificity to bind effectively to the protein’s binding area. This kind ofinvestigation is definitely useful for new findings in the pharmacological field, for example thedevelopment of a new and more effective therapeutic alternative for HIV.